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Monday, 21 Sivan 5776 / June 27, 2016
Chabad Chassidus is an all-embracing world outlook and way of life which sees the Jew's central purpose as a unifying link between the Creator and His world. Written by the Alter Rebbe, the founder of Chabad, Tanya is the central text of Chabad Chassidus. It shows the reader a path to realizing their purpose and developing a deeper relationship with G-d. Choose from one of the two formats available: through Lessons in Tanya - a profound and clear explanation of the Alter Rebbe's writings, or through an audio class.

Daily Tanya

Daily Tanya

Shaar Hayichud Vehaemunah, middle of Chapter 7

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Shaar Hayichud Vehaemunah, middle of Chapter 7

והנה גדר ובחינת שם עולם נופל על בחינת מקום ובחינת זמן דוקא

The term “world” can be applied solely to [that which possesses] the dimensions of space and time,

בחינת מקום הוא מזרח ומערב, צפון, דרום, מעלה ומטה

“space” referring to east, west, north and south, upward and downward,

ובחינת זמן: עבר, הוה ועתיד

and “time” referring to past, present and future.

Only with regard to entities that are subject to the limitations of space and time can the term “world” be applied.

והנה כל בחינות אלו אין להם שייכות במדות הקדושות העליונות

All these dimensions of space and time have no relation to the holy supernal attributes of the World of Atzilut, because those attributes are infinite.

As explained earlier, the attribute of Chesed is infinite; so, too, are the other attributes in the World of Atzilut. Hence, by definition, they are not at all subject to the limitations of space and time.

כי אם במדת מלכותו יתברך לבדה שייך לומר שהוא יתברך מלך למעלה עד אין קץ ולמטה עד אין תכלית, וכן לד׳ סטרין

Only concerning the attribute of [G‑d’s] Malchut is it possible to say that He is King “Above without end and below without limit,” and likewise in all four directions.

This means to say that G‑d is King of all creatures, from the very highest to the very lowest. Thus, when speaking of Malchut, it is in order to use terminology that has some relationship to space, such as “higher” and “lower”. This indicates that Malchut itself has some relationship to the aspects of time and space.

וכן בבחינת זמן

The same is true concerning the dimension of time, i.e., that the attribute of Malchut is in some small measure related to time, as it is written:1

ה׳ מלך, ה׳ מלך, ה׳ ימלוך

“G‑d reigns, G‑d has reigned, G‑d will reign.”

I.e., G‑d’s reign is related to present, past, and future — the dimension of time.

ונמצא שחיות המקום וכן חיות הזמן, והתהוותם מאין ליש, וקיומם כל זמן קיומם, הוא ממדת מלכותו יתברך ושם אדנות ברוך הוא

Thus, the life-force of space, and likewise of time, and their coming into being from nothingness, and their existence as long as they shall exist, are from [G‑d’s] attribute of Malchut, and from the Name of Adnut.

ולפי שמדת מלכותו יתברך מיוחדת במהותו ועצמותו יתברך בתכלית היחוד, כמו שיתבאר

Now, since [G‑d’s] attribute of Malchut is united with His Essence and Being in an absolute union, as will be explained,

הלכך גם בחינת המקום והזמן בטילים במציאות ממש לגבי מהותו ועצמותו יתברך, כביטול אור השמש בשמש

space and time which are created from Malchut are therefore also completely nullified in relation to [G‑d’s] Essence and Being, just as sunlight whilst it is still within the orb of the sun is nullified in the sun.

This means to say: As long as Malchut still exists in a state of complete union with G‑d’s Essence and Being, space and time — the source of worlds — as found within the attribute of Malchut are utterly nullified relative to G‑d.

This state is called “higher-level Unity.” It exists only before the descent of Malchut through various tzimtzumim in order to vest itself in the lower worlds, thereby creating them and providing them with life. It is then that the worlds enjoy the state of “higher-level Unity,” because from the perspective of the pristine source of Malchut and Adnut which brings about their existence, their actual creation is as yet inconceivable, inasmuch as Malchut and Adnut are still in a state of inclusion within their source. Consequently, space and time “exist” there in the same manner as the light of the sun “exists” within the sun — in a state of complete nullity.

וזהו שילוב שם אדנות בשם הוי"ה

And this is the [meaning of the] alternation of the [letters of the] Name of Adnut with the [letters of the] Name Havayah.

When the letters of one Divine Name are alternated with the letters of another, the Name whose initial letter appears first is the dominant one, the second Name being intertwined and encompassed by it. If, for example, the first letter is the initial of the Divine Name that designates Chesed and the second letter is the initial of the Divine Name that designates Gevurah, the revelation of Chesed will predominate.

One speaks of “the alternation of the [letters of the] Name of Adnut with the [letters of the] Name Havayah” when referring to Malchut and Adnut while they are still united with G‑d’s Essence and Being, which are too lofty to serve as a source for created beings.

The eventual source of the existence of created beings is Malchut and Adnut. Nevertheless, since the Divine Name Havayah is dominant — i.e., since Adnut is submerged within Havayah — all “existence” is completely nullified in relation of G‑d’s Essence and Being, just as sunlight is devoid of all identity within the sun.

כי שם הוי"ה מורה שהוא למעלה מהזמן, שהוא היה, הוה ויהיה ברגע אחד

The Name Havayah indicates that He transcends time, that “He was, is, and will be — all at the same instant,”

Past, present and future meld into one within the Name Havayah, indicating that Havayah transcends time,

כמו שכתוב ברעיא מהימנא, פרשת פנחס

as is stated (2in Ra‘aya Mehemna on Parshat Pinchas);

וכן למעלה מבחינת מקום, כי הוא מהוה תמיד את כל בחינת המקום כולו, מלמעלה עד למטה ולד׳ סטרין

and likewise [the Name Havayah] transcends space, for [Havayah] continuously brings into existence the whole dimension of space, from the uppermost level [of space] to the lowermost level [of space], and in the four directions.

Clearly, the Divine Name Havayah transcends time and space. Malchut and Adnut, however, do bear some relation to time and space. Nevertheless, since the letters of the Name of Adnut are interspaced within the letters of the Name Havayah, the dimensions of time and space are completely nullified in relation to G‑d. This is the state called yichuda ila‘ah, or “higher-level Unity.”

Footnotes
1.
Liturgy, Morning Prayer.
2.
Parentheses are in the original text.


Translated from Yiddish by Rabbi Levy Wineberg and Rabbi Sholom B. Wineberg. Edited by Uri Kaploun.
Published and copyright by Kehot Publication Society, all rights reserved.
לעילוי נשמת הרה"ח הרה"ת
ר' יוסף ב"ר זאב הלוי ע"ה וויינבערג
Daily Quote
This is the meaning of "Love your fellow as yourself": Just like you are blind to your own failings, since your self-love covers them up, so, too, should your fellow's failings be swallowed up and concealed by your love for him
  –Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch (1789-1866)
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