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Thursday, 18 Iyar 5776 / May 26, 2016

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Behar 
In Israel: Bechukotai

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Leviticus Chapter 25

29And when a man sells a residential house in a walled city, its redemption may take place until the completion of the year of its sale. Its [period of] redemption shall be a full year.   כטוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יִמְכֹּ֤ר בֵּֽית־מוֹשַׁב֙ עִ֣יר חוֹמָ֔ה וְהָֽיְתָה֙ גְּאֻלָּת֔וֹ עַד־תֹּ֖ם שְׁנַ֣ת מִמְכָּר֑וֹ יָמִ֖ים תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה גְאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
a residential house in a walled city: A house (בֵּית) within a city (עִיר) surrounded by a wall (חוֹמָה) since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:53, Arachin 32a, b]   בית מושב עיר חומה: בית בתוך עיר המוקפת חומה מימות יהושע בן נון:
its redemption may take place [until the completion of the year of its sale]: Since regarding a field, Scripture states that one may redeem it whenever one wishes after two years have elapsed [since the date of sale] and onwards [until Jubilee] and that within the first two years [following the sale] one may not redeem it, [Scripture found] it necessary to specify that in this case, the opposite applies, namely, that if one wishes to redeem it within the first year [following the sale], one may redeem it, while after that, one may not redeem it.   והיתה גאלתו: לפי שנאמר בשדה שיכול לגאלה משתי שנים ואילך כל זמן שירצה ובתוך שתי שנים הראשונים אינו יכול לגאלה, הוצרך לפרש בזה שהוא חלוף, שאם רצה לגאול בשנה ראשונה גואלה, ולאחר מכאן אינו גואלה:
its [period of] redemption shall be: [I.e., the redemption] of the house, [not the redemption of the sale or the redemption of the seller.] - [Mizrachi, Sefer Hazikkaron]   והיתה גאלתו: של בית:
a full year: Heb. יָמִים, [lit., “days,”]. The days of a full year, are called יָמִים. Likewise, “Let the maiden stay with us a year (יָמִים)” (Gen. 24:55).   ימים: ימי שנה שלימה קרויים ימים, וכן (בראשית כד נה) תשב הנערה אתנו ימים:
30But if it is not redeemed by the end of a complete year, then that house which is in the city that has a wall, shall remain permanently [the property] of the one who purchased it throughout his generations. It will not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee.   לוְאִ֣ם לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֗ל עַד־מְלֹ֣את לוֹ֘ שָׁנָ֣ה תְמִימָה֒ וְ֠קָ֠ם הַבַּ֨יִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִ֜יר אֲשֶׁר־ל֣וֹ (כתיב אשר־לא) חֹמָ֗ה לַצְּמִיתֻ֛ת לַקֹּנֶ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ לְדֹֽרֹתָ֑יו לֹ֥א יֵצֵ֖א בַּיֹּבֵֽל:
then that house…shall remain permanently: It shall leave the jurisdiction of the seller, and remain under the jurisdiction of the purchaser.   וקם הבית וגו' לצמיתת: יצא מכחו של מוכר ועומד בכחו של קונה:
that has a wall: Heb. אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה, [meaning “which has no wall”]. [However, Oral Tradition teaches us that] we read לוֹ, [meaning “to him” or “to it,” [hence, “a city that has a wall”]. Our Rabbis of blessed memory said: [The written version of this phrase namely, בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה teaches us that] even if [the city] does not (לֹא) have a wall now, since it had one before [from the days of Joshua, the laws of our passage still apply to it]. — [Arachin 32a] [Since the word] עִיר is grammatically feminine, Scripture should have written בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לָהּ חֹמָה, [לָהּ being the feminine form of “to it”]. However, since לֹא had to be written inside [i.e., in the written text of the Torah, our Rabbis] set this word to be read according to the Oral Tradition as לוֹ, because they match [in pronunciation, unlike לָהּ].   אשר לא חמה: לו קרינן, אמרו רז"ל אף על פי שאין לו עכשיו, הואיל והיתה לו קודם לכן. ועיר נקבה היא והוצרך לכתוב לה, אלא מתוך שצריך לכתוב לא בפנים, תקנו לו במסורת, זה נופל על זה:
It shall not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee: [What does this phrase teach us? It has already stated that the house becomes the permanent property of the purchaser.] Said Rabbi Safra: [Even] if the Jubilee year occurs within the first year [of the sale,] it shall not leave [his possession without redemption]. — [Arachin 31b]   לא יצא ביבל: אמר רב ספרא אם פגע בו יובל בתוך שנתו לא יצא:
31But houses in open cities, which do not have a wall surrounding them, are to be considered as the field of the land. It may have redemption and shall leave [the purchaser's possession] in the Jubilee.   לאוּבָתֵּ֣י הַֽחֲצֵרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵֽין־לָהֶ֤ם חֹמָה֙ סָבִ֔יב עַל־שְׂדֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ יֵֽחָשֵׁ֑ב גְּאֻלָּה֙ תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֔וֹ וּבַיֹּבֵ֖ל יֵצֵֽא:
But houses in open cities: Heb. הַחֲצֵרִים, [to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos, namely]: פַצִיחַיָא, meaning open towns, without a wall. There are many [instances of this term] in the Book of Joshua, [for example in the verse] (13:28),“the cities and their open towns (וְחַצְרֵיהֶם) ”; [likewise in the verse], “in their open cities (בְּחַצְרֵיהֶם) and in their walled cities” (Gen. 25:16).   ובתי החצרים: כתרגומו פצחין, עיירות פתוחות מאין חומה. ויש הרבה בספר יהושע (יהושע יג כח) הערים וחצריהם, (בראשית כה טז) בחצריהם ובטירותם:
[But houses in open cities…] are to be considered as the field of the land: They are like fields, which may be redeemed until the Jubilee and leave [the possession of the purchaser, reverting] to the [original] owners in the Jubilee if they had not been redeemed [until then].   על שדה הארץ יחשב: הרי הן כשדות הנגאלים עד היובל ויוצאין ביובל לבעלים אם לא נגאלו:
It may have redemption: immediately, if one wishes [to redeem it]. And by virtue of this element, they have a greater advantage [to the original owner] than do fields, since fields may not be redeemed until two years have elapsed [since the sale (see Rashi on verse 15 above)]. — [Arachin 33a]   גאלה תהיה לו: מיד אם ירצה. ובזה יפה כחו מכח שדות, שהשדות אין נגאלות עד שתי שנים:
and shall leave [the purchaser’s possession] inthe Jubilee: without payment [for regarding fields, which are required to remain with the purchaser for two years (see Rashi on verse 15 above), if the Jubilee occurs after only one year has elapsed from the sale, then the field reverts to the owner for the Jubilee year, but the purchaser takes it back for one more year afterwards (Arachin 29b). In the case of houses in open cities, however, even if the Jubilee occurs after only one year, the house reverts to the original owner, without any payment.] - [Sifthei Chachamim].   וביבל יצא: בחנם:
32And, [regarding] the cities of the Levites, the houses of their inherited cities shall forever have a [right of] redemption for the Levites.   לבוְעָרֵי֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם בָּתֵּ֖י עָרֵ֣י אֲחֻזָּתָ֑ם גְּאֻלַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
And [regarding] the cities of the Levites: [namely,] the forty-eight cities that were given to the Levites (see Num. 35:7).   וערי הלוים: ארבעים ושמנה עיר שנתנו להם:
shall forever have a [right of] redemption: [If a Levite] sells a field of one of their fields that were given to them in the two-thousand cubits surrounding the cities (see Num. 35:45), he may redeem it immediately, even before two years have elapsed [since the sale]. And if he sells a house in a walled city, he may always redeem it, and the house is not transferred permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of the [first] year [after the sale, as opposed to the case of a non-Levite owner]. — [Arachin 33b]   גאלת עולם: גואל מיד אפילו לפני שתי שנים, אם מכרו שדה משדותיהם הנתונות להם באלפים אמה סביבות הערים, או אם מכרו בית בעיר חומה, גואלין לעולם, ואינו חלוט לסוף שנה:
33And if one purchases from the Levites, whether a house or an inherited city, will leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee, because the houses of the cities of the Levites, are their inherited property amidst the children of Israel.   לגוַֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר יִגְאַל֙ מִן־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם וְיָצָ֧א מִמְכַּר־בַּ֛יִת וְעִ֥יר אֲחֻזָּת֖וֹ בַּיֹּבֵ֑ל כִּ֣י בָתֵּ֞י עָרֵ֣י הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם הִ֚וא אֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And if one purchases from the Levites: And if someone buys (יִגְאַל) a house or a city from them.   ואשר יגאל מן הלוים: ואם יקנה בית או עיר מהם:
shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: It will leave in Jubilee, i.e., the sale of that house or city [will leave the possession of that purchaser], and will revert to the Levite who sold it. And it will not be transferred permanently [to the purchaser] like other houses in a walled city owned by an Israelite. Thus, this expression of גְּאֻלָּה [usually meaning “redemption”], here means “purchase.” Another explanation: [keeping the usual meaning of גְּאֻלָּה, namely, “redemption”]: Since it is said, “the Levites will forever have a [right of] redemption,” one might assume that Scripture is speaking only of a non-Levite who purchased a house in the Levitic cities [and that the Levite owner may always redeem this house], but if a Levite purchased from another Levite, it would be transferred permanently, Therefore, Scripture says here, “And if one redeems (יִגְאַל) from the Levites”-i.e., even when a Levite redeems from a Levite, [still the owner,] “will forever have a [right of] redemption.” - [Torath Kohanim 25:66]   ויצא ביבל: אותו ממכר של בית או של עיר וישוב ללוי שמכרו, ולא יהיה חלוט כשאר בתי ערי חומה של ישראל. וגאולה זו לשון מכירה. דבר אחר לפי שנאמר גאולת עולם תהיה ללוים (פסוק לב), יכול לא דבר הכתוב אלא בלוקח ישראל שקנה בית בערי הלוים, אבל לוי שקנה מלוי יהיה חלוט, תלמוד לומר ואשר יגאל מן הלוים, אף [לוי] הגואל מיד לוי גואל גאולת עולם:
the house... shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: [According to Rashi’s first explanation of וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם, the verse continues to state that the house purchased by a non-Levite “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee,” as above. However, according to the alternative explanation, where this first phrase וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם independently teaches us about a Levite purchaser, the second phrase here, namely, “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee”] this is a separate commandment, namely, that if the Levite owner] did not redeem the house, it leaves [the possession of the purchaser] in Jubilee and does not transfer permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of a year, like the house of an Israelite.   ויצא ממכר בית: הרי זו מצוה אחרת, ואם לא גאלה יוצאה ביובל, ואינו נחלט לסוף שנה כבית של ישראל:
because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their inherited property: They did not have an inheritance of fields and vineyards, but cities to live in and their open areas (see Num. 35:18). Therefore, these [cities and their open areas,] are to be considered for them [as their inheritance] in place of fields. Consequently, they have the same redemption [rights] as do fields [of non-Levites and also, this property reverts to them in Jubilee (Sifthei Chachamim). All this,] so that their inheritance never be removed from them.   כי בתי ערי הלוים הוא אחזתם: לא היה להם נחלת שדות וכרמים אלא ערים לשבת ומגרשיהם, לפיכך הם להם במקום שדות, ויש להם גאולה כשדות, כדי שלא תופקע נחלתם מהם:
34And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold, because it is their eternal inheritance.   לדוּֽשֲׂדֵ֛ה מִגְרַ֥שׁ עָֽרֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֣א יִמָּכֵ֑ר כִּֽי־אֲחֻזַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם ה֖וּא לָהֶֽם:
And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold: by the [Temple] treasurer. I.e., if a Levite consecrated his field and did not redeem it, and the treasurer sold it, in the Jubilee, the field does not leave [the possession of the purchaser] and [“revert”] to the kohanim, as it is said concerning [a field originally owned by] an Israelite, “and if he sold the field to another man-it may no longer be redeemed.” (Lev. 27:20). But a Levite may always redeem [his field]. - [Torath Kohanim 25:70]   ושדה מגרש עריהם לא ימכר: מכר גזבר, שאם הקדיש בן לוי את שדהו ולא גאלה ומכרה גזבר, אינה יוצאה לכהנים ביובל, כמו שנאמר בישראל (ויק' כז כ) ואם מכר את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד, אבל בן לוי גואל לעולם:
35If your brother becomes destitute and his hand falters beside you, you shall support him [whether] a convert or a resident, so that he can live with you.   להוְכִֽי־יָמ֣וּךְ אָחִ֔יךָ וּמָ֥טָה יָד֖וֹ עִמָּ֑ךְ וְהֶֽחֱזַ֣קְתָּ בּ֔וֹ גֵּ֧ר וְתוֹשָׁ֛ב וָחַ֖י עִמָּֽךְ:
you shall support him: Do not allow him to fall down and collapse altogether, in which case it would be difficult to pick him up again [from his dire poverty]. Rather, “support him” while his hand is still faltering [for then it is easier to help him out of his trouble]. To what can this be compared? To a load on a donkey-while it is still on the donkey, one person can grasp it and hold it in place. Once it falls to the ground, however, [even] five people cannot pick it up. - [Torath Kohanim 25:71]   והחזקת בו: אל תניחהו שירד ויפול ויהיה קשה להקימו, אלא חזקהו משעת מוטת היד. למה זה דומה, למשאוי שעל החמור, עודהו על החמור אחד תופס בו ומעמידו, נפל לארץ, חמשה אין מעמידין אותו:
a convert or a resident: Even if he is a convert (גֵּר) or a “resident (תוֹשָׁב).” And what is a “resident”? Any [non-Jew] who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but eats carrion. - [Torath Kohanim 25:72; and compare Rashi verse 47] [These people are called “residents,” as they are permitted to reside permanently in the land of Israel (Rambam A.Z. 10:6).]   גר ותושב: אף אם הוא גר או תושב, ואיזהו תושב, כל שקבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודה זרה, ואוכל נבלות:
36You shall not take from him interest or increase, and you shall fear your God, and let your brother live with you.   לואַל־תִּקַּ֤ח מֵֽאִתּוֹ֙ נֶ֣שֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּ֔ית וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְחֵ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ עִמָּֽךְ:
interest or increase: The Rabbis regard these as one, [but the Torah uses two terms so that one who takes interest transgresses thereby two negative commandments. — [B.M. 60b]   נשך ותרבית: חד שווינהו רבנן, ולעבור עליו בשני לאוין:
and you shall fear your God: A person’s desire is naturally attracted to [taking] interest, and it is difficult to stay away from it, for he [rationalizes and] grants himself [false] permission because of his money which was lying idle while in his [the debtor’s] hands. [Therefore, Scripture] found it necessary to state here “and you shall fear your God.” Or if someone ascribes his money to a non-Jew in order to lend it to a Jew with interest. This is a matter held [secretly] in a man’s heart and thought. Therefore, Scripture deems it necessary to state, “and you shall fear your God” [Who is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [B.M. 61b]   ויראת מאלהיך: לפי שדעתו של אדם נמשכת אחר הרבית וקשה לפרוש הימנו ומורה לעצמו היתר בשביל מעותיו שהיו בטלות אצלו, הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך. או התולה מעותיו בנכרי, כדי להלוותם לישראל ברבית, הרי זה דבר המסור ללבו של אדם ומחשבתו, לכך הוצרך לומר ויראת מאלהיך:
37You shall not give him your money with interest, nor shall you give your food with increase.   לזאֶת־כַּ֨סְפְּךָ֔ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן ל֖וֹ בְּנֶ֑שֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּ֖ית לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן אָכְלֶֽךָ:
38I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be a God to you.   לחאֲנִ֗י יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לָתֵ֤ת לָכֶם֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
Who took [you] out [of the land of Egypt]: and I distinguished between a firstborn [Egyptian] and a non-firstborn [in the plague of the firstborn, which preceded Israel’s Exodus (see Exod. 12:29-42)]I am also capable of discerning and exacting punishment from someone who lends money to his fellow Jew with interest and says, “It belongs to a non-Jew!” - [B.M. 61b] Another explanation: [In effect, God is saying, “I am the Lord, your God] Who took you out from the land of Egypt” on the condition that you keep My commandments-even if they are difficult for you. - [see Rashi on verse 36 above; see Torath Kohanim 25:77]   אשר הוצאתי וגו': והבחנתי בין בכור לשאינו בכור, אף אני יודע ונפרע מן המלוה מעות לישראל ברבית ואומר של נכרי הם. דבר אחר אשר הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים על מנת שתקבלו עליכם מצותי אפילו הן כבדות עליכם:
to give you the land of Canaan: As a reward for accepting My commandments.   לתת לכם את ארץ כנען: בשכר שתקבלו מצותי:
[To give you the land of Canaan,] to be a God to you: for I am a God to anyone who lives in the land of Israel, but anyone who leaves it [without halachic permission] is like one who worships idols. — [Torath Kohanim 25:77; Keth. 110b]   להיות לכם לא-להים: שכל הדר בארץ ישראל אני לו לא-להים, וכל היוצא ממנה כעובד עבודה זרה:
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