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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0-9

Aaron:  (a) (1397-1273 BCE) Son of Amram and Jochebed, brother of Miriam and Moses. Moses’ partner and spokesman in his mission to free the Israelites from Egypt. First High Priest and patriarch of the Priestly Family. A man who loved peace and always sought to bring conflicting parties to reconciliation. Died in the desert, shortly before the Israelites entered Canaan. (b) A common Jewish name.  [36 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Aaron
Abarbanel, Rabbi Don Isaac:  1437-1508; Portugal, Spain and Venice; leader of Spanish Jewry and minister to the king of Spain, exiled in the expulsion of 1492; author of commentary on Torah  [6 related articles] People & Events » People » Post-Talmudic Sages » Abarbanel, Rabbi Don Isaac
Abaye:  (4th century) Orphaned at birth, Abaye was raised by his uncle and teacher, Rabba bar Nahmeni. Abaye's disputes with his colleague Rava—hundreds of which are recorded in the Talmud—epitomize the Talmud's dialectical logic. Abaye served as the principal of the academy in Pumbedita from 333 until his passing.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Sages of the Talmud » Abaye
Abba Chilkiah:  (Circa 3rd century) Grandson of Honi Hame'aggel. His prayers were known to be highly effective; during droughts, the rabbis would ask him to pray for rain.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Abba Chilkiah
Abel:  Son of Adam and Eve. A shepherd, he was slain by his brother Cain after G-d accepted his sacrifice and not Cain's.  [7 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Abel
Abigail:  (9th century BCE) Appeased David after her husband Nabal had angered him, stopping David from killing Nabal. After Nabal's death, David married Abigail.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Abigail
Abimelech:  The generic name of all Philistine kings. Kings by this name appear in the Bible from the times of Abraham through King David.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Abimelech
Abimelech (son of Gideon):  Son of Gideon, native of Shechem. After his father’s death in 1027 BCE, he convinced the Shechemites to appoint him as his father’s successor, and killed all but one of his 70 brothers to eliminate competition. After ruling for three years, his subjects rebelled and a woman dropped a millstone on his head, fatally wounding him.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Abimelech (son of Gideon)
Abiram:  Among the leaders of Korah's mutiny, was swallowed by the earth together with the other mutineers. According to the Midrash, he and his cohort Dathan were persistent trouble makers and rabble rousers. They are also identified as the two quarreling Israelites whom Moses reprimanded in Egypt People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Abiram
Abner ben Ner:  (d. circa 872 BCE) General of Saul's army. After Saul's death he proclaimed Ish Bosheth king. Later, realizing that Ish Bosheth's rule could not last, he negotiated a peace agreement with Ish Bosheth's rival, David—but was treacherously killed by Joab. David repudiated the murder and ordered all of Israel to mourn Abner's death.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Abner ben Ner
Abraham:  (a) (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew. He discovered G-d on his own and rejected the idolatry of his contemporaries. G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts. He successfully withstood ten tests with which G-d challenged him, including the Binding of Isaac incident. Husband of Sarah and Hagar, father of Ishmael and Isaac--his heir. (b) A common Jewish name.  [125 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Abraham
Absalom:  (d. 840 BCE) Son of King David. Slew his half-brother Amnon to avenge the rape of his sister Tamar. He then fled to avoid their father David’s wrath. Eventually he returned, and later led a revolt against his father, which ended when he was killed by Joab[4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Absalom
Achan:  Pocketed some of the spoils of Jericho -- despite Joshua’s instructions to take nothing. This sin led to the Israelites’ defeat in the battle for Ai. He later admitted his crime and was executed.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Joshua and the Judges » Achan
Acharon shel Pesach:  the final day of Passover  [15 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Acharon shel Pesach
Achitofel:  (873-840 BCE) An advisor to King David renowned for his sagacious advice, a great Torah scholar who later abandoned the path of Torah. Ahithophel was a key protagonist in Absalom's revolt against David. He committed suicide upon realizing that the revolt would fail. According to the Midrash, Ahithophel was Batsheba's grandfather.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Achitofel
Achronim:  (lit. “the latter ones”); (a) the Torah sages from the Renaissance period until the present day; (b) works written by these sages  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Post-Talmudic Sages » Achronim
Action, The World of:  (lit. “deed”); in Kabbalistic terminology, this refers to the lowest of the four spiritual worlds, the final level in the creative process which includes the physical universe  [7 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Four Worlds, The » Action, The World of
Adam:  (a) (3760-2830 BCE) The first man, created by G-d. Married Eve, and together they are the progenitors of the human race. They were placed in the Garden of Eden, but were banished from there after eating from the forbidden Tree of Knowledge. (b) Man. (c) A common Jewish name.  [44 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Adam
Adam Kadmon:  (lit. "primordial man") a mystic primordial level within the G-dhead  Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Adam Kadmon
Adanim (silver foundation sockets):  (lit. "foundation sockets"); the silver sockets which formed the base of the Tabernacle in the desert  [2 related articles] G-d and Man » Holy Temple, The » Components of the Holy Temple » Adanim (silver foundation sockets)
Adar, Month of:  twelfth month in the Jewish calendar; the month in which Purim is celebrated  [19 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Adar, Month of
Admur:  acronym for “Adoneinu Moreinu V’rabeinu”—“Our master, teacher and Rebbe”; generally used as a reference to a great tzaddik, or righteous person, and specifically to the leaders of Chassidic sects 
Adonijah:  (d. 837 BCE) Son of King David. Toward the end of David's life, Adonijah proclaimed himself his father’s successor–an act that was immediately countermanded by David. Eventually he was killed by his brother, King Solomon for an attempted act of treason.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Adonijah
Afikoman:   (lit. "dessert,") from the Aramaic fiku man, the piece of matzah that is hidden and then eaten at the conclusion of the Seder meal to recall the Paschal sacrifice  [8 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Passover » Seder, the » Afikoman
Agag:  King of Amalek. At G-d’s command, communicated through the prophet Samuel, the Saul-led Israelite army killed the entire Amalekite population—aside from Agag, who was spared and taken captive. After chastising Saul for allowing Agag to live. Samuel himself executed Agag.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Agag
Aggadah:  (lit. "lore or narrative"); the portions of the Talmud and Midrash which contain homiletic expositions of the Bible, parables, stories, maxims, etc., in contradistinction to Halachah  [12 related articles] Torah, The » Oral Torah, The » Aggadah
Agrippa I:  (c. 10 BCE-44 CE) Grandson of Herod. He was appointed by the Roman Emperor to rule over Judea and was pious and kind to his subjects. During his reign, the Jews began to prosper and live comfortably. The Sages of the time accorded him great respect. He died suddenly at the games in Cæsarea in 44 CE.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Agrippa I
Agunah:  (lit. anchored woman”); a woman whose husband has disappeared and it is not known with certainty whether he is dead or alive; she is thus forbidden to marry unless a) the husband is located and grants her a legal divorce, or b) careful investigation by rabbinical authorities uncovers admissible evidence of his death  [7 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Relationships » Marriage » Divorce » Agunah
Ahasuerus:  (4th century BCE) King of Persia, husband of Vashti and Esther. At the advice of his minister Haman, he issued a decree that all Jews should be killed. At Esther's insistence, he issued a second decree, allowing the Jews to defend themselves, rendering the first decree ineffective, as recorded in the Scroll of Esther which is read every year on Purim[8 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Post First Temple » Ahasuerus
Ahavah:  love, affection 
Ahavah B’Taanugim:  (lit. “love in delights”); the highest form of love of G-d mortals can attain, of an order of the “delight” of Gan Eden; this love can only be attained as a “gift” granted by G-d 
Ahavat HaTorah:  love of Torah 
Ahavat Yisrael:  (lit. "love for one’s fellow Jews"); as enjoined by the Biblical precept “Love your fellow like yourself” (Leviticus 19:18).  [219 related articles] Torah, The » Mitzvah; Mitzvot » Ahavat Yisrael
Ahijah the Shilonite:  Teacher of Elijah. After Solomon's death, he prophesied that the northern ten tribes would secede from the Davidic dynasty ruled by the Kings of Judah and crown Jeroboam as their king. He later prophesied that Jeroboam and his family’s royal dynasty would be annihilated as punishment for Jeroboam's sinful ways. According to chassidic tradition, Ahijah was the Baal Shem Tov’s primary teacher.  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Ahijah the Shilonite
Ahithophel:  (873-840 BCE) An advisor to King David renowned for his sagacious advice, a great Torah scholar who later abandoned the path of Torah. Ahithophel was a key protagonist in Absalom's revolt against David. He committed suicide upon realizing that the revolt would fail. According to the Midrash, Ahithophel was Batsheba's grandfather.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Ahithophel
Aholiav:    [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Aholiav
Akdamot:  (Aramaic, lit. "before I begin"); poem recited during the morning service on the holiday of Shavuot  Calendar, The Jewish » Shavuot » Akdamot
Akedah:  (lit. “the binding”); Abraham’s preparation of Isaac as a sacrifice  [24 related articles] People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses » Akedah
Akiba ben Joseph:  (c. 50-c.135 CE) Among the greatest of the Mishnaic sages. Unless otherwise stated, all Mishnayos are presumed to be in accordance with the Rabbi Akiva's view. He was the son of converts, and an unlearned shepherd. At the age of 40, at the insistence of his wife, he began studying Torah,under Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Joshua ben Hananiah, and Nahum Ish Gamzu ultimately attracting 24,000 students including Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Judah ben Ilai. He supported Bar Kochba's revolt. He was imprisoned and savagely murdered by the Romans for teaching Torah (he is one of the Ten Martyrs).  [41 related articles] People & Events » People » Mishnaic Sages » Akiba ben Joseph
Al Chet:  (lit. "for the sin"); a pro forma confession of sins in alphabetic order, recited on Yom Kippur  [6 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Yom Kippur » Al Chet
Al HaNissim:  (lit. “and for the miracles”); the opening phrase of a passage included in the daily prayers and the grace after meals on Chanukah and Purim, thankfully acknowledging the miracles G-d wrought on those days  G-d and Man » Prayer » Al HaNissim
Aleichem Shalom:  (lit. “upon you, peace”); traditional response to the greeting of Shalom Aleichem  Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Phrases & Expressions » Aleichem Shalom
Aleinu:  (lit. "it is our duty"); concluding prayer of each of the daily services  [4 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Aleinu
Aleph:  the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, a silent letter, with a numerical value of 1  [16 related articles] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Aleph-Beit, The » Aleph
Aleph-Beit, The:  the Hebrew alphabet  [149 related articles] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Aleph-Beit, The
Alexander Jannaeus (Hasmonean king):  King of Judea for 27 years (c. 103-76 BCE), husband of Salome Alexandra. He declared himself high priest, killing or exiling most the Pharisaic leaders, as they considered him halachically unfit for this office. During Sukkot, he publicly disparaged the Pharisaic traditions in the Temple courtyard, inciting the people to pelt him with their etrogim. This served as a pretext to wage a war against the Pharisees which cost approximately 50,000 Jewish lives.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Alexander Jannaeus (Hasmonean king)
Aliyah:  (lit. “ascent”); immigration to the Land of Israel  [17 related articles] Physical World, The » Countries, Lands & Geographical Locations » Israel, The Land of » Aliyah
Aliyah:  The honor of being called up to recite one of the blessings over the Torah.  [16 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (weekly Torah reading) » Public Torah Reading » Aliyah
Alma D'Itkassia & Alma D'Itgalia (Hidden Worlds & Revealed Worlds):  (Aramaic, lit. "the world of revelation'' and “the world of concealment”); the spiritual realms in which Divinity is concealed and revealed, respectively  [7 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Alma D'Itkassia & Alma D'Itgalia (Hidden Worlds & Revealed Worlds)
Alot Hashachar:  Dawn. Fasts begin at this time. According to Torah law, dawn marks the beginning of the day, and all mitzvot associated with daytime hours -- such as hearing the shofar, taking the Four Species, the recitation of the Shema, or hearing the Megillah -- can now be done. For various reasons, however, the Sages, instituted that the observance of many of these mitzvot should be delayed until Netz Hachamah, or the moment when "one can recognize a familiar acquaintance." According to the Magen Avraham, the calculation of shaot zmaniot begins now.  Calendar, The Jewish » Day, The » Halachic Times » Alot Hashachar
Alshich, R. Moshe:  (1521-1593), one of the leading rabbis of Safed, author of a commentary on the Torah  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Post-Talmudic Sages » Alshich, R. Moshe
Alter Rebbe, The:  Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, 1745-1812, founder and first Rebbe of the Chabad branch of chassidism, known also as “the Rav,” and as Baal HaTanya; lived in Li'ozna and Liadi, White Russia; author of Tanya, a classic text of the chassidic tradition, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a code of Jewish law.  [146 related articles] People & Events » People » Chassidic Personalities » Chabad Personalities » Chabad Rebbes » Alter Rebbe, The
Alul:  (lit. “effect”); in chassidic terminology, the recipient in a downward flux of energy 
Amalek, Esau's grandson:  Esau's grandson; his descendants were the first nation to attack the Jewish people after the exodus from Egypt  [1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Amalek, Esau's grandson
Amalek, the Nation of:  Biblical Canaanite nation descending from Esau's grandson, Amalek. Legendary foe of the Jewish people; the first nation to attack the Jewish people after the exodus from Egypt.  [33 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Amalek, the Nation of
Amen:  (lit. "so be it"); response given after hearing a prayer or blessing and at certain points during the prayer service; expresses concurrence with what has just been said  [11 related articles] G-d and Man » Blessing » Amen
Amidah, The:  (lit. "standing"); also referred to as Shemonah Esrei (Eighteen Benedictions); the main section of prayer, recited standing  [29 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Amidah, The
Amoraim:  (Aramaic, lit. "those who tell over"); post-Mishnaic authorities cited in the Talmud.  [20 related articles] People & Events » People » Amoraim
Amos:  A contemporary of Hosea, Isaiah and Micah, a wealthy man, he tended sheep and sycamore trees before G-d called upon him to prophesy in 621 BCE. His prophecies demand fair treatment of the poor and sincere worship of G-d. His calls for repentance were unwelcome in the Northern Kingdom of Israel and prompted calls for his banishment.  [3 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » The Prophets » Amos
Amos, the Book of:  The book of Tanach containing Amos' prophecies, foretelling the destruction of Israel's neighbors and warning of Israel's impending devastation if they don’t serve G-d wholeheartedly and deal honestly with their fellows. Amos also prophesies concerning the future redemption[1 related article] Torah, The » Tanach » Prophets (Section of the Tanach) » Amos, the Book of
Amram:  Grandson of Levi; husband of Jochebed; father of Miriam, Aaron and Moses. Leader of the Israelites while they were enslaved in Egypt[4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Amram
Amud:  (lit. "column"); prayer lectern where the chazan-cantor stands when leading the prayers  [2 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Synagogue, The » Amud
Anash:  (acronym for anshei shlomeinu, lit., “men of our peace”); the chassidic fraternity; usually refers to the fellowship of the chassidim who follow a specific Rebbe 
Aneinu:  (lit. “answer us”); supplication added to the Shemoneh Esreh on a fast-day  [1 related article] G-d and Man » Prayer » Aneinu
Annual Torah Reading Cycle, The:  The public reading of passages from the Torah scroll as a component of certain congregational services.  [5 related articles] Torah, The » Parshah (weekly Torah reading) » Public Torah Reading » Annual Torah Reading Cycle, The
Anochi:  (lit. “I am”); the first word of the Ten Commandments, a reference to G-d’s essence  [4 related articles] Torah, The » Two Tablets, The » Anochi
Anshei Knesset Hagdolah:  A panel of 120 prophets and sages--including Ezra, Nehemiah, Mordecai, Daniel, Simeon the Righteous and the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi--which constituted the ultimate religious authority at the onset of the Second Temple Era (4th century BCE). Among their accomplishments was the composition of the text of our standard prayers and blessings[3 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Anshei Knesset Hagdolah
Antiochus IV Epiphanes:  (2nd century BCE) Greek-Syrian emperor who desecrated the Holy Temple and enacted laws against Jewish practices during the Second Temple era. The Maccabees fought, and miraculously defeated his armies. The miracle 8634 of his defeat, and the subsequent rededication of the Temple, is commemorated on Chanukah[2 related articles] People & Events » People » Second Temple Personalities » Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Anus:  (lit. "forced one"); prevented or forced by forces beyond one’s control  Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Anus
Apikores:  a heretic 
Aravah:  Sprig of willow. (a) Bound with the lulav and used during Sukkot for the mitzvah of the Four Species. (b) A bundle of five willows is taken on Hoshanah Rabbah and hit against the floor.  [8 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Sukkot » Hoshanah Rabbah » Aravah
Arba Shomrim:  (lit. "four guardians") A "shomer," or guardian, is someone responsible for an object belonging to another. The Torah describes four types of guardians, each with a varying degree of responsibility: 1) the unpaid guardian, 2) the paid guardian, 3) the borrower and 4) the renter.  [2 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Arba Shomrim
Areiv Kablan:  third-party guarantor 
Areivut (Mutual Responsibility):  (a) the mutual responsibility that exists among the Jewish people; (b) responsibility as a guarantor  [6 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Community and Individuality » Areivut (Mutual Responsibility)
Ariel:  (lit. lion of G-d) (a) Jerusalem (b) the Holy Temple in Jerusalem 
Arizal:  Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534-1572), also known by the acronym “Ari” or “Arizal.” Born in Jerusalem, died in Safed. One of the greatest kabbalists of all times, he founded a new school in Kabbalah – the so-called “Lurianic Kabbalah” – which is the basis of almost all mystical works that followed him. He studied with Rabbi Moshe Cordovero, whom he succeeded as the leading mystic of Safed.  [22 related articles] People & Events » People » Kabbalists » Arizal
Arvit:  (lit. "evening") The evening prayer services.  [5 related articles] G-d and Man » Prayer » Three Daily Prayers, The » Arvit
Arvut:  "Guarantorship"; The responsibility shared by every Jew to ensure that all his/her fellow Jews observe the mitzvot.  [7 related articles] Torah, The » Halachah (Torah law) » Halachic Concepts & Issues » Arvut
Asaliah:  (d. 700 BCE) A member of Ahab's family, mother of King Ahaziah. After Ahaziah's death, she killed his potential heirs and ruled for six years, using her influence to suppress the true prophets and to support Baal worship. She was killed when Jehoiada revealed that Ahaziah's son, Joash, was still alive.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Asaliah
Asaph:  (5th century BCE) A Levite singer who lived through the Destruction of the Temple; authored many chapters of the Book of Psalms[1 related article] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Asaph
Asher:  (a) Son of Jacob and Zilpah, eighth of the Twelve Tribes. (b) A common Jewish name. (c) The Hebrew word "asher" is also a pronoun meaning "that," "who," or "which."  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Asher
Asher Yatzar:  blessing expressing gratitude for good health and awe at G-d's creation of the human body ("Who Has formed man with wisdom") that is recited after going to the bathroom.  [6 related articles] G-d and Man » Blessing » Asher Yatzar
Ashi, Rabbi:  (352-427) Talmudic sage, at the age of 20 he assumed leadership of the academy in Sura, a position he held until his passing, 52 years later. Rav Ashi completely renovated the academy's building and restored its scholastic prominence. Rav Ashi and his academy began the work of compiling the Talmud.  [2 related articles] People & Events » People » Sages of the Talmud » Ashi, Rabbi
Ashkenazi:  Jews of European origin, descendant originally from Jews of France and Germany; pertaining to such Jews.  [2 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Jewishness; Jewish Identity » Ashkenazim and Sephardim » Ashkenazi
Ashkenazim and Sephardim:  Ashkenazim: Jews of European origin, descendant originally from Jews of France and Germany; pertaining to such Jews. Sephardi: Jews of South European or North African origin; pertaining to such Jews.  [12 related articles] Human Being, The » Peoples, Nationalities & Cultures » Jewishness; Jewish Identity » Ashkenazim and Sephardim
Asseret HaDibrot:  the Ten Commandments  [47 related articles] Torah, The » Two Tablets, The » Asseret HaDibrot
Assiah; World of Action, The:  (lit. “deed”); in Kabbalistic terminology, this refers to the lowest of the four spiritual worlds, the final level in the creative process which includes the physical universe  [7 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Four Worlds, The » Assiah; World of Action, The
Assyria:  An ancient empire located in modern-day northern Iraq, Assyria becomes prominent in Jewish history in the sixth century BCE when the Assyrians dominated the Mediterranean region and exiled the ten tribes Physical World, The » Countries, Lands & Geographical Locations » Biblical Locations » Assyria
Atbash (System of Subsitution of Letters):  The most common of various systems of substitution of letters used in Kabbalah to make associations between different words and ideas. In Atbash, the first letter of the alef-bet (aleph) is replaced by the last letter (tav), the second letter (bet) by the second-to-last letter (shin), and so on. (The first two pairs of substitutions form the word "at-bash".)  Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Atbash (System of Subsitution of Letters)
Athaliah:  (d. 700 BCE) A member of Ahab's family, mother of King Ahaziah. After Ahaziah's death, she killed his potential heirs and ruled for six years, using her influence to suppress the true prophets and to support Baal worship. She was killed when Jehoiada revealed that Ahaziah's son, Joash, was still alive.  [4 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Kings and Prophets » Athaliah
Atik Yomin:  ( Aramaic, kabbalistic term; lit. “ancient days”); the inner dimension of Keter, a level which transcends the entire scheme of the ten Sefirot; an elevated spiritual level that is in absolute oneness with G-d’s essence  Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Atik Yomin
Atonement:  (lit. “return”); repentance, return to a Jew’s true essence  [317 related articles] G-d and Man » Atonement
Atzilut; World of Emanation, The:  (lit. “emanation”); in Kabbalistic terminology, the highest of the four spiritual worlds, the realm of spiritual existence which, although encompassing attributes which have a specific definition, is in a state of infinity and at one with the Infinite Divine Light  [35 related articles] Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » Kabbalistic Concepts & Terms » Four Worlds, The » Atzilut; World of Emanation, The
Atzvut:  sadness; a heavy-hearted sense of depression  [57 related articles] Human Being, The » Psychology & Behavior » Atzvut
Aufruf:  The ceremony wherein a groom is called up to the Torah on the Shabbat before his wedding.  [2 related articles] Human Being, The » Self & Fellow » Relationships » Marriage » Engagement » Aufruf
Av 9:  (lit. "ninth of Av"); day of fasting and mourning on the ninth of Av commemorating the Destruction of the first and the second Holy Temples  [58 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Av 9
Av, month of:  the fifth month of the Jewish year, corresponding to July-August; the month in which both Temples were destroyed; also called Menachem Av  [5 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Av, month of
Aveirah:  (lit. "transgression"); a transgression of one of the laws of the Torah 
Aviation:    [12 related articles] Science & Technology » Travel & Transportation » Aviation
Avinu:  (lit. “our father”); often used in reference to the Patriarchs, as in “Avraham (Abraham) Avinu” 
Avodah:  The Holy Temple service.  [115 related articles] G-d and Man » Holy Temple, The » Avodah
Avodah (Service of G-d):  Service; striving; prayer.  [69 related articles] G-d and Man » Avodah (Service of G-d)
Avodah SheBeleiv:  service of the heart; prayer 
Avodat HaKodesh:  (lit. “service of the Sanctuary”); one of the earliest works elucidating the fundamental concepts of Kabbalah, by the 15th century Kabbalist Rabbi Meir ben Gabbai (b. 1480)  Torah, The » Torah Books » Kabbalistic Works » Avodat HaKodesh
Avodat Hashem:  Service of G-d.  [69 related articles] G-d and Man » Avodat Hashem
Avot:  Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, from whom the entire Jewish nation descended; the husbands of the Matriarchs [12 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Avot
Avraham Avinu:  "Abraham our Father." (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew. He discovered G-d on his own and rejected the idolatry of his contemporaries. G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts. He successfully withstood ten tests with which G-d challenged him, including the [125 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Avraham Avinu
Avrohom:  (a) (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew. He discovered G-d on his own and rejected the idolatry of his contemporaries. G-d commanded him to travel from his Mesopotamian homeland to Canaan, where He bequeathed the land to his descendants in the Covenant between the Parts. He successfully withstood ten tests with which G-d challenged him, including the Binding of Isaac incident. Husband of Sarah and Hagar, father of Ishmael and Isaac--his heir. (b) A common Jewish name.  [125 related articles] People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Five Books of Moses » Avrohom
Awe of G-d:  the fear or awe of Heaven, which compels us to refrain from sin. Divided into lower and higher levels: Yirah Ila'ah (supernal fear) is the awe one feels when contemplating G-d's greatness, Yirah Tata'ah is fear of the negative consequences that result from sin  [63 related articles] G-d and Man » Love & Awe of G-d » Awe of G-d
Ayin:  the sixteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, with a numerical value of 70  [5 related articles] Human Being, The » Faculties and Talents » Speech; Communication » Language » Holy Tongue, the; Hebrew » Aleph-Beit, The » Ayin
Ayin:  (lit. "nothingness"); in Chassidic terminology, (a) a state of non-being that serves as a contrast to true existence; (b) the void that precedes any act of creation; (c) in the mortal realm, ayin describes a person who transcends his innate egocentricity and commits himself to the service of G-d.  [6 related articles] Concepts & Ideas » Ayin
Ayin Beis:  “Hemshech Ayin Beis” refers to a unique series of Chassidic discourses by the fifth Chabad Rebbe, R. Shalom DovBer Schneersohn (RaShaB), which are named after the Hebrew year it began, 5672.  [5 related articles] Torah, The » Torah Books » Chassidic Works » Ayin Beis
Ayin Hara:  Evil Eye.  [4 related articles] G-d and Man » G-d » Evil, Forces of » Ayin Hara
Az Yashir:  (“then... sang”); the song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service  [17 related articles] People & Events » History » Biblical Events » Five Books of Moses » Splitting of the Sea, The » Az Yashir
Azariah:  (a) (c, 400 BCE) Exiled to Babylon together with Daniel, Hananiah, and Azariah, where they were trained to be chamberlains in the royal court. Despite the personal risk involved, they refused to eat the royal non-kosher cuisine. They were later appointed to government positions. They were thrown into a furnace after refusing to bow to an idol erected by Nebuchadnezzar. Miraculously, they emerged unscathed, as described in the Book of Daniel. (b) A common Jewish name.  People & Events » People » Biblical Personalities » Post First Temple » Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah » Azariah
Azazel:  (a) A rocky cliff from which a goat was pushed to its death on Yom Kippur (Leviticus, ch. 16; Yoma 63a). (b) The goat that was cast to its death.  [7 related articles] Calendar, The Jewish » Yom Kippur » Yom Kippur Temple Service » Two Goats, The » Azazel
Azharot:  (lit. "warnings"); a liturgical poem authored by R. Saadia Gaon, outlining the 613 mitzvot  Torah, The » Torah Books » Halachic Works » Azharot

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