— 1 —

לְכָה דּוֹדִי לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת נְקַבְּלָה,

“Come my beloved to greet the bride; let us welcome the Shabbos.”

וּמֵבִיא כְּבוֹד קְדֻשַּׁת מוֹרִי וְחָמִי אַדְמוֹ"ר בְּמַאֲמָרוֹ לְכָה דּוֹדִי (מִדְּרוּשֵׁי הַחֲתֻנָּה)

My revered father-in-law, the Rebbe Rayatz relates in the maamar entitled Lechah Dodi, (which is included in the series of wedding maamarim recited by the Rebbe Rayatz in conjunction with the Rebbe’s wedding to his daughter, Rebbetzin Chayah Mushkah)1

(מִפִּרְקֵי דְּרַבִּי אֶלִיעֶזֶר)

(quoting Pirkei deRabbi Eliezer)2

שֶׁחָתָן דּוֹמֶה לְמֶלֶךְ וְהַכַּלָּה לְמַלְכָּה.

that a groom resembles a king, and a bride, a queen.

The simple meaning is that the bride and groom should be honored like a king and queen. However, on a deeper level,

חָתָן זֶה הקב"ה וְכַלָּה הִיא כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל,

as reflected by the commentaries to Shir HaShirim, in the analogue, the groom refers to G‑d and the bride to the Jewish people.

וּבַסְּפִירוֹת הוּא עִנְיַן זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וּמַלְכוּת,

In the spiritual realms, i.e., the sefiros, the analogue is Z’eir Anpin, literally, “the small face,”3 the kabbalistic term for the six emotive attributes of Atzilus, and Malchus, the sefirah of sovereignty.

 

דְּחָתָן הוּא בְּחִינַת זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וְכַלָּה הִיא בְּחִינַת מַלְכוּת.

Z’eir Anpin represents the groom, and Malchus, the bride.

וְזֶהוּ לְכָה דּוֹדִי לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת נְקַבְּלָה,

The phrase “Come my beloved to greet the bride; let us welcome the Shabbos

שֶׁהוּא עִנְיַן הַמְשָׁכַת זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין לְמַלְכוּת,

reflects a transmission of influence (hashpaah) from the “groom,” Z’eir Anpin, to Malchus, “the bride.”

As mentioned in the Introduction, in a relationship between a mashpia –“a source of influence,” a giver – and a mekabel, “a recipient” – there are three types of influence:

a) hashpaah p’nimis – “influence that is internalized.” The mashpia imparts something substantial to the mekabel that the mekabel can absorb and internalize. This influence is, by definition, limited, and dependent on the level of the recipient, i.e., how much he is capable of receiving.

b) hashpaah be’ofen makif – “influence that is imparted in an encompassing manner,” also called hashpaah chitzonis, external influence. When a mashpia is on a far higher plane than the mekabel and he desires to express himself spontaneously, there is no way that he can communicate what he wishes to convey to the mekabel in a manner that the mekabel can internalize what he is receiving. Therefore, the mashpia does not even attempt to relate to the recipient on his level. Instead, he conveys influence in a manner that the recipient is aware that it is far above him. Therefore, it is called makif, “encompassing.”

It is also called chitzonis, “external,” for the mekabel cannot internalize it, and even for the mashpia, it does not represent his inner core. True, he is expressing himself naturally, without restraints. However, he is not conveying his essence.

Even though the mekabel cannot internalize this influence, it has a positive dimension. It exposes the mekabel to the higher plane on which the mashpia functions and in doing so, elevates the mekabel beyond the horizons of his own constraints.

c) hashpaah atzmis – “essential influence.” The influence that is conveyed transcends not only the mekabel, but the conscious state of the mashpia as well. The mashpia communicates not only the peripheral aspects of his being but something of his own essential core. When such influence is conveyed, both the mashpia and the mekabel align themselves with their respective essential cores and bond with each other in a manner that transcends their own conscious state of being.

When we are speaking about a relationship between a bride and a groom – and in the sublime realms, the relationship between Z’eir Anpin and Malchus – all three of the above forms of influence are conveyed. The first two levels of connection are necessary as preparatory stages that enable hashpaah atzmis to take place.

וְסֵדֶר הַהַמְשָׁכָה הוּא,

The pattern by which influence is conveyed is

אֲשֶׁר תְּחִלָּה צְרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת הַהַמְשָׁכָה חִיצוֹנִית

that first there is hashpaah chitzonis, an external transmission of influence

(מִזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין לְמַלְכוּת)

(from Z’eir Anpin to Malchus)

שֶׁהִיא רַק בִּבְחִינַת מַקִּיף,

which is only an encompassing light,

i.e., a revelation that reflects the attributes of themashpia as he exists on his own level, and hence, is too lofty for the mekabel to internalize. As such, it leaves only a general impression on the mekabel. Nevertheless, the hashpaah chitzonis makes it possible, that

וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִיא הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית.

afterwards, it can be followed by hashpaah p’nimis, inner influence.

A mashpia,who is on a higher level than the mekabel,is faced with a dilemma: Since the mekabel is not on the level of the mashpia – and indeed, cannot even fathom that level – if the mashpia desires to share his own awareness with the mekabel, he must initiate the process. And yet, if he communicates to the mekabel on his own level, the mekabel will not be able to accept and internalize what is being given to him. Conversely, if he descends to the mekabel’s level, the mekabel will never be exposed to the higher level of the mashpia. Inner communication (hashpaah pnimis) between the two is made possible only through a carefully designed process. Establishing an external connection (through hashpaah chitzonis) is the initial stage of this process.

דְּכֵן הוּא הַסֵּדֶר בְּכָל הַשְׁפָּעָה מִמַּשְׁפִּיעַ לִמְקַבֵּל,

Indeed, such a sequence occurs in every transmission of influence from a mashpia to a mekabel.

דִּתְחִלָּה צְרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת הַמְשָׁכַת הַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ מִבְּחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁלּוֹ לִבְחִינַת חִיצוֹנִיּוּת הַמְּקַבֵּל,

At first, the influence must be transmitted from the external aspects of the mashpia to the external aspects of the mekabel.

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה מִתְעַלֶּה הַמְּקַבֵּל לִהְיוֹת קָרוֹב לְמַדְרֵגַת הַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ,

Through this external communication, the mekabel ascends so that he can approach the level of the mashpia,

Through exposure to the higher level of the mashpia, even though it is only in a manner that is makif, the mekabel is elevated and raised to a level whereby it is possible to internalize the influence the mashpia will subsequently convey to him.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ יוּכַל לְקַבֵּל הַמְשָׁכָה הַפְּנִימִית מֵהַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ.

so that afterwards, the mekabel is capable of receiving hashpaah p’nimis from the mashpia.

Moreover, as will be explained, hashpaah atzmis, essential influence, is also invested in the hashpaah p’nimis, an essential influence.

וּמֵבִיא עַל זֶה ב' מְשָׁלִים

In his maamar,4 the Rebbe Rayatz illustrates this concept with two analogies:

[מֵהַשְׁפָּעַת רַב לְתַלְמִיד,

a) [the communication between a teacher and a student,

וְאָב הַמִּשְׁתַּעְשֵׁעַ עִם בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן].

and b) a father playing with his small child].

וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר, שֶׁכַּוָּנָתוֹ בִּמְשָׁלִים אֵלֶּה הִיא לֹא רַק לְהָבִיא דֻּגְמָאוֹת לְסֵדֶר הַהַמְשָׁכָה

It is possible to say that the intent of offering these analogies is not merely to bring examples that demonstrate the order of transmission,

(שֶׁהַהַשְׁפָּעָה חִיצוֹנִית הִיא הַקְדָּמָה לְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית),

(i.e., that transmitting hashpaah chitzonis is a preparatory stage that makes possible the transmission of hashpaah p’nimis,)

אֶלָּא (גַּם) לְבָאֵר גֹּדֶל הָעִלּוּי שֶׁבְּב' הַשְׁפָּעוֹת אֵלּוּ,

but (also) to emphasize the lofty levels contained within both these types of influence, as will be explained in the subsequent sections.

With these analogies, the maamar is emphasizing the sequence necessary for such communication to occur: that hashpaah chitzonis, external influence, will serve as a preparatory step that makes an internal connection possible. Nevertheless, the analogies chosen also highlight the lofty level conveyed by both these types of influence. Firstly, the analogies underscore that

דְּגַם הַהַשְׁפָּעָה חִיצוֹנִית הִיא דַּרְגָּא נַעֲלֵית בְּיוֹתֵר,

even the hashpaah chitzonis represents a very lofty level,

וְעַד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עִלּוּי לְגַבֵּי הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית.

to the point where it possesses an advantage over even the hashpaah p’nimis.

כִּי הַהַשְׁפָּעָה חִיצוֹנִית, שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף,

For the hashpaah chitzonis, which is an encompassing light,

הִיא לְמַעְלָה מִכְּלֵי הַמְּקַבֵּל

is above the vessels – i.e., the ability to accept and internalize – of the recipient.

In this approach, the mashpia shares of himself without restraining or adapting his qualities.

(מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית שֶׁמִּתְקַבֶּלֶת בִּכְלֵי הַמְּקַבֵּל).

(In contrast, the mashpia adapts the hashpaah p’nimis in a manner so that it can be accepted and internalized within the vessels of the recipient.)

Thus, the maamar is highlighting the lofty level of hashpaah chitzonis.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הִיא רַק הַקְדָּמָה לְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית,

Nevertheless, despite the advantage of the external connection, it serves only as an introduction to the hashpaah p’nimis,

כִּי דַּוְקָא עַל יְדֵי הַשְׁפָּעָה הַפְּנִימִית מַגִּיעִים לְעִלּוּי נַעֲלֶה יוֹתֵר (שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִבְּחִינַת הַמַּקִּיף).

for it is specifically through hashpaah p’nimis that an even loftier rung (that surpasses the encompassing influence) is attained.

Generally, hashpaah p’nimis reflects a lower rung, for the very fact that it can be internalized by the recipient indicates that it is a defined entity that has been adapted to the recipient’s capacities. In this instance, however, the maamar is referring to hashpaah p’nimis in which hashpaah atzmis hasbeeninvested. This essential influence transcends even the mashpia’s revealed level.

וְזֶהוּ עַל כָּל כָּבוֹד חֻפָּה

This rung is alluded to in the Rebbe Rayatz’s maamar by the quote,5 “Upon allthe glory shall there be a canopy.”

“Glory” refers to splendor that radiates naturally. Despite its lofty level, it is an external quality; the person does not invest himself in its transmission. A chupah, marriage canopy, is also set up above the bride and groom. Thus, both “glory” and “chupah” refer to influences that are makif.

שֶׁהֵם ב' בְּחִינוֹת כָּבוֹד,

The word “all” implies two aspects of glory,

כְּבוֹד חָתָן וּכְבוֹד כַּלָּה,

the glory of the groom and the glory of the bride, which, in the spiritual realms refer to Z’eir Anpin and Malchus,

וּלְמָעְלָה יוֹתֵר כָּבוֹד דְּאַבָּא וְכָבוֹד דְּאִמָּא.

and on an even higher level,6 the glory of the Supernal Father, the Sefirah of Chochmah (wisdom), and the glory of the Supernal Mother, the Sefirah of Binah (understanding).

וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה הוּא יִחוּד אַבָּא וְאִמָּא וְיִחוּד זָ"א וְנוּקְבָא.

Through this transmission of glory – though merely, an external influence (hashpaah chitzonis), for glory is amorphous, it is not a quality that is understood – the union of Chochmah and Binah and the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus is brought about.

דְּעִם הֱיוֹת שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם (כָּבוֹד (וְחֻפָּה) דְּאַבָּא וְאִמָּא,

Although both {7 the glory (and the marriage canopy) of the Supernal Father and the Supernal Mother

וְכָבוֹד (וְחֻפָּה) דְּזָ"א וְנוּקְבָא) הֵם בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף,

and the glory (and the marriage canopy) of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus} are “encompassing lights,”

מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָדוּעַ שֶׁדַּוְקָא בְּיִחוּד זָ"א וְנוּקְבָא

nevertheless, it is well known8 that specifically through the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus

(שֶׁהוּא יִחוּד פְּנִימִי)

(which is an inner bond)

נִמְשָׁךְ הָעֶצֶם.

G‑d’s Essence is drawn down.



Summary

The maaamar delivered by the Rebbe Rayatz explains that the relationship between a bride and a groom on the earthly plane serves as an analogy, reflecting the relationship between the Jewish people and G‑d.

In the spiritual realms, the analogue is the relationship between Z’eir Anpin, the kabbalisticterm for the six emotive attributes of Atzilus, and Malchus, the sefirah of sovereignty. The phrase “Come my beloved to greet the bride” reflects a transmission of influence (hashpaah) from the “groom,” Z’eir Anpin, to Malchus, “the bride.

The pattern by which influence is conveyed is that first there is hashpaah chitzonis, an external transmission of influence, which is only an encompassing light. Afterwards, it is followed by hashpaah p’nimis, inner influence.

Such a sequence occurs in every transmission of influence from a mashpia to a mekabel.

At first, the influence must be transmitted from the external aspects of the mashpia to the external aspects of the mekabel. Through this external communication, the mekabel ascends so that he can approach the level of the mashpia. Afterwards, the mekabel is capable of receiving hashpaah p’nimis.

In his maamar, the Rebbe Rayatz illustrates this concept with two analogies. These analogies do not merely demonstrate the order of transmission; they emphasize that both these types of influence reflect lofty levels.

Hashpaah chitzonis reflects how the mashpia shares of himself without restraining or adapting his qualities. Nevertheless, the hashpaah p’nimis that follows conveys an even loftier level, because in it is invested hashpaah atzmis, an essential influence that transcends even the mashpia’s revealed rung.




— 2 —

וְהִנֵּה הַמָּשָׁל הָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא מֵהַשְׁפָּעַת רַב לְתַלְמִיד,

The first analogy given by the Rebbe Rayatz in his maamar is the transmission of knowledge from a teacher to a student.

וְסֵדֶר הַהַשְׁפָּעָה הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ רז"ל

Our Sages describe9 the pattern through which knowledge was conveyed by one of the Sages of the Talmud, relating that

דְּמִקָמֵי דְּפָּתַח לְהוּ לְרַבָּנָן אָמַר מִלְּתָא דִּבְדִיחוּתָא

before Rabbah would begin his discourse, he would relate a milsa d’bedichusa, literally, a humorous remark,

וּבָדְחוּ רַבָּנָן

and the Sages would laugh.

וּלְבַסּוֹף יָתִיב בְּאֵימָתָא וּפָתַח בִּשְׁמַעְתָּא,

Afterwards, he would sit with reverence and commence his lecture.

דְּהַמִּילְתָא דִּבְדִיחוּתָא שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַלִּמּוּד

The milsa d’bedichusa that precedes the lesson,

[שֶׁהוּא עִנְיַן שִׂיחַת חֻלִּין שֶׁל תַּלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לִמּוּד]

[interpreted by the Rebbe Rayatz in his maamar, not as a mere joke – since we are speaking about a Sage, it is obvious that the intent is not that he was simply jesting – but rather as the “casual conversation of scholars, which requires study,”]10

הִיא חִיצוֹנִית בִּלְבַד,

reflects only an external aspect of the teacher. His inner dimensions (p’nimiyus) are expressed in the profound wisdom that he subsequently conveys.

אָמְנָם הַשְׁפָּעָה זוֹ הִיא הַקְדָּמָה לְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית (דְּפָתַח בִּשְׁמַעְתָּא)

Nevertheless, this hashpaah chitzonis is an introduction to the hashpaah p’nimis that he conveys (when he begins the lesson).

כִּי דַּוְקָא עַל יְדֵי זֶה נַעֲשֶׂה פְּתִיחַת הַלֵּב וְהַמֹּחַ שֶׁל הַתַּלְמִיד

For it is specifically the milsa d’bedichusa that opens the heart and mind of the student, sensitizing him and making him receptive to the teacher’s instruction and

שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּלִי לְקַבָּלָה לְהַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית.

making him a vessel fit to receive the hashpaah p’nimis.

The students’ exposure to the milsa d’bedichusa, which, as will soon be explained,11 reflects a higher dimension of the teacher’s personality, causes them to be overawed and sit before him with bittul. This enables them to become fit mediums to grasp the lessons – the hashpaah p’nimis – that he then conveys to them, and more importantly, to internalize the hashpaah atzmis implanted within the hashpaah p’nimis.

The maamar explains not only that the milsa d’bedichusa develops a bridge of communication between the mashpia and the mekabel,but also how that bridge is created – by revealing a lofty dimension within the mashpia that sensitizes the mekabel toward him and makes the mekabel desire to receive of his influence.

וְהִנֵּה מְקוֹר מָשָׁל זֶה הוּא מֵאַדְמוֹ"ר הָאֶמְצָעִי בְּתוֹרַת חַיִּים

The source of this analogy is the maamar entitled V’eileh Toldos12 in the Mitteler Rebbe’s Toras Chayim.

[אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּתוֹרַת חַיִּים לֹא הוּבָא זֶה כְּמָשָׁל לְהָעִנְיָן דִּלְכָה דּוֹדִי.

[However, in that source, this analogy of a teacher beginning his lesson with a milsa d’bedichusais not cited in connection with the concept of Lechah Dodi.

וּבְדִבּוּר הַמַּתְחִיל סְמוּכִים לָעַד פר"ת (הַמַּאֲמָר שֶׁאָמַר כְּבוֹד קְדֻשַּׁת אַדְמוֹ"ר מְהוֹרַשַׁ"בּ נִשְׁמָתוֹ עֵדֶן בְּיוֹם הֻלַּדְתוֹ (כ' מַר חֶשְׁוָן) הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּעָלְמָא דֵּין)

The maamar entitled Semuchim Le’ad, 568013 (delivered by the Rebbe Rashab on his last birthday – the 20th of MarCheshvan celebrated in this world),14

מְקַשֵּׁר בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְשָׁר ("וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁזֶּה עִנְיָן כו'") הָעִנְיָן דְּמִלְּתָא דִּבְדִיחוּתָא לְהָעִנְיָן דְּלְכָה דּוֹדִי.

states that it is possible to connect (to quote the Rebbe Rashab: “possibly, this is the concept…”) the Analogy of a milsa d’bedichusa with the concept of Lechah Dodi.

וּבְדִבּוּר הַמַּתְחִיל לְכָה דּוֹדִי הִשְׁמִיט כְּבוֹד קְדֻשַּׁת מוֹרִי וְחָמִי אַדְמוֹ"ר תֵּבַת "וְאֶפְשָׁר" וְכוֹתֵב זֶה בְּפַשְׁטוּת],

In the maamar of my revered father-in-law, the Rebbe Rayatz, entitled Lechah Dodi, he omitted the disclaimer “possibly” and stated the conceptual relationship between the twoas an accepted conclusion.]15

וּבְתוֹרַת חַיִּים שָׁם (לְאַחֲרֵי זֶה) מְבֹאָר,

(Afterwards,) in the above-mentioned maamar in Toras Chayim,16 the Mitteler Rebbe explains

דְּשֹׁרֶשׁ עִנְיַן הַשְּׂחוֹק הוּא מִתַּעֲנוּג הַפָּשׁוּט שֶׁבִּלְתִּי מֻרְכָּב כְּלָל.

that laughter is rooted in the soul’s potential for simple, uncompounded pleasure.

Chassidus17 identifies taanug, pleasure, with the very core of the soul. What is the source for that association? The soul’s other powers – emotion, intellect, and even will – express the soul’s energy as it extends itself outward and interacts with other people, situations, and concepts. By contrast, when the soul feels pleasure, it is turning inward and establishing contact with its core. The object that brings the soul pleasure is merely a catalyst that awakens the soul and enables the soul to more fully sense its own self.

Within this general definition, Chassidus18 distinguishes between taanug hamurkav, compounded pleasure, and taanug habilti murkav, simple pleasure. Whenever a person derives pleasure from a particular object or activity, it brings him into contact with his soul. The song, piece of art, or activity strikes a cord within him. It takes him beyond his everyday here and now and enables him to sense inner energies which often lie latent within his consciousness. However, since it is the object or the activity that awakens the connection with his soul, that object or activity diverts a certain dimension of the awareness from the soul as it is in its essence. This is the meaning of the term “compounded pleasure”; there is an awareness of something else aside from the soul. With regard to “simple pleasure,” by contrast, all that is felt is the soul.

The extent to which the soul’s pleasure is compounded depends on the nature of the catalyst for the pleasure. Take, for example, the pleasure that comes from a song: A deep and thoughtful song elicits an entirely different degree of pleasure than a light and happy song. The content and intensity of the deeper song add additional elements, aside from the inherent pleasure the soul experiences from it.

The more substantial the catalyst, the greater the diversion from the focus on the soul’s essence. In humor, a milsa d’bedichusa, the object that produces the laughter is not substantial. And that is precisely its advantage; it enables the soul to tap into the dimension of simple pleasure.19

This simple pleasure finds expression in laughter. When a person laughs, he is uncontrolled; he loses consciousness of his self. And by doing so, he taps into the essence of his soul that is also unbounded.

וּמִזֶּה מוּבָן, דְּשֹׁרֶשׁ שֶׁל מִלְּתָא דִּבְדִיחוּתָא

We understand from the above that the source of a milsa d’bedichusa,

(שֶׁהוּא תַּעֲנוּג הַפָּשׁוּט)

(the level of simple pleasure,)

הוּא לְמַעְלָה מֵהַשְׁפָּעַת הַשֵּׂכֶל שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵי זֶה

is loftier than the intellectual concepts transmitted afterwards

(שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתַּעֲנוּג שֶׁבַּשֵּׂכֶל הוּא תַּעֲנוּג מֻרְכָּב).

(for the pleasure derived from intellect is compounded).

It is not the soul in its simple state, but how the soul functions together with the power of intellect.

אָמְנָם מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה רַק בְּחִינָה חִיצוֹנִית,

Nevertheless, the pleasure expressed through laughter is only external –

it does not tell us anything about who the person is –

וְעַל יְדֵי הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית מַגִּיעִים לְעִלּוּי נַעֲלֶה יוֹתֵר.

and it is through the inner transmission of influence from a mashpia to a mekabel that a much loftier level is reached.

As highlighted in sec. 1, the hashpaah chitzonis is truly lofty, and yet, there is an advantage to hashpaah p’nimis.

וְהָעִנְיָן הוּא

The explanation of the matter is as follows:

דְּבַתַעֲנוּג הַפָּשׁוּט גּוּפָא יֵשׁ ב' דַּרְגוֹת,

There are two levels of simple, uncompounded pleasure:20

תַּעֲנוּג הַפָּשׁוּט הַמֻּרְגָּשׁ

one that is felt by the external dimensions of our beings

The pleasure that emanates from within wells over to the point where it is expressed outwardly, to give an example: When the Ark was brought to Jerusalem King David was not merely inwardly joyful. His happiness was so great that he was “leaping and dancing”21 “with all his might.”22 Similarly, the pleasure expressed by laughter is manifest outwardly. However, the very fact that such pleasure is expressed by our external powers implies that it is somewhat limited by the structure that characterizes them.

וְתַעֲנוּג הָעַצְמִי הַבִּלְתִּי מֻרְגָּשׁ.

and one that is the essential aspect of pleasure that transcends feeling.

וְדַוְקָא עַל יְדֵי הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית, שֶׁהַתַּלְמִיד מְקַבֵּל בִּפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ,

It is specifically through hashpaah p’nimis – influence that is internalized – that can, in turn, be internalized by the student,

מַגִּיעִים לַתַּעֲנוּג הָעַצְמִי הַבִּלְתִּי מֻרְגָּשׁ.

that one attains the level of the essential pleasure that transcends feeling.

Pleasure is a feeling. The term “pleasure that transcends feeling” implies that the person becomes so totally absorbed in the inner experience of the soul that he has no way of expressing these feelings outwardly.

This essential pleasure also transcends the understanding of the mashpia, for it taps into the essence of his soul.

וְלָכֵן אָמְרוּ רז"ל וּמִתַּלְמִידַי יוֹתֵר מִכֻּלָּן.

Therefore, our Sages state,23 “From my students, I have received more than from all the others.”

By communicating with his students, the mashpia is elevated to a level he could not reach on his own. He is lifted to a rung that transcends his own conscious understanding.



Summary

The first analogy given by the Rebbe Rayatz is the transmission of knowledge from a teacher to a student. The example is given of Rabbah who would relate a milsa d’bedichusa, literally, a humorous remark, before beginning his discourse.

The milsa d’bedichusa that precedes the lesson reflects only an external aspect of the teacher. His inner dimensions (p’nimiyus) are expressed in the profound wisdom that he subsequently conveys. Nevertheless, this hashpaah chitzonis serves as an introduction to the hashpaah p’nimis by opening the heart and mind of the student. For the milsa d’bedichusa reveals a lofty dimension within the mashpia that sensitizes the mekabel toward him and makes the mekabel desire to receive of his influence.

The connection between a milsa d’bedichusa and the lofty level of the mashpia can be explained as follows: Laughter is rooted in the soul’s potential for simple, uncompounded pleasure. Thus it transcends the intellectual concepts transmitted afterwards. Nevertheless, the pleasure expressed through laughter is external and it is through the inner transmission of influence from a mashpia to a mekabel that a much loftier level is reached.




— 3 —

וּמָשָׁל הַבּ' הוּא מִבֵּן יָנִיק וְקָטָן שֶׁאָבִיו רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּעֲשֵׁעַ עִמּוֹ פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים

The second analogy given in the Rebbe Rayatz’s maamar is that of a small child with whom his father wants to delight, sharing a face-to-face interaction with him.

וַהֲרֵי הַתִּינוֹק הוּא קָטָן,

Since the child is small,

צָרִיךְ הָאָב לְהַשְׁפִּיל אֶת יָדָיו כו' לְהָרִים בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן

the father must first lower his hands to lift the child up

בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהִשְׁתַּעֲשֵׁעַ עִמּוֹ בְּקֵרוּב פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים.

in order to delight with him: enjoying the closeness they share, face to face.

דְּהַגְבָּהַת הַתִּינוֹק הוּא רַק עִנְיָן חִיצוֹנִי,

Lifting up the child is but an external expression of closeness,

וְהוּא רַק הַקְדָּמָה לְהַקֵּירוּב פְּנִימִי שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵי זֶה (הַשַּׁעֲשׁוּעִים כוּ').

and only serves as a preliminary step to the inner closeness (i.e., the delightful interaction) that follows.

וְהִנֵּה מְקוֹר מָשָׁל זֶה הוּא בְּאוֹר תּוֹרָה לְהָרַב הַמַּגִּיד,

The source for this analogy is a statement of the Maggid of Mezeritch in Or Torah.24

וְשָׁם יֶשְׁנָהּ הוֹסָפָה (שֶׁלֹּא נֶעֶתְּקָה בְּהַמַּאֲמָר),

In that source, there is an added concept (which is not cited in the maamar of the Rebbe Rayatz).25

שֶׁהַקָּטָן "מִשְׁתַּעֲשֵׁעַ בַּזָּקָן שֶׁלּוֹ" (שֶׁל הָאָב).

The Maggid adds that the son plays with (his father’s) beard.

In Kabbalah, the beard often serves as an analogy for the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy.

וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁבָּזֶה מְרֻמָּז,

It is possible to say that this analogy alludes to the concept

שֶׁהַמְשָׁכַת הַמַּקִּיף (שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית)

that the encompassing light that is drawn down (before – and in preparation for – the transmission of hashpaah pnimis, inward influence)

הִיא לְמַעְלָה מֵהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת,

transcends all the limitations of the chain-like order of spiritual worlds.

The maamar is thus emphasizing that the second analogy given by the Rebbe Rayatz, like the first,26 also points to the lofty quality communicated through hashpaah chitzonis.

The terms “external” and “internal” are relative. An influence that is internal on one level can be external when compared to a deeper level of closeness. In general, the delight shared by a parent with his child reflects inner closeness (as explained in the maamar entitled Lechah Dodi, 5689). Nevertheless, when compared to the hashpaah p’nimis that a father conveys to his son through studying with him and the like, that delight also can be considered as mere external closeness.

With this comment, the Rebbe is emphasizing that

דְּזָקָן הוּא י"ג תִּקּוּנֵי דִּיקְנָא,

in spiritual terms, the beard refers to the “thirteen features of the beard,”

י"ג מִדּוֹת הָרַחֲמִים שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת.

the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy, which transcend the established patterns that define Seder HaHishtalshelus, the chainlike structure that characterizes the Spiritual Cosmos.

אֶלָּא מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָהֶם אֵיזוֹ שַׁיָּיכוּת לַהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת,

Nevertheless, they do have some connection to that chainlike structure,

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר זְכֹר רַחֲמֶיךָ גוֹ' כִּי מֵעוֹלָם הֵמָּה

as reflected in the verse,27 “Remember Your mercies and kindnesses, for they have existed for all time.”

The Hebrew word מעולם, translated as “for all time,” can also mean “from the world.” Even G‑d’s infinite mercies are related to the world.

[שֶׁלָּכֵן נִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם "מִדּוֹת" מִלְּשׁוֹן מְדִידָה].

[Hence, the Hebrew word middos is used to describe them. That word relates to the term medidah, meaning measure.]28

Thus, on one level, these thirteen attributes represent an inner dimension of G‑dliness that transcends the chainlike structure that characterizes the Spiritual Cosmos. On a deeper level, however, these attributes are still considered an external dimension of G‑dliness, because – at least to some degree – they relate to the world, a level of existence that appears to be outside of Him.

גַּם יָדוּעַ בְּעִנְיַן הַשְּׂעָרוֹת שֶׁהוּא הֶאָרָה בִּלְבַד.

Also, the association between the beard and an encompassing light of sovev can also be understood in the context of the well-known concept of “hairs,” that they enable only a ray of the person’s life-force to pass through.29

Thus, the life-force within hair is much less than that which is found in the bodily organs as a whole. For this reason, hair can be cut from the body without experiencing pain. Similarly, in the context of the maamar, the hairs of the father’s beard represent an external dimension, a hashpaah chitzonis.

אָמְנָם עַל יְדֵי הַהַשְׁפָּעָה פְּנִימִית שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵי זֶה

Nevertheless, despite the lofty level conveyed through the hashpaah chitzonis through the inner transmission of influence which follows, i.e., the hashpaah p’nimis,

(אַף שֶׁהִיא לְמַטָּה מִבְּחִינַת מַקִּיף)

(even though on a revealed level it is lower than the encompassing light),

נִמְשָׁךְ הָעֶצֶם שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהַמַּקִּיף

the very essence, which is far above the encompassing light, is drawn down.

(עַל דֶּרֶךְ הנ"ל סְעִיף א' בְּמַעֲלַת יִחוּד זָ"א וְנוּקְבָא

{30 This resembles the concept explained in sec. 1, that there is an advantage to the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus

(שֶׁהוּא יִחוּד פְּנִימִי)

(which is an inner bond)

עַל יִחוּד אַבָּא וְאִמָּא

over the union of the supernal father and the supernal mother, i.e., the sefiros of Chochmah and Binah,

כְּבֵאוּר אַדְמוֹ"ר הַצֶּמַח צֶדֶק בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת בָּזֶה).

as explained by the Tzemach Tzedek in many places.}31

Chochmah and Binah are intellectual attributes and thus are on a loftier plane than the emotive attributes of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus. Nevertheless, it is the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus that enables hashpaah atzmis, the transmission of essential influence that transcends all revealed levels.



Summary

The second analogy given in the Rebbe Rayatz’s maamar is that of a small child with whom his father wants to delight, sharing a face-to-face interaction with him. The source for this analogy is a statement of the Maggid of Mezeritch. The Maggid adds that the son plays with (his father’s) beard. In Kabbalah, the beard often serves as an analogy for the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy which represent transcendent attributes of G‑d.

It is possible to say that the analogy of a beard alludes to the concept that the hashpaah chitzonis that is drawn down (before – and in preparation for – the transmission of inward influence) is of a lofty, transcendent nature. Nevertheless, despite this transcendent level, the inner transmission of influence which follows, (i.e., the hashpaah p’nimis, though lower than the encompassing light) is loftier, for it conveys the very essence.




— 4 —

וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה הוּא בָּעֲבוֹדָה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָאֵר בְּהַמַּאֲמָר),

(The Rebbe Rayatz’s maamar continues,explaining)32 that a parallel to the above concepts exists in our service of G‑d.

שֶׁהַתְחָלַת עֲבוֹדַת הָאָדָם בְּכָל יוֹם הִיא עֲבוֹדַת הַתְּפִלָּה,

The beginning of an individual’s service each day is the service of prayer.

As will be explained below, prayer is a process of connection through which a person develops a bond with G‑d.

כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא,

Thus, the verse,33 “Separate yourself from the man whose soul is in his nostrils, for what can he be accounted for?”

is interpreted by our Sages34 as referring to someone who has not prayed. Since he has not prayed, his soul is “in his nostrils; i.e., it has not been internalized.

Our Sages are referring to the G‑dly soul. When a person first awakens, his animal soul controls his thought processes. His G‑dly soul has not asserted itself. Therefore, it is described as being “in his nostrils,” that is, it is not yet affecting his thought or feelings.

אַל תִּקְרִי בַּמֶּה אֶלָּא בָּמָה,

On this verse, our Sages comment, “Do not read bammeh, for what,’ but bamah, ‘a platform.’”

וּבֵאֵר אַדְמוֹ"ר הַזָּקֵן וְאַדְמוֹ"ר מהר"ש דְּקֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה נֶחְשָׁב הָאָדָם כְּמוֹ בָּמָה.

The Alter Rebbe35 and the Rebbe Maharash36 explain that before prayer, a person is like a platform, which is an upraised and separate entity, set off from its surroundings. Similarly, such a person proudly holds himself apart; he is an entity unto himself.

וּתְפִלָּה הוּא לְשׁוֹן הִתְחַבְּרוּת,

The root of the Hebrew word for prayer, tefillah, means “connection.”37

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַתְּפִלָּה מִתְקַשֵּׁר הָאָדָם בֶּאֱלֹקוּת.

Through prayer, an individual develops a personal bond with G‑dliness that eliminates the undesirable trait of pride.

וְסֵדֶר הַתְּפִלָּה הוּא, שֶׁמִּקֹּדֶם צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת הַקֵּרוּב כְּלָלִי

The order of prayer is that first, feelings of general closeness to G‑d are engendered. The person is aroused spiritually, but in an undefined and nonspecific manner. As such, it

(הַמְשָׁכָה חִיצוֹנִית)

(parallels a hamshachah chitzonis, an external influence),

[כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָאֵר עִנְיָנוֹ בְּהַמַאֲמָר],

[whose unique nature is explained in the maamar of the Rebbe Rayatz].1

As explained above (sec. 3), the terms “external” and “internal” are relative. An influence that is considered internal on one level can be considered external when compared to a deeper level of closeness. Thus, prayer can be seen as a process of internalization when compared to the person’s state before prayer. On the other hand, it is considered external when compared to the person’s conduct as a whole, as the maamar proceeds to explain.

וְאַחַר כָּךְ נַעֲשֶׂה הַקֵּרוּב פְּנִימִי,

The connection to the soul achieved through prayer – although only external – enables an inner closeness to be achieved afterwards.

שֶׁהָאָדָם מִתְקַשֵּׁר לֶאֱלֹקוּת בְּאֹפֶן כָּזֶה שֶׁמַּמְשִׁיךְ אֱלֹקוּת בְּכָל עִנְיָנָיו הַגַּשְׁמִיִּים.

The person connects himself to G‑dliness in a manner in which G‑dliness is drawn down into all of his material affairs.

In the previous sections, the maamar explains that hashpaah chitzonis, a transmission of external influence, prepares the recipient, the mekabel, to receive hashpaah pnimiis, an internal influence, by revealing a lofty dimension of the mashpia. This broadens the horizons of the mekabel and sensitizes him to internalize the influence that the mashpia will provide.

The maamar proceeds to explain a parallel with regard to prayer. The inspiration a person feels during prayer is makif, i.e., it is not his fundamental self. It affects only his thoughts and feelings, powers that are peripheral to his core being. For that reason, such inspiration is often transitory, i.e., it comes and goes. The person’s ordinary day-to-day conduct – how he relates to people and situations in an ongoing manner – is what reflects who he truly is, his p’nimiyus. Nevertheless, the intellectual and emotional arousal he feels during prayer trickles into his operative consciousness – his p’nimiyus – and changes the way he conducts himself throughout the day, enabling him to carry out his ordinary activities in a holy manner.

וְיוּבָן זֶה [מַה שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַתְּפִלָּה בִּתְחִלַּת הַיּוֹם בִּיכָלְתּוֹ לְקַשֵּׁר כָּל הָעִנְיָנִים הַגַּשְׁמִיִּים וְלַעֲשׂוֹתָם כֵּלִים לֶאֱלֹקוּת]

This concept, [that prayer at the beginning of the day enables one to connect all of his material affairs to G‑d and make them vessels for G‑dliness,] can be understood

עַל פִּי מַה שֶּׁבֵּאֵר הבעש"ט עִנְיַן אִסּוּר שְׁאִילַת שָׁלוֹם קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה,

based on the Baal Shem Tov’s explanation38 concerning the prohibition against greeting someone before prayer.

According to Jewish Law,39 it is forbidden to perform any ordinary mundane activities – including greeting another person – before prayer. The Baal Shem Tov explains that this prohibition stems from the fact that a person’s initial thought(s) in the morning influence his behavior during the entire day. Therefore, he should be careful to focus his thoughts on holiness, not on ordinary, worldly matters like social pleasantries.

One might think that the emphasis on the importance of one’s initial thoughts reflects a simple process of causation; that one thought leads to another. If one’s first thoughts are focused on G‑dliness, it is natural for similar thoughts to follow.40

While this is true, there is also a deeper process involved. True, the influence of these initial thought(s) is only makif – they do not reflect a systematic process of development that would enable a person to internalize them. Nevertheless, they are invested with intense spiritual power and, accordingly, exert a powerful effect on his subsequent conduct.

שֶׁהוּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ מַה שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּכִתְבֵי האריז"ל בְּעִנְיַן כִּבּוּד אָח הַגָּדוֹל,

This parallels an explanation in the works of the AriZal41 regarding the obligation to honor one’s eldest brother.42

שֶׁהוּא מִפְּנֵי דְּרוּחָא הוּא דְּשָׁבַק בְּגַוֵי',

The AriZal explains that the obligation exists because of the father’s spirit vested in him,

שֶׁבַּבֵּן הָא' יֵשׁ רוּחַ הָאָב יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁאָר הַבָּנִים,

i.e., there is more of the father’s spirit vested in the eldest son than in any of the other sons;

וְכָל שְׁאָר הַבָּנִים נוֹטְלִים מֵרוּחָא דְּאָב עַל יְדֵי בֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן.

and all the other sons derive the spirit of the father through the eldest son.

וּמִצַּד רוּחַ הָאָב שֶׁבָּאָח הַגָּדוֹל

Therefore, because of the spirit of the father that is vested in the eldest brother,

מְחֻיָּבִים הֵם לְכַבְּדוֹ

his siblings are obligated to honor him

כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם מְחֻיָּבִים בִּכְבוֹד הָאָב

similar to the way they are obligated to honor their father.

[שֶׁלָּכֵן לְמֵדִין דִּין זֶה מֵהַפָּסוּק כַּבֵּד אֶת אָבִיךָ דַּוְקָא,

[Indeed, this law is derived from the verse,43 “Honor your father.”

The Hebrew original reads כבד את אביך. The word את is seemingly superfluous; however, our Sages interpret it as referring to one’s eldest brother.44

כִּי כְּבוֹד אָח הַגָּדוֹל נִכְלָל בְּכִבּוּד אָב].

For honoring one’s eldest brother is included in the mitzvah to honor his father.]

וּכְמוֹ כֵן הוּא בְּנוֹגֵעַ לְמַחֲשָׁבָה דִּבּוּר וּמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁל הָאָדָם בְּמֶשֶׁךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם,

Similarly, explains the Baal Shem Tov, with regard to an individual’s thought, speech, and action;

שֶׁכֻּלָּם מִסְתַּעֲפִין וְנִמְשָׁכִין אַחַר הַדִּבּוּר הָרִאשׁוֹן,

all of them branch out, and are drawn after, the first words he speaks when he awakens.

וְלָכֵן דִּבּוּר [וְכֵן מַחֲשָׁבָה וּמַעֲשֶׂה] הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל הָאָדָם בְּקוּמוֹ מִשְׁנָתוֹ צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בַּעֲבוֹדַת ה',

Therefore, a person’s first words [– and similarly, his first thought and action –] when he rises from sleep should be an expression of his service to G‑d.

For this reason, Chassidus45 places such importance on the recitation of Modeh Ani when one awakens in the morning.

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה מַמְשִׁיךְ קְדֻשָּׁה בְּכָל הַמַּחֲשָׁבָה דִּבּוּר וּמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁלּוֹ בְּמֶשֶׁךְ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ.

In this manner, he draws holiness down into all of his thoughts, speech, and actions throughout the entire day.

Here, too, there is an ongoing progression from the external (makif) to the internal (p’nimi). When a person first rises, his mind is not focused. Nevertheless, his thoughts at that time have an effect on him as he internalizes his connection to G‑d through prayer. However, as explained above, from a deeper perspective, prayer itself is also external, for it is the person’s ongoing conduct that reflects his inner being.

וְהִנֵּה דַּוְקָא עַל יְדֵי זֶה שֶׁהַקֵּרוּב פְּנִימִי שֶׁלּוֹ לֶאֱלֹקוּת (בְּעֵת הַתְּפִלָּה)

Now, precisely because the closeness to G‑d (in prayer) develops

הוּא בְּאֹפֶן כָּזֶה שֶׁמַּמְשִׁיךְ אוֹר אֱלֹקִי בְּעִנְיָנָיו הַגַּשְׁמִיִּים

in a manner that draws down G‑dly light in all of his material concerns,

עַד שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָם כֵּלִים לֶאֱלֹקוּת

to the extent that he makes them mediums for G‑dliness,

מַגִּיעִים לְמַעְלָה יוֹתֵר,

it is possible to reach a higher level of G‑dliness.

The person is able to reveal essential G‑dly energy both within himself and also within the situations in which he interacts. This Divine energy transcends not only the G‑dly light that is an or p’nimi, but also the G‑dly light that is an or makif.

Here, we see an interrelation of the three levels: p’nimi, makif, and atzmi. One’s everyday activities reflect his p’nimiyus, his inner being. However, often, they are materially oriented. Prayer, though it affects the person only in a manner that is makif, elevates the person and enables him to conduct himself in a manner that reflects his essential G‑dly nature (his etzem).

כַּיָּדוּעַ בְּעִנְיַן וְרָב תְּבוּאוֹת בְּכֹחַ שׁוֹר.

This is as reflected in the well-known interpretation46 of the verse: “Many crops come through the strength of an ox.”47

As explained in that source, the source of a person’s animal soul – which parallels an ox – is very lofty. Nevertheless, as a result of the various processes of Divine concealment, the animal soul descends and becomes materially oriented. Man’s Divine service refines the animal soul and reveals the essential Divine intent in the soul’s descent to the material realm. These efforts enable the animal soul to yield “many crops,” i.e., to elevate many sparks of G‑dliness, in the person’s efforts to make this world a dwelling for G‑d.

The daily pattern of a person’s spiritual development thus follows the sequence described above (sec. 1) with regard to a teacher and a student. Just as the students’ exposure to the higher dimensions of the teacher’s personality – the or makif – causes them to be overawed and thus enables them to become fit mediums to grasp the lessons he teaches, so too, the or makif of tefillah introduces bittul into one’s personality and, thus, sets the tone for his Divine service throughout the entire day.



Summary

The previous sections explained that hashpaah chitzonis, a transmission of external influence, prepares the recipient, the mekabel, to receive hashpaah pnimiis, internal influence, by revealing a lofty dimension of the mashpia. This broadens the horizons of the mekabel and sensitizes him to internalize the influence that the mashpia will provide.

This section explains that a parallel to the above concepts exists in our service of G‑d in prayer. Prayer is a process of connection through which a person develops a bond with G‑d. The order of prayer is that first, feelings of general closeness to G‑d are engendered. The person is aroused spiritually, but in an undefined and nonspecific manner. As such, prayer parallels a hamshachah chitzonis, an external influence.

The connection to the soul achieved through prayer – although it is only external – enables an inner closeness to be achieved afterwards throughout the day. The person connects himself to G‑dliness in a manner in which G‑dliness is drawn down into all of his material affairs.

This concept, that prayer at the beginning of the day enables one to connect all of his material affairs to G‑d and make them vessels for G‑dliness, can be understood based on the Baal Shem Tov’s explanation concerning the prohibition against greeting someone before prayer. The Baal Shem Tov explains that a person’s first words [– and similarly, his first thought and action –] when he rises from sleep should be an expression of his service to G‑d. Although the influence of these initial thought(s) is only makif – they do not reflect a systematic process of development that would enable a person to internalize them. Nevertheless, they are invested with intense spiritual power and, accordingly, exert a powerful effect on his subsequent conduct.

In a similar way, prayer, whose influence is makif, affects a person’s daily conduct which is an expression of his p’nimiyus, elevating it and enabling it to express his essential connection to G‑d, his etzem.




— 5 —

וּכְמוֹ כֵן יוּבָן גַּם בְּעִנְיַן הַמְשָׁכַת הַזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין בְּמַלְכוּת

A similar pattern is followed in the transmission of influence from Z’eir Anpin, the six emotive attributes of Atzilus, to Malchus,

(יִחוּד זָ"א וְנוּקְבָא),

(the unity of Z’eir Anpin and Nukvah, the Sefirah of Malchus).

שֶׁהַסֵּדֶר בָּזֶה הוּא (כנ"ל סְעִיף א)

(As explained in sec. 1), the order is that

אֲשֶׁר מִקֹּדֶם צְרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת הַהַמְשָׁכָה חִיצוֹנִית

first there must be a hamshachah chitzonis (an external influence)

וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית.

(an external influence) followed then by a hamshachah p’nimis, (an internal influence).

דְּגַם הַהַמְשָׁכָה חִיצוֹנִית הִיא הַמְשָׁכָה נַעֲלֵית בְּיוֹתֵר

True, the hamshachah chitzonis also represents a very lofty level of influence

(עַל דֶּרֶךְ הנ"ל סְעִיפִים ב-ג),

(as explained above in secs. 2 and 3).

שֶׁהִיא בְּחִינַת מַקִּיף שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת וְכֵלִים

It is an encompassing light, above the structure of the Spiritual Cosmos, Seder HaHishtalshelus, and the keilim, the mediums through which G‑dliness is enclothed and transmitted to lower levels.

(וְלָכֵן אֵינָהּ נִקְלֶטֶת בִּסְפִירַת הַמַּלְכוּת בִּפְנִימִיּוּתָהּ

(For this reason, hamshachah chitzonis is not accepted and internalized by the Sefirah of Malchus

לְפִי שֶׁהִיא לְמַעְלָה מֵהַגְבָּלַת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁלָּהּ).

because it is above the limitation of its keilim).

Even so, as explained above, drawing down such a light is an important preparatory step because it introduces Malchus to a bittul that it would not be able to reach on its own.

אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ הִיא בְּחִינָה חִיצוֹנִית,

Nevertheless, at this level, the hamshachah is external;

from the mashpia’s perspective, it is

שֶׁהִיא רַק הֶאָרָה בִּלְבַד.

only a ray,

a glimmer of his personality, but not his inner self. Moreover, from the standpoint of the mekabel as well, it is not internalized. He does not receive anything substantial.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן עַל יְדֵי הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית,

By contrast, through a hamshachah p’nimis

שֶׁמִּתְקַבֶּלֶת בְּמַלְכוּת בִּפְנִימִיּוּתָהּ,

which can be internalized by Malchus,

מַגִּיעִים לְמַעְלָה יוֹתֵר

it is possible for both the mashpia and the mekabel to reach a loftier level,

(מִבְּחִינַת הַמַּקִּיף).

(one that surpasses the encompassing light), i.e., the loftier level comes about as a result of hamshachah atzmis.

Seemingly, this statement is paradoxical. Malchus is the lowest of the Sefiros and can only internalize Divine light that has undergone a series of contractions.

וְהָעִנְיָן הוּא,

The explanation of the concept is as follows:

דְּשֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת הוּא לְמַעְלָה מִשֹּׁרֶשׁ זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין.

Although Malchus is lower than Z’eir Anpin, the source of Malchus is loftier than the source of Z’eir Anpin.48

דְּשֹׁרֶשׁ הַזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין הוּא מֵחִיצוֹנִיּוּת הַכֶּתֶר

The source of Z’eir Anpin is in the external dimension of Kesser, Arich Anpin,

וְשֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת הוּא מִפְּנִימִיּוּת הַכֶּתֶר.

while Malchus is rooted in the inner dimension of Kesser, Atik Yomin.

וְהַגַּם שֶׁגַּם בִּזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין אִתְמַר

Although concerning Z’eir Anpin, the Zohar49 relates:

זָ"א בְּעַתִּיקָא אָחִיד וְתַּלְיָא,

“Z’eir Anpin is united with and dependent on Atik.

Atik is identified with the inner dimension of Kesser. Thus, this appears to be a contradiction to the above statement that the source of Z’eir Anpin is rooted only in the external dimension of Kesser. Nevertheless,

הֲרֵי יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין הַכַּוָנָה בָּזֶה עַל עַתִּיק מַמָּשׁ

it is well known that the intent is not that Z’eir Anpin is one with the actual, inner dimension of Atik,

(רַק חִיצוֹנִיּוֹת עַתִּיק).

(but merely withthe external dimension of Atik that finds expression in the external dimension of Kesser, Arich Anpin).

Z’eir Anpin is rooted in Atik, because Atik is the source of all existence. However, Z’eir Anpin is a defined quality and thus does not reflect the inner dimension of Atik.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן שֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת הִיא בִּפְנִימִיּוּת עַתִּיק,

Malchus, by contrast, is rooted in the inner dimension of Atik,

רֵישָׁא דְלֹא אִתְיַידַע.

“the head that is unknowable,”1

a level of G‑dliness that is utterly simple and knows no limitation. Knowledge is only capable of grasping a defined entity. The inner dimension of Atik defies all definition and is, hence, unknowable.

Chassidus often offers the analogy of a stone on top of a wall: the higher the stone, the further away it will fall from the wall.

To explain: “The head that is unknowable” refers to a level of G‑dliness that is utterly simple; it cannot be defined in any particular mode or manner. Z’eir Anpin refers to the emotive attributes of G‑dliness. These emotive attributes – somewhat like man’s emotions – are defined qualities, structured in a particular pattern. As such, they cannot extend beyond those patterns.

Because Malchus is rooted in the inner dimensions of Atik, it reflects the undefined simplicity of that rung. This is reflected in the fact that Malchus is not limited to the framework of existence in which it is found but brings into being new worlds, i.e., levels of existence that are not within the structure of the prevailing pattern.

To illustrate these spiritual concepts through a comparison with their reflection within the human personality: Z’eir Anpin is paralleled by our emotions and Malchus by the power of communication. Both emotions and communication reflect the manner in which we relate to others. Nevertheless, from the standpoint of emotions, we relate to others as we see them, as they affect us and give us an opportunity to express ourselves. Thus, the emotions reflect a person’s inner self. To cite an example, when Avraham our Patriarch had no guests to whom to show hospitality, it caused him pain.50 Since he was a generous person, his nature pushed him to do good. Therefore, just as the expression of his nature through doing good brought him pleasure, he felt discomfort when his attribute of kindness was unable to express itself.51

On the surface, the power of communication reflects a lower dimension of the soul, relating only to the dimensions of his being that he shares with others. Nevertheless, the source of the power of communication is loftier as reflected by its potential to take a person beyond his own identity and enable him to communicate with another individual.

How is such communication possible? Seemingly, each individual is defined by his own identity. Thus, two people would seem to be skew lines that will never intersect. Nevertheless, within every person’s soul there exists a level that is not defined by his own “I”; there are no distinctions that separate one person from another. And as a result, he can step beyond himself and communicate with someone else.52

In a similar way, the simple, undefined quality of Atik is reflected in Malchus.

אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם,

Nevertheless, precisely because its source is undefined, Malchus can be passive and not reveal its inner potential.

מִצַּד יְרִידָתָהּ לְמַטָּה הֲרֵי שָׁרְשָׁהּ הוּא בְּהֶעְלֵם,

Thus, as Malchus descends to lower rungs, the lofty nature of its source is hidden

וְגִלּוּי שֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת הוּא עַל יְדֵי זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין דַּוְקָא,

and it is Z’eir Anpin specifically which brings about the revelation of the higher quality of the source of Malchus.53

Since, as mentioned above, Z’eir Anpin is characterized by revelation, when Z’eir Anpin bonds with Malchus,

וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה גּוּפָא סְפִירַת הַמַּלְכוּת מִתְעַלֵּית לְמַעְלָה מִזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין.

through that process, the unlimited dimension of the source of Malchus is revealed. And as a result, the Sefirah of Malchus becomes elevated above Z’eir Anpin.

וְזֶהוּ עִנְיַן סֵדֶר הַהַמְשָׁכָה,

The order of hamshachah is as follows:

דִּתְחִלָּה צְרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת הַמְשָׁכַת הַזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין בַּמַּלְכוּת בְּאֹפֶן שֶׁיֻּרְגַּשׁ עִנְיַן הַזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמַּלְכוּת

First, Z’eir Anpin must be drawn down into Malchus in a manner in which it is apparent that Z’eir Anpin is higher than Malchus, for Malchus must appreciate the advantage of revelation

(שֶׁדַּוְקָא עַל יָדוֹ הוּא גִּלּוּי שֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת).

(for only in this manner is the source of Malchus revealed).

Otherwise, Malchus could stay in a dormant and hidden state, without ever revealing its inner potential.

אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם,

Nevertheless, at this stage in the relationship between Z’eir Anpin and Malchus,

מִכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַהַמְשָׁכָה הִיא מִצַּד (מַעֲלַת) זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין,

since the influence is being conveyed because of (the positive characteristics of) Z’eir Anpin,

יֵשׁ לָהּ שַׁיָּיכוּת לַהִשְׁתַּלְשְׁלוּת

it still relates to the chainlike structure that prevails within the Spiritual Cosmos, Seder HaHishtalshelus,

i.e., it reflects the revealed dimensions of G‑dliness and not His Essence,

[עַל דֶּרֶךְ הנ"ל (סְעִיף ג) בְּעִנְיַן י"ג ת"ד].

[as explained above (sec. 3) with regard to the thirteen features of the beard,] which transcend the prevailing patterns within the chainlike structure that characterize Seder HaHishtalshelus, but, nevertheless, do have some connection to that structure.

וְדַוְקָא עַל יְדֵי הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית שֶׁמִּתְקַבֶּלֶת בְּמַלְכוּת בִּפְנִימִיּוּתָהּ,

Only through the hamshachah p’nimis that is received within the inner dimension of Malchus

הֲרֵי מִכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמְשָׁכָה זוֹ הִיא מִצַּד (מַעֲלַת) הַמַּלְכוּת,

since, at that point, the hamshachah comes because of (the positive characteristics of) Malchus; hence,

הֲרֵי מַגִּיעִים עַל יְדֵי זֶה לְשֹׁרֶשׁ הַמַּלְכוּת שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִשֹּׁרֶשׁ זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין,

– in this manner, it is possible to access the source of Malchus that is loftier than the source of Z’eir Anpin.

וְעַד שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת מַשְׁפִּיעַ בִּזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין,

At this level, Malchus becomes a mashpia, transmitting influence to Z’eir Anpin, sharing its essential, unlimited dimension,

אֵשֶׁת חַיִל עֲטֶרֶת בַּעְלָהּ.

as reflected in the verse,54 “A woman of valor (Malchus) is the crown of – i.e., is loftier than – her husband” (Z’eir Anpin).



Summary

In this section, the maamar explains how the pattern described above is reflected in the transmission of influence between the Sefiros, i.e., from Z’eir Anpin to Malchus. First, there must be a hamshachah chitzonis through whichexternal influence is conveyed. That is followed by a hamshachah p’nimis which conveys internal influence.

True, the hamshachah chitzonis also represents a very lofty level of influence. Nevertheless, it is only a ray, an external dimension of Z’eir Anpin. Through a hamshachah p’nimis which can be internalized by Malchus, both Z’eir Anpin, the mashpia, and Malchus, the mekabel, are lifted upto a loftier level. In this process, the source of Malchus that is more elevated than the source of Z’eir Anpin is revealed.

To explain: Z’eir Anpin is characterized by revelation. Malchus, by contrast, is rooted in the inner dimension of Atik, “the head that is unknowable.” Nevertheless, precisely because its source is undefined, Malchus can be passive and not reveal its inner potential.

Thus, as Malchus descends to lower rungs, the lofty nature of its source is hidden and it is Z’eir Anpin which brings about the revelation of the higher quality of the source of Malchus.

Through the process of Z’eir Anpin bonding with Malchus, the unlimited dimension of the source of Malchus is revealed. At this point, the Sefirah of Malchus becomes elevated above Z’eir Anpin.

In the initial stage of the relationship between Z’eir Anpin and Malchus, since the influence is being conveyed because of the positive characteristics of Z’eir Anpin, it still relates to the chainlike structure that prevails within the SpiritualCosmos, i.e., it reflects the revealed dimensions of G‑dliness and not His Essence. It is through the hamshachah p’nimis that is received within the inner dimension of Malchus – at which point, the hamshachah comes because of the positive characteristics of Malchus, that it is possible to access the source of Malchus that is loftier than the source of Z’eir Anpin. At this level, Malchus becomes a mashpia, transmitting influence to Z’eir Anpin, sharing its essential, unlimited dimension.




— 6 —

In the previous section, the maamar highlighted how the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus uncovers the essential energy that lies within Malchus.

To explain: The defining characteristic of Z’eir Anpin is revelation. It has the potential to bring qualities from a hidden state to a state of revelation. Malchus possesses an essential power that transcends all levels of revelation. Nevertheless, that essential power can – and often does – remain hidden and dormant. For the essential quality vested in Malchus to be revealed, Z’eir Anpin and Malchus must unite.

Since Z’eir Anpin and Malchus are opposite in nature, that union is out of character. Initially, their divergent natures prevent bonding from taking place and a sequential process is necessary to bring the two together:

First, Z’eir Anpin (the mashpia) must realize the essential potential possessed by Malchus (the mekabel)and extend itself toward Malchus to bring that potential to the surface. To sensitize Malchus to the positive quality of revelation, Z’eir Anpin radiates an or makkif that is beyond the capacities of Malchus to internalize. Nevertheless, the exposure to this light makes Malchus aware that Z’eir Anpin possesses a positive quality – revelation – that Malchus lacks. As a result, it becomes batel to Z’eir Anpin in order to receive that positive quality. That bittul creates the foundation for a bond that makes possible inner communication. Such communication awakens the positive potential possessed by Malchus55 and enables its essential power to surface.

וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁזֶּהוּ גַּם כֵּן הַבֵּאוּר בָּזֶה שֶׁמֵּבִיא (בִּתְחִלַּת הַמַּאֲמָר)

On the basis of the above, it is possible to explain that this is the reason why (the opening phrase of the maamar of the Rebbe Rayatz) mentions

ב' קְצָווֹת בְּעִנְיַן הַשַּׁבָּת,

two extremes with regard to Shabbos.

דְּהַשַׁבָּת נִקְרֵאת מַלְכָּה

On one hand, Shabbos is called the queen,

שֶׁהִיא סְפִירַת הַמַּלְכוּת

referring to the Sefirah of Malchus.

שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִכָּל הַסְּפִירוֹת וּמְקַבֶּלֶת מֵהֶן,

On the other hand, Malchus is lower than all the Sefiros and receives from them,

כְּמַאֲמַר סִיהֲרָא לֵית לָהּ מִגַּרְמֵה כְּלוּם

as reflected by the Zohar’s56 statement: “The moon – an analogy for Malchushas nothing of its own.”

The moon does not generate light; it merely reflects the light of the sun. Similarly, Malchus does no more than communicate the influence it receives from the Sefiros that are above it.

[וּכְמַאֲמַר רז"ל (גַּבֵּי שַׁבָּת) דְּדַוְקָא מִי שֶּׁטָּרַח בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת יֹאכַל בְּשַׁבָּת],

[This pattern is reflected by our Sages’ comment57 (with regard to Shabbos), “He who labors in preparation for Shabboson erev Shabbos, will eat on Shabbos.

As mentioned above, Shabbos, the seventh day of the week,refers to Malchus, the seventh sefirah. Food – spiritual energy in the analogue – is not prepared on Shabbos, but on erev Shabbos.

In a broader sense, erev Shabbos can be understood as referring not only to Friday, but to all the days of the week, because all the days of the week prepare for Shabbos.58 The other six days of the week refer to the six higher emotive qualities of Z’eir Anpin. They “prepare for Shabbos,” i.e., draw down vitality for Malchus.

וּלְאִידָךְ הֲרֵי כֻּלְּהוּ יוֹמִין מִתְבָּרְכִין מֵהַשַּׁבָּת,

On the other hand, all the days of the week are blessed from Shabbos,59 i.e., Malchus.

הַיְנוּ דְּלֹא זוֹ בִּלְבַד שֶׁשַּׁבָּת מְקֻדָּשׁ מִכָּל הַיָּמִים,

Not only is Shabbos holier than all the other days of the week,

אֶלָּא עוֹד זֹאת, שֶׁהִיא מַשְׁפִּיעָה בָּהֶם.

moreover, it elicits blessing for them, for the essential power present in Malchus generates new energy.

אַךְ הָעִנְיָן הוּא,

The matter can be explained as follows:

דְז' יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ הֵם שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַבִּנְיָן,

The seven days of the week refer to the “Seven Days of Creation.”

דְּשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַחֹל הֵם בִּזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין

The six weekdays refer to Z’eir Anpin,

כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה הֲוָיָ' אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ

as it is written,60 “In six days, G‑d created the heavens and the earth.”

The Hebrew phrase literally means “Six days made….” The prefix “ב” which means “in” was omitted. The six days refer to the six sublime emotive attributes of the realm of Atzilus. They served as the active agents in creation.

וְאִיתָא בַּזֹּהַר כָּל יוֹמָא וְיוֹמָא עֲבִיד עֲבִידָתֵי',

Thus the Zohar states,61 “Each day performed its service,” i.e., each attribute brought into being the particular type of created beings that were brought into existence on their corresponding day.62

וְשַׁבָּת הִיא מַלְכוּת (כנ"ל).

Shabbos refers to Malchus (as explained above).

וְלָכֵן, מִצַּד זֶה שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת יָרְדָה לְמַטָּה,

Accordingly, since Malchus descends to lower levels,

וּבִפְרָט מִצַּד יְרִידָתָהּ לִבְרִיאָה-יְצִירָה-עֲשִׂיָּה

particularly as it descends to the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah,

דְּרַגְלֶיהָ יוֹרְדוֹת כוּ',

to which can be applied the verse,63 “its legs descend towards death.”64

הַשַּׁבָּת (מַלְכוּת) מְקַבֶּלֶת מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַחֹל (זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין),

Shabbos (Malchus) receives from the six days of the week (Z’eir Anpin).

שֶׁהוּא עִנְיַן עֲבוֹדַת הַבֵּרוּרִים (בֵּרוּר הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַבַּהֲמִית וְכָל הַדְּבָרִים הַגַּשְׁמִיִּים) דְּשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַחֹל.

It receives influence generated by the Jews’ Divine service of refinement (of the animal soul and all the material entities with which they interact) in the six days of the week.

אָמְנָם לְאַחֲרֵי (וְעַל יְדֵי) עֲבוֹדָה זוֹ

However, after (and through) this service

נַעֲשֶׂה (בְּשַׁבָּת) עֲלִיַּת הַמַּלְכוּת מִבְּרִיאָה-יְצִירָה-עֲשִׂיָּה עַד עֲלִיָּה לְשָׁרְשָׁהּ וּמְקוֹרָהּ,

(on Shabbos), Malchus rises from the worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah to its root and source65 in Atzilus.

וְאָז מִתְעַלֵּית לְמַעְלָה מִזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין

Then, it ascends to a level that is loftier than Z’eir Anpin

עַד שֶׁמַּשְׁפַּעַת גַּם לְכָל שֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַחֹל (זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין),

to the extent that Shabbos (Malchus) draws down influence to the six days of the week (the attributes of Z’eir Anpin). As the Zohar states,5

דְּמִינֵיה מִתְבָּרְכִין כֻּלְּהוּ יוֹמִין.

“From it, all the days of the week are blessed.”



Summary

After explaining the spiritual process involved in the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus, the maamar shifts its focus to the opening phrase of the Rebbe Rayatz’s maamar that mentions the Shabbos.

Shabbos is identified with the Sefirah of Malchus. On one hand, Malchus is lower than all the Sefiros and receives influence from them. On the other hand, all the days of the week are blessed from Shabbos. Not only is Shabbos holier than all the other days of the week, it elicits blessing for them, for the essential power present in Malchus generates new energy.

The six weekdays refer to the six attributes of Z’eir Anpin. During the six weekdays, Malchus receives from Z’eir Anpin, because initially, Malchus descends and its source is hidden. Through the preparation for Shabbos during the weekdays, Malchus is elevated and the power of its source revealed. Hence, it serves as the source of blessing for all the days of the week, the attributes of Z’eir Anpin.




— 7 —

וְזֶהוּ לְכָה דּוֹדִי לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת נְקַבְּלָה,

On this basis, we can understand the meaning of the phrase, “Come my beloved to greet the bride; let us welcome the Shabbos.”

שֶׁהוּא בַּקָּשַׁת נִשְׁמוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַמְשָׁכַת הַזְּעֵיר אַנְפִּין בְּמַלְכוּת.

This phrase expresses the request of the Jewish people that there be a transmission of influence from Z’eir Anpin to Malchus.

דִּתְחִלַּת הַהַמְשָׁכָה הִיא לְכָה דּוֹדִי לִקְרַאת כַּלָּה,

The first stage of the transmission is “Come my beloved to greet the bride,”

הֲלִיכָה בִּלְבַד,

coming, i.e., making only an initial advance, which merely establishes an external connection.

וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת נְקַבְּלָה,

Nevertheless, through this, it is possible to “welcome – literally, “receive – the Shabbos,” i.e.,

שֶׁהוּא הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית, פְּנֵי שַׁבָּת,

to accept and internalize the hamshachah p’nimiyus. it conveys the Hebrew words p’nei Shabbos can be translated as “the face,” i.e., the inner dimension of the Shabbos.”66

שֶׁמִתְגַּלָּה בְּחִינַת פְּנִימִיּוּת הַמַּלְכוּת

In a spiritual sense, that means that the inner aspects of Malchus are revealed,

וְעַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִיא מֻשְׁרֶשֶׁת בָּעַתִּיק.

including the source of Malchus as it is rooted in Atik, the inner dimension of Kesser.

וְלָכֵן נְקַבְּלָה לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים,

Therefore, a plural form of the word “welcome,” i.e., “received,” is used,

שֶׁגַּם זְעֵיר אַנְפִּין מְקַבֵּל מִ(שֹׁרֶשׁ הַ)מַּלְכוּת,

for not only Malchus, but also Z’eir Anpin receives from (the source of) Malchus.67

אֵשֶׁת חַיִל עֲטֶרֶת בַּעְלָהּ.

Through this process, “A woman of valor is the crown of her husband,”

i.e., Atik, the essential dimension of G‑dliness, which is the source of the woman (Malchus) and which surpasses both Z’eir Anpin and Malchus, is revealed through this union.

וּכְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה בִּזְעֵיר אַנְפִּין וּמַלְכוּת,

Just as this is so in the spiritual realms regarding the union of Z’eir Anpin and Malchus,

עַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה הוּא בְּכָל מַשְׁפִּיעַ וּמְקַבֵּל,

so too, a similar process occurs in the relationship between every mashpia and mekabel.

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַמְּקַבֵּל נִתְוַסֵּף בְּהַמַּשְׁפִּיעַ,

Through interaction with the mekabel, the mashpia reaches a higher level,

וּמִתַּלְמִידַי יוֹתֵר מִכֻּלָּם.

as the Talmud states,68 “From my students, I received more than from all others.”

וּבִפְרָט בְּחָתָן וְכַלָּה לְמַטָּה,

In particular, this is true regarding the union of a bride and groom on the physical plane.

שֶׁדַּוְקָא עַל יְדֵי הַהַמְשָׁכָה פְּנִימִית, הִנֵּה אֵשֶׁת חַיִל עֲטֶרֶת בַּעְלָהּ,

Specifically, through the transmission of inner influence, “a woman of valor is the crown of her husband.”

וְהַכֹּל הָיָה מִן הֶעָפָר.

Similarly, “everything came from earth,”69

as explained in Chassidus,70 G‑d’s essential power was invested in the earth, the lowest level. Hence, all existence came forth from it,

שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה נִמְשָׁךְ כֹּחַ הָאֵין סוֹף

because through this process, G‑d’s infinite power is transmitted

בְּדוֹר יְשָׁרִים יְבֹרַךְ בְּבָנִים וּבְנֵי בָּנִים עוֹסְקִים בְּתוֹרָה וּמִצְווֹת.

in blessed and righteous generations with children and grandchildren occupied in Torah and mitzvos.



Summary

On this basis, we can understand the meaning of the phrase, “Come my beloved to greet the bride; let us welcome the Shabbos.” This phrase expresses the request of the Jewish people that there be a transmission of influence from Z’eir Anpin to Malchus.

The first stage of the transmission is “Come my beloved to greet the bride,” i.e., coming, making only an initial advance, which merely establishes an external connection. Nevertheless, through this, it is possible to “welcome – literally “receive – the Shabbos,” i.e., to accept and internalize the hamshachah p’nimiyus it conveys.

Through this process, “A woman of valor is the crown of her husband,” i.e., Atik, the essential dimension of G‑dliness, which is the source of the woman (Malchus) and which surpasses both Z’eir Anpin and Malchus, is revealed through this union.

A similar process occurs in the relationship between every mashpia and mekabel. Through interaction with the mekabel, the mashpia reaches a higher level. This cosmic pattern is reflected in the union of a bride and groom on the physical plane.