Chapter 31

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2"See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,   ברְאֵ֖ה קָרָ֣אתִי בְשֵׁ֑ם בְּצַלְאֵ֛ל בֶּן־אוּרִ֥י בֶן־ח֖וּר לְמַטֵּ֥ה יְהוּדָֽה:
I have called by name: to perform My work Bezalel.   קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם –: לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתִּי – אֶת בְּצַלְאֵל:
3and I have imbued him with the spirit of God, with wisdom, with insight, with knowledge, and with [talent for] all manner of craftsmanship   גוָֽאֲמַלֵּ֥א אֹת֖וֹ ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֑ים בְּחָכְמָ֛ה וּבִתְבוּנָ֥ה וּבְדַ֖עַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָֽה:
with wisdom: [I.e.,] what a person hears from others and learns. -[from Sifrei Deut. 1:13]   חכמה: מַה שֶּׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ מֵאֲחֵרִים וְלָמֵד:
with insight: With his intellect he understands other things based on what he learned. -[from Sifrei Deut. 1:13]   תבונה: מֵבִין דָּבָר מִלִּבּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרִים שֶׁלָּמַד:
with knowledge: The holy spirit.   דעת: רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
4to do master weaving, to work with gold, with silver, and with copper,   דלַחְשֹׁ֖ב מַֽחֲשָׁבֹ֑ת לַֽעֲשׂ֛וֹת בַּזָּהָ֥ב וּבַכֶּ֖סֶף וּבַנְּחֽשֶׁת:
to do master weaving: Heb. לַחְשֹׁב מַחִשָׁבֹת, the weaving work of a master weaver.   לַחְשֹׁב מַֽחֲשָׁבֹת: אֲרִיגַת מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב:
5with the craft of stones for setting and with the craft of wood, to do every [manner of] work.   הוּבַֽחֲר֥שֶׁת אֶ֛בֶן לְמַלֹּ֖את וּבַֽחֲר֣שֶׁת עֵ֑ץ לַֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת בְּכָל־מְלָאכָֽה:
with the craft: Heb. וּבַחִרשֶׁת, a term denoting a craft, like “a skilled craftsman (חָרָשׁ) ” (Isa. 40:20). Onkelos, however, explained [this term] but varied [the wording] in their explanation [i.e., in the explanation of the two mentions of חִרשֶׁ. וּבַחִרשֶׁת אֶבֶן he rendered וּבְאוּמָנוּת אִבַן טָבָא, and בַחִרשֶׁת עֵץ he rendered וּבְנַגָּרוּת אָעָא, because a craftsman of stones is called אוּמָן, craftsman, whereas a craftsman of wood is called נַגַָָּר, carpenter.   וּבַֽחֲרשֶׁת: לְשׁוֹן אָמָּנוּת, כְּמוֹ חָרָשׁ חָכָם (ישעיהו מ'), וְאֻנְקְלוֹס פֵּרֵשׁ, וְשִׁנָּה בְּפֵרוּשָׁן, שֶׁחָרַשׁ אֲבָנִים קָרוּי אָמָּן וְחָרַשׁ עֵץ קָרוּי נַגָּר:
for setting: Heb. לְמַלֹאת, lit., to fill. To set it [each stone] into its setting in its fullness, [i.e.,] to make the setting equal to the measurement of the bottom of the stone and its thickness. [See commentary on Exod. 25:7.]   לְמַלֹּאת: לְהוֹשִׁיבָהּ בְּמִשְׁבֶּצֶת שֶׁלָּהּ בְּמִלּוּאָהּ – לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת לְמִדַּת מוֹשַׁב הָאֶבֶן וְעָבְיָהּ:
6And, behold, with him I have placed Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, and all the wise hearted into whose hearts I have instilled wisdom, and they shall make everything I have commanded you:   ווַֽאֲנִ֞י הִנֵּ֧ה נָתַ֣תִּי אִתּ֗וֹ אֵ֣ת אָֽהֳלִיאָ֞ב בֶּן־אֲחִֽיסָמָךְ֙ לְמַטֵּה־דָ֔ן וּבְלֵ֥ב כָּל־חֲכַם־לֵ֖ב נָתַ֣תִּי חָכְמָ֑ה וְעָשׂ֕וּ אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִֽךָ:
and all the wise-hearted into whose hearts I have instilled wisdom: And additionally, other wise-hearted people among you [shall assist], as well as everyone into whom I have instilled wisdom, and [all of them] shall make everything I have commanded you.   וּבְלֵב כָּל־חֲכַם־לֵב וגו': וְעוֹד שְׁאָר חַכְמֵי לֵב יֵשׁ בָּכֶם, וְכָל אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי בוֹ חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֵת כָּל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ:
7The Tent of Meeting and the ark for the testimony, as well as the cover that [shall be] upon it, all the implements of the tent,   זאֵ֣ת | אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד וְאֶת־הָֽאָרֹן֙ לָֽעֵדֻ֔ת וְאֶת־הַכַּפֹּ֖רֶת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלָ֑יו וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־כְּלֵ֥י הָאֹֽהֶל:
and the ark for the testimony: For the purpose of the tablets of the testimony.   וְאֶת־הָֽאָרֹן לָֽעֵדֻת: לְצֹרֶךְ לֻחוֹת הָעֵדוּת:
8the table and its implements, the pure menorah and all its implements, the altar of incense,   חוְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן֙ וְאֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָ֥ה הַטְּהֹרָ֖ה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלֶ֑יהָ וְאֵ֖ת מִזְבַּ֥ח הַקְּטֹֽרֶת:
the pure: Heb. הַטְּהֹרָה. [The menorah is described by this adjective] because [it was made] of pure gold. [based on Exod. 25:31]   הַטְּהֹרָה: עַל שֵׁם זָהָב טָהוֹר:
9the altar for the burnt offering and all its implements, the washstand and its base,   טוְאֶת־מִזְבַּ֥ח הָֽעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָ֑יו וְאֶת־הַכִּיּ֖וֹר וְאֶת־כַּנּֽוֹ:
10the meshwork garments, the holy garments for Aaron the kohen, the garments of his sons [in which] to serve [as kohanim],   יוְאֵ֖ת בִּגְדֵ֣י הַשְּׂרָ֑ד וְאֶת־בִּגְדֵ֤י הַקֹּ֨דֶשׁ֙ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֶת־בִּגְדֵ֥י בָנָ֖יו לְכַהֵֽן:
the meshwork garments: Heb. בִּגְדֵי הַשְְׂרָד In my opinion, according to the simple meaning of the verse, it is impossible to say that the garments of the kehunah are referred to [here], because it says next to them [at the end of the verse], “the holy garments for Aaron the kohen, the garments of his sons [in which] to serve [as kohanim].” But these בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד [referred to here] are the garments of blue, purple, and crimson wool mentioned in the section dealing with the travels (Num. 4:6-13): “and they shall place upon it a garment of blue wool,” “and they shall place upon it a garment of purple wool,” “and they shall place upon them a garment of crimson wool.” My assertion [that בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד refers to the coverings of the vessels] appears correct, since it says: “And from the blue wool, the purple wool, and the crimson they made בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד ” (Exod. 39:1), but linen was not mentioned with them. Now, if it [the text] is speaking of the garments of the kehunah, we do not find in any of them [reference to] purple or crimson wool without [the addition of] linen.   וְאֵת בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד: אוֹמֵר אֲנִי – לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא – שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁבְּבִגְדֵי כְהֻנָּה מְדַבֵּר, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּ' אֶצְלָם וְאֶת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת בִּגְדֵי בָנָיו לְכַהֵן, אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד הֵם בִּגְדֵי הַתְּכֵלֶת וְהָאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי הָאֲמוּרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת מַסָּעוֹת, וְנָתְנוּ אֶל בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו בֶּגֶד אַרְגָּמָן וּפָרְשׂוּ עֲלֵיהֶם בֶּגֶד תּוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי (במדבר ד'); וְנִרְאִין דְּבָרַי, שֶׁנֶּ' וּמִן הַתְּכֵלֶת וְהָאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת הַשָּׁנִי עָשׂוּ בִגְדֵי שְׂרָד לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ (שמות ל"ט), וְלֹא הֻזְכַּר שֵׁשׁ עִמָּהֶם, וְאִם בְּבִגְדֵי כְהֻנָּה מְדַבֵּר, לֹא מָצִינוּ בְאֶחָד מֵהֶם אַרְגָּמָן אוֹ תוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי בְּלֹא שֵׁשׁ:
the meshwork garments: בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד Some [commentators] explain בִּגְדֵי הַשְׂרָד as an expression of work and service, like its [Aramaic] translation, לְבוּשֵׁי שִׁמוּשָׁא, and it has no similarity in the Scriptures. But I believe that it is Aramaic, like the [Aramaic] translation of קְלָעִים [hangings, translated סְרָדִין] (Exod. 27:9) and the [Aramaic] translation of מִכְבָּר [grating, translated סְרָדָא] (Exod. 27:4), for they were woven with a needle [and] made of many holes, lazediz in Old French, mesh-work, crochet-work, [or] lace.   בִּגְדֵי הַשְּׂרָד: יֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים לְשׁוֹן עֲבוֹדָה וְשֵׁרוּת, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ לְבוּשֵׁי שִׁמּוּשָׁא, וְאֵין לוֹ דִּמְיוֹן בַּמִּקְרָא; וַאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, כְּתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל קְלָעִים וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל מִכְבָּר, שֶׁהָיוּ אֲרוּגִים בְּמַחַט עֲשׂוּיִים נְקָבִים נְקָבִים לצי"דץ בְּלַעַז:
11the anointing oil and the incense for the Holy; in complete accordance with everything I have commanded you they shall do."   יאוְאֵ֨ת שֶׁ֧מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֛ה וְאֶת־קְטֹ֥רֶת הַסַּמִּ֖ים לַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִ֖ךָ יַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
and the incense for the Holy: For the purpose of bringing [incense] up in smoke in the Heichal, which is holy.   וְאֵת קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לַקֹּדֶשׁ: לְצֹרֶךְ הַקְטָרַת הַהֵיכָל שֶׁהוּא קֹדֶשׁ:
12The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יבוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
13"And you, speak to the children of Israel and say: 'Only keep My Sabbaths! For it is a sign between Me and you for your generations, to know that I, the Lord, make you holy.   יגוְאַתָּ֞ה דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַ֥ךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֖י תִּשְׁמֹ֑רוּ כִּי֩ א֨וֹת הִ֜וא בֵּינִ֤י וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם לָדַ֕עַת כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם:
And you, speak to the children of Israel: But [as for] you, although I have mandated you to command them [the Israelites] concerning the work of the Mishkan, do not let it seem to you that you may easily set aside the Sabbath because of that work.   וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: וְאַתָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִפְקַדְתִּיךָ לְצַוּוֹתָם עַל מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, אַל יֵקַל בְּעֵינֶיךָ לִדְחוֹת אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה:
Only keep My Sabbaths!: Although you will be rushed to perform the work [of the Mishkan] quickly, the Sabbath shall not be set aside because of it. All instances of אַךְ and רַק [imply limitations, i.e.,] are exclusive, to exclude the Sabbath from the work of the Mishkan.   אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתִּהְיוּ רְדוּפִין וּזְרִיזִין בִּזְרִיזוּת הַמְּלָאכָה, שַׁבָּת אַל תִּדָּחֶה מִפָּנֶיהָ, כָּל אַכִין וְרַקִּין מִעוּטִין – לְמַעֵט שַׁבָּת מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
For it is a sign between Me and you: It is a sign of distinction between us that I have chosen you, by granting you as an inheritance My day of rest for [your] rest.   כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם: אוֹת גְּדֻלָּה הִיא בֵינֵינוּ, שֶׁבָּחַרְתִּי בָכֶם בְּהַנְחִילִי לָכֶם אֶת יוֹם מְנוּחָתִי לִמְנוּחָה:
to know: [So that] the nations [should know] that I, the Lord, sanctify you.   לָדַעַת: הָאֻמּוֹת בָּהּ כי אני ה' מקדשכם:
14Therefore, keep the Sabbath, for it is a sacred thing for you. Those who desecrate it shall be put to death, for whoever performs work on it, that soul will be cut off from the midst of its people.   ידוּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת כִּ֛י קֹ֥דֶשׁ הִ֖וא לָכֶ֑ם מְחַֽלֲלֶ֨יהָ֙ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת כִּ֗י כָּל־הָֽעֹשֶׂ֥ה בָהּ֙ מְלָאכָ֔ה וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמֶּֽיהָ:
shall be put to death: If there are witnesses and a warning.   מוֹת יוּמָת: אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה:
will be cut off: without warning. -[from Mechilta]   וְנִכְרְתָה: בְּלֹא הַתְרָאָה (מכילתא):
Those who desecrate it: Heb. מְחַלְלֶיהָ, [those] who treat its sanctity as profane.   מְחַֽלֲלֶיהָ: הַנּוֹהֵג בָּהּ חֹל בִּקְדֻשָּׁתָהּ:
15Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, holy to the Lord; whoever performs work on the Sabbath day shall be put to death.'   טושֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֘ יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י שַׁבַּ֧ת שַׁבָּת֛וֹן קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כָּל־הָֽעֹשֶׂ֧ה מְלָאכָ֛ה בְּי֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
a Sabbath of complete rest: Heb. שַׁבָּתשַׁבָּתוֹן, a reposeful rest, not a casual rest.   שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן: מְנוּחַת מַרְגּוֹעַ וְלֹא מְנוּחַת עֲרָאִי:
(a Sabbath of complete rest: For this reason, Scripture repeated it [the word, שַׁבָּת], to inform [us] that on it all work is prohibited, even what is needed for food. Similarly regarding Yom Kippur, in whose context it says: “It is a Sabbath of complete rest for you” (Lev. 23:32), all work is prohibited. However, concerning festivals it says only: “on the first day is a rest, and on the eighth day is a rest” (Lev. 23:39), [meaning that] on them [i.e., on holidays] only servile work is prohibited, but work needed for food [preparation] is permitted.)   שבת שבתון: לכך כפלו הכתוב לומר שאסור בכל מלאכה, אפילו אוכל נפש, וכן יום הכפורים שנאמר בו (ויקרא כג לב) שבת שבתון הוא לכם, אסור בכל מלאכה, אבל יום טוב לא נאמר בו כי אם ביום הראשון שבתון וביום השמיני שבתון (שם) אסורים בכל מלאכת עבודה, ומותרים במלאכת אוכל נפש:
holy to the Lord: The observance of its sanctity shall be for My name and by My commandment.   קֹדֶשׁ לה': שְׁמִירַת קְדֻשָּׁתָהּ לִשְׁמִי וּבְמִצְוָתִי:
16Thus shall the children of Israel observe the Sabbath, to make the Sabbath throughout their generations as an everlasting covenant.   טזוְשָֽׁמְר֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת לַֽעֲשׂ֧וֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּ֛ת לְדֹֽרֹתָ֖ם בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם:
17Between Me and the children of Israel, it is forever a sign that [in] six days The Lord created the heaven and the earth, and on the seventh day He ceased and rested."   יזבֵּינִ֗י וּבֵין֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל א֥וֹת הִ֖וא לְעֹלָ֑ם כִּי־שֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים עָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבַיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י שָׁבַ֖ת וַיִּנָּפַֽשׁ:
and rested: Heb. וַיִּנָפַשׁ. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְנָח, and rested. Now every expression of נוֹפֶשׁ, rest, is an expression of נֶפֶשׁ, soul, for one regains one’s soul and one’s breath when one rests from the toil of work. He about Whom it is written: “He neither tires nor wearies” (Isa. 40:28), and Whose every act is performed by speech [alone, without physical effort], dictated rest in reference to Himself [only] in order to make it understood to the [human] ear with words that it can understand.   וַיִּנָּפַֽשׁ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וְנָח, וְכָל לְשׁוֹן נֹפֶשׁ הוּא לְשׁוֹן נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁמֵּשִׁיב נַפְשׁוֹ וּנְשִׁימָתוֹ בְּהַרְגִּיעוֹ מִטֹּרַח הַמְּלָאכָה; וּמִי שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ לֹא יִיעַף וְלֹא יִיגָע (ישעיה מ'), וְכָל פָּעֳלוֹ בְמַאֲמָר, הִכְתִּיב מְנוּחָה בְּעַצְמוֹ? לְשַׂבֵּר הָאֹזֶן מַה שֶּׁהִיא יְכוֹלָה לִשְׁמֹעַ:
18When He had finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony, stone tablets, written with the finger of God.   יחוַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ֙ לְדַבֵּ֤ר אִתּוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר סִינַ֔י שְׁנֵ֖י לֻחֹ֣ת הָֽעֵדֻ֑ת לֻחֹ֣ת אֶ֔בֶן כְּתֻבִ֖ים בְּאֶצְבַּ֥ע אֱלֹהִֽים:
He gave Moses: In the Torah, chronological order is not adhered to. The episode of the calf took place long before the command of the work of the Mishkan. For on the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken, and on Yom Kippur the Holy One, blessed is He, was reconciled to Israel. On the morrow [i.e., on the eleventh of Tishri], they commenced with the donation for the Mishkan, and it [the Mishkan] was erected on the first of Nissan. -[from Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 31]   וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־משֶׁה וגו': אֵין מֻקְדָּם וּמְאֻחָר בַּתּוֹרָה – מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל קֹדֶם לְצִוּוּי מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָמִים רַבִּים הָיָה – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְי"ז בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נִתְרַצָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּלְמָחֳרָת הִתְחִילוּ בְנִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהוּקַם בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן (תנחומא):
When He had finished: Heb. כְּכַלֹתוֹ. [This word should be spelled כְּכַלּוֹתוֹ. Here, however,] it is spelled defectively [without the first “vav”], as if to be read: כְּכַלָּתוֹ, [meaning] like his bride, for the Torah was delivered to him [Moses] as a gift, as a bride [is given] to a bridegroom, because [otherwise] he could not have learnt it all in such a short time (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 18). Another explanation: Just as a bride is adorned with twenty-four ornaments [i.e.,] the ones listed in the book of Isaiah (3:18-22), so too must a Torah scholar be adorned with the twenty-four books [of the Scriptures, i.e., possess the knowledge of the entire Scriptures] (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 16).   כְּכַלֹּתוֹ: ככלתו כְּתִיב – חָסֵר – שֶׁנִּמְסְרָה לוֹ תּוֹרָה בְּמַתָּנָה כְּכַלָּה לֶחָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד כֻּלָּהּ בִּזְמַן מֻעָט כָּזֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מַה כַּלָּה מִתְקַשֶּׁטֶת בְּכ"ד קִשּׁוּטִין – הֵן הָאֲמוּרִים בְּסֵפֶר יְשַׁעְיָה – אַף תַּלְמִיד חָכָם צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בָּקִי בְּכ"ד סְפָרִים:
speaking with him: the statutes and the ordinances in the section entitled: “And these are the ordinances” (Exod. 21-23) [i.e., in parshath Mishpatim].   לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ: הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים שֶׁבִּוְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים:
speaking with him: [The word “with”] teaches [us] that Moses would hear [the laws] from God and then they would both repeat the halachah together. -[from Exod. Rabbah 41:5]   לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה שׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה וְחוֹזְרִין וְשׁוֹנִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד:
tablets: Heb. לֻחֹת. It is spelled לֻחֹת [without the “vav” of the plural, as if to be read לֻחַת, the singular form,] because they were both the same [size]. -[from Exod. Rabbah 41:6]   לֻחֹת: לחת כְּתִיב שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת (שם):