1

We have already explained that food does not contract impurity until it is made fit to do so and that all food that is not designated for human consumption does not contract ritual impurity until it is designated for human consumption.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין הָאֳכָלִין מִתְטַמְּאִין עַד שֶׁיֻּכְשְׁרוּ. וְשֶׁכָּל אֹכֶל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיְּיַחֲדוֹ לְאָדָם:

2

The following rules apply when food is designated for human consumption in one locale, but is not designated for human consumption in another place. In a place where it is so designated, special intent is not necessary to designate it for human consumption. In a place where it is not so designated, one must have a special intent to designate it for human consumption and then it will be susceptible to ritual impurity. Any food that will ultimately impart impurity to a person or to keilim need not be exposed to liquids to become susceptible to ritual impurity.

ב

אֹכֶל שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לָאָדָם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד לְאָדָם בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד בּוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה לְיַחֲדוֹ לְאָדָם וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְיֻחָד בּוֹ צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה לְיַחֲדוֹ לְאָדָם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכָל אֹכֶל שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לְטַמֵּא אָדָם וְכֵלִים אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר:

3

There are foods that require exposure to liquids, but do not require a special intent. There are foods that require a special intent, but do not require exposure to liquids, foods that require special intent and exposure to liquids, and foods that require neither special intent, nor exposure to liquids.

What is implied? All foods that are designated for human consumption in any place require exposure to liquids, but do not require special intent. Kosher fish and kosher locusts in all places and non-kosher locusts and fish in rural areas are considered as designated for human consumption and require exposure to liquids, but do not require a special intent. Similarly, in all places, the fat of a kosher animal that died requires exposure to liquids, but does not require special intent.

The following require special intent and exposure to liquids: Meat that was separated from a living being, whether a human, animal, or fowl, the carcass of a non-kosher fowl, in rural areas, the fat of a kosher domesticated animal that was ritually slaughtered - even though it was exposed to liquids when slaughtered, it requires a second exposure after one had the intent to partake of it, and all wild vegetables, e.g., very pungent onions and mushrooms. Similarly, in rural areas, small locusts and fish require a special intent. When endives were sown for animal fodder and then the owner changed his mind and thought of using them for human consumption, they are not subject to ritual impurity unless he had such intent after they were picked. For an intent that one had while produce is connected to the earth is not significant. When one collected endives for an animal, washed them, and then thought to serve them to a human being, they must be exposed to liquids again after the change of mind. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

If one thought of partaking of the the allal, it can contract the impurity associated with foods. If not, it is considered as wood and it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. Similarly, bones that are joined to meat, the giddim, the soft portions of the horns and the hoofs, the thin feathers and the wooly hairs of a fowl, the soft portion of its nails and its beak that are embedded in its flesh require special intent and exposure to liquids.

The following require neither special intent, nor exposure to liquids: the carcass of an animal from a kosher species, the carcass of a fowl from a kosher species, and the fat of a domesticated animal in large cities. None of these require either special intent, or exposure to liquids. The rationale is that since they are designated for human consumption, there is no need for special intent. They do not require exposure to liquids for ultimately, an olive-sized portion of them can impart impurity to a person or to a k'li and any substance that imparts impurity of a more severe type does not require exposure to liquids.

The following require special intent, but not exposure to liquids: The carcass of a fowl from a kosher species in rural areas and the carcass of an animal from a non-kosher species in all places. The above applies when one has in mind to partake of less than an olive-sized portion. An olive-sized portion, by contrast, is a primary source of impurity.

ג

יֵשׁ אֳכָלִין שֶׁצְּרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה וְיֵשׁ שֶׁצְּרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר וְיֵשׁ שֶׁצְּרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה וְהֶכְשֵׁר וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִין לֹא מַחֲשָׁבָה וְלֹא הֶכְשֵׁר. כֵּיצַד. כָּל הָאֳכָלִין הַמְיֻחָדִין לְאָדָם בְּכָל מָקוֹם צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר וְאֵין צְרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה. דָּגִים טְהוֹרִים וַחֲגָבִים טְהוֹרִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם וַחֲגָבִים טְמֵאִים וְדָגִים טְמֵאִים בַּכְּפָרִים הֲרֵי הֵן מְיֻחָדִין לְאָדָם וּצְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר וְלֹא מַחֲשָׁבָה. וְכֵן חֵלֶב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁמֵּתָה צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר וְלֹא מַחֲשָׁבָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְאֵלּוּ צְרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה וְהֶכְשֵׁר. בָּשָׂר הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִן הַחַי בֵּין מִן הָאָדָם בֵּין מִן הַבְּהֵמָה בֵּין מִן הָעוֹף וְנִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּמֵא וְחֵלֶב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שְׁחוּטָה בַּכְּפָרִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻכְשַׁר בִּשְׁחִיטָה צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר שֵׁנִי אַחַר הַמַּחְשָׁבָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל יַרְקוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה כְּגוֹן הַבְּצָלִים הַקָּשִׁים בְּיוֹתֵר וְהַפִּטְרִיּוֹת וְכֵן חֲגָבִים וְדָגִים קְטַנִּים צְרִיכִין מַחֲשָׁבָה בַּכְּפָרִים. עֻלְשִׁין שֶׁזְּרָעָן לִבְהֵמָה וְנִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן לְאָדָם אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיַּחְשֹׁב עֲלֵיהֶן אַחַר שֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ שֶׁמַּחְשֶׁבֶת חִבּוּר אֵינָהּ מַחֲשָׁבָה. עֵלְשִׁין שֶׁלִּקְּטָן לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ וֶהֱדִיחָן וְנִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן לְאָדָם צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר שֵׁנִי אַחַר הַמַּחְשָׁבָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הָאָלָל אִם חָשַׁב עָלָיו לַאֲכִילָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין. וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי הוּא כְּעֵץ וְאֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכֵן הָעֲצָמוֹת הַמְחֻבָּרִין בַּבָּשָׂר וְהַגִּידִים וְהַמְּקוֹמוֹת הָרַכִּים מִן הַקַּרְנַיִם וּמִן הַטְּלָפַיִם וְהַכְּנָפַיִם וְהַנּוֹצָה וְהַמְּקוֹמוֹת הָרַכִּים מִן הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם וּמִן הַחַרְטֹם הַמֻּבְלָעִין בַּבָּשָׂר צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר וּמַחְשָׁבָה. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִין לֹא מַחֲשָׁבָה וְלֹא הֶכְשֵׁר. נִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם וְנִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר וְחֵלֶב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה בַּכְּרַכִּים לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְיֻחָדִין לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם אֵין אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁסּוֹפָן לְטַמֵּא אָדָם וְכֵלִים בִּכְזַיִת וְכָל הַמְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר. וְאֵלּוּ צְרִיכִים מַחֲשָׁבָה וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הֶכְשֵׁר. נִבְלַת הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר בַּכְּפָרִים וְנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם וְהוּא שֶׁחָשַׁב עַל פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת אֲבָל כְּזַיִת אַב טֻמְאָה הוּא:

4

When a Jew slaughters a non-kosher animal for a gentile and slits the two - or the majority of the two - signs of ritual slaughter, it imparts the impurity associated with food as long as it is in its death-throes. It does not require a specific intent, for when a Jew slaughters an animal for a gentile to eat, there is no greater special intent. It does not require exposure to liquids, for ultimately, it will impart impurity of a more severe type.

If he only slit one of the signs of ritual slaughter or stabbed it in the throat, it does not contract the impurity associated with foods. Similarly, if a gentile slaughtered a kosher animal for a Jew, slitting the two - or the majority of the two - signs of ritual slaughter, it imparts the impurity associated with food as long as it is in its death-throes and it does not need to be exposed to liquids. If he only slit one of the signs of ritual slaughter or stabbed it in the throat, it does not contract the impurity associated with foods and is considered like other animal carcasses.

ד

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׁחַט בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה לְנָכְרִי וְשָׁחַט בָּהּ שְׁנַיִם [אוֹ רֹב שְׁנַיִם] הֲרֵי זוֹ מִתְטַמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת וְאֵין צְרִיכָה מַחֲשָׁבָה שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁחָטָהּ לַאֲכִילַת הָעַכּוּ''ם וְאֵין לְךָ מַחֲשָׁבָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הֶכְשֵׁר לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹפָהּ לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה. שָׁחַט בָּהּ אֶחָד אוֹ שֶׁנְּחָרָהּ אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין. וְכֵן עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁחַט בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׁחַט בָּהּ שְׁנַיִם אוֹ רֹב שְׁנַיִם מִתְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה הֶכְשֵׁר. שָׁחַט בָּהּ אֶחָד אוֹ נְחָרָהּ אֵינָהּ מִטַּמְּאָה טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁאָר הַנְּבֵלוֹת:

5

When a person cuts meat from a limb severed from a living animal and, afterwards, considered using it as food, it requires exposure to liquids to become susceptible to impurity. If he thought of using it as food and then severed it, it does not require exposure to liquids, because it imparts the severe impurity associated with an animal carcass. And whenever a substance imparts severe impurity, it need not be exposed to liquids.

ה

הַחוֹתֵךְ בָּשָׂר מֵאֵיבָר מִן הַחַי שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר. חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ חֲתָכוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה כִּנְבֵלָה וְכָל הַמְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר:

6

When a person has in mind to partake of less than an olive-sized portion of the carcass of a non-kosher animal and combined it with other foods to complete the egg-sized portion of impure foods required to impart impurity, the entire amount need not be exposed to water. The rationale is that were one to increase the portion that is less than an olive-sized portion in the egg-sized portion until it was the size of an olive, it would impart severe impurity.

Similarly, when there is an olive-sized portion of meat from an animal that one had in mind to eat that was covered with dough until it reached the size of an egg, since it does not impart impurity when touched because of the dough, it is necessary that one have in mind to use it as food. The dough need not be exposed to liquids to contract impurity. The rationale is that the entire measure can impart impurity when carried, because of the olive-sized portion of the animal carcass it contains. Even though it does not impart impurity when touched, it is considered as if it is ultimately capable of imparting more severe impurity. Therefore it need not be exposed to liquids.

ו

פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִנִּבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו וְהִשְׁלִים עָלָיו כְּבֵיצָה מֵאֳכָלִים אֲחֵרִים אֵין הַכּל צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר הוֹאִיל וּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת שֶׁבְּכָל הַבֵּיצָה אִם הִשְׁלִימוֹ לִכְזַיִת מְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה. וְכֵן כְּזַיִת מִנִּבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו וְהִנִּיחָהּ בַּבָּצֵק עַד שֶׁהִשְׁלִים לִכְבֵיצָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע מִפְּנֵי הַבָּצֵק הֲרֵי זֶה צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה וְאֵין הַבָּצֵק הַזֶּה צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר הוֹאִיל וְכָל הַשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה מְטַמֵּא בְּמַשָּׂא מִפְּנֵי כְּזַיִת נְבֵלָה שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע הֲרֵי סוֹפוֹ לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה לְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר:

7

When there is less than an olive-sized portion of a human corpse to which other foods were added so that an egg-sized portion of food would be reached, one must have in mind partaking of the entire amount for it to become susceptible to impurity, since generally, the entire amount is considered of no importance by all people. The entire amount does not require to be exposed to water, because of the meat from the corpse that it contains.

ז

פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר הַמֵּת שֶׁהִשְׁלִים עָלָיו כְּבֵיצָה מִשְּׁאָר אֳכָלִין הַכּל צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּטֵל הַכּל אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם. וְאֵין הַכּל צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר מִפְּנֵי בְּשַׂר הַמֵּת שֶׁבִּכְלָלוֹ:

8

When an olive-sized portion of a human corpse is covered with dough, the entire amount imparts the severe impurity associated with a human corpse.

ח

כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת שֶׁחִפָּהוּ בְּבָצֵק הַכּל מִתְטַמֵּא טֻמְאָה חֲמוּרָה:

9

When a person cuts flesh from a living human being to feed to an animal, if afterwards, he thinks of using it as food for humans, for it to impart the impurity associated with foods, he must have such an intent, but it need not be exposed to water.

ט

הַחוֹתֵךְ בָּשָׂר מֵאָדָם חַי לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְכֶלֶב. אִם חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם הֲרֵי זֶה צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הֶכְשֵׁר:

10

When a chick falls into a vat of wine and dies, even though the vat is located in a city, it becomes repulsive in the vat. Therefore to become susceptible to ritual impurity, one must have a specific intent to partake of it.

If, when one lifted it out of the vat, he thought of feeding it to a gentile, it imparts impurity, for he thought of using it for human consumption. If he thought of feeding it to a dog, it does not contract the impurity associated with foods. If the person who thought of feeding it to a person was a deafmute, a mentally or emotionally compromised person, or a minor, it is pure. If such individuals lifted it out of the vat to feed it to a person, it is impure, for their deeds are significant, but not their intent.

י

גּוֹזָל שֶׁנָּפַל לַגַּת וּמֵת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַגַּת בַּמְּדִינָה הֲרֵי נִמְאַס בַּגַּת וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ מַחֲשָׁבָה. חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהֶעֱלָהוּ לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְנָכְרִי הֲרֵי זֶה מְטַמֵּא שֶׁהֲרֵי חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם. חִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְכֶלֶב אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִים. הָיָה זֶה שֶׁחִשֵּׁב עָלָיו לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְאָדָם חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. הֶעֱלוּהוּ כְּדֵי לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְאָדָם הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן מַעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין לָהֶן מַחֲשָׁבָה: