Chapter 42

1For the conductor, a maskil of the sons of Korah.   אלַֽמְנַצֵּ֜חַ מַשְׂכִּ֥יל לִבְנֵי־קֹֽרַח:
of the sons of Korah: Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaf. At first, they were in their father’s counsel, but at the time of the controversy they parted, and when all those around them were swallowed up, and the earth opened its mouth, their place was left within the mouth of the earth, as the matter that is stated (Num. 26:11): “But the sons of Korah did not die.” There they uttered a song, and there they composed these psalms. [Then] they ascended from there, and the holy spirit rested on them, whereupon they prophesied concerning the exiles, the destruction of the Temple, and the Davidic dynasty.  
2As a hart cries longingly for rivulets of water, so does my soul cry longingly to You, O God.   בכְּאַיָּ֗ל תַּֽעֲרֹ֥ג עַל־אֲפִיקֵי־מָ֑יִם כֵּ֚ן נַפְשִׁ֨י תַֽעֲרֹ֖ג אֵלֶ֣יךָ אֱלֹהִֽים:
As a hart cries longingly for rivulets: Heb. תערג. The expression of ערג applies to the voice of the hart as the expression of נהם, roaring, applies to a lion; שּׁקוק, growling, to a bear; געה, lowing, to oxen, and צפצוף chirping, to birds. [See Teshuvoth Dunash, p. 18.] Our Sages said: The hind is the most pious of the beasts. When the beasts are thirsty for water, they gather to her so that she should raise her eyes to heaven. And what does she do? She digs a pit and thrusts her antlers into it and lows. Thereupon, the Holy One, blessed be He, has compassion on her and the deep brings up water for her.  
As a hart cries longingly: “As a hind cries longingly” is not stated, nor, “As a hart cries longingly (יערג) [in the masculine].” Only, “As a hart cries longingly.” Scripture speaks of [both] a male and a female. The male cries longingly for water, as we explained, and the female when she kneels to give birth, [because] her womb is narrow. [When] she cries out, the Holy One, blessed be He, is compassionate and prepares a serpent, which bites her on her birth canal, whereupon her womb opens. Menachem (p. 138) connects תערג with (Song 5:13): “His cheeks are like a bed of (כערוגת) spice,” but his view is impossible. Dunash (p. 18) too explained it as the sound of the hart.  
3My soul thirsts for God, for the living God; when will I come and appear before God?   גצָמְאָ֬ה נַפְשִׁ֨י | לֵֽאלֹהִים֘ לְאֵ֪ל֫ חָ֥י מָתַ֥י אָב֑וֹא וְ֜אֵֽרָאֶ֗ה פְּנֵ֣י אֱלֹהִֽים:
when will I come and appear before God?: to make the pilgrimages on the festivals. Here he prophesied concerning the destruction of the Temple. “Why are you downcast?” is stated here three times, corresponding to the three kingdoms destined to curtail the Temple service, and Israel will cry out and be redeemed: the kingdoms of Babylon, Greece, and Edom.  
My soul thirsts: The people of Israel say this in the Babylonian exile.  
4My tears were my bread day and night when they say to me all day long, "Where is your God?"   דהָֽיְתָה־לִּ֬י דִמְעָתִ֣י לֶ֖חֶם יוֹמָ֣ם וָלָ֑יְלָה בֶּֽאֱמֹ֥ר אֵלַ֥י כָּל־הַ֜יּ֗וֹם אַיֵּ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
My tears were my bread: From here we derive that distress satiates a person, and he does not seek to eat. Similarly, Scripture states regarding Hannah (I Sam. 1:7): “and she wept and did not eat.”  
5These things I will remember, and I will pour out my soul [because of the pain which is] upon me, how I passed on with the throng; I walked slowly with them until the house of God with a joyful shouting and thanksgiving, a celebrating multitude.   האֵ֚לֶּה אֶזְכְּרָ֨ה | וְאֶשְׁפְּכָ֤ה עָלַ֨י | נַפְשִׁ֗י כִּ֚י אֶֽעֱבֹ֨ר | בַּסָּךְ֘ אֶדַּדֵּ֗ם עַד־בֵּ֥ית אֱלֹ֫הִ֥ים בְּקֽוֹל־רִנָּ֥ה וְ֜תוֹדָ֗ה הָ֘מ֥וֹן חוֹגֵֽג:
These things I will remember, etc., how I passed on with the throng: Pasoye in Old French. I remember this, and my soul pours out when I remember the festive pilgrimage, how I would pass on with the throngs of people and walk slowly with them until the House of God. סַ is an expression of a number. Another explanation: סַ is an expression of a human barrier. Another explanation: סַ is an expression of a covering and a booth, meaning covered wagons. סַ is an expression relating to צָב (Num. 7:3), “covered wagons” (עגלותצב). Covered like a booth, their name in the language of the Aggadah is סקפסטאות and אסקופיטי.  
I walked slowly with them: I walked slowly with them, as (Shab. 128b): “We may make calves and foals walk (מדדים) ,” and, “A woman may make her child walk (מדדה). This word serves in place of two words: אדדה עמהם, I walked with them, etay amut semble in Old French, to move together. Menachem (p. 62) associated it as an expression of affection (ידידות) , as (Jer. 12:7): ” I have delivered My soul’s beloved (ידידות) into the hand of her enemies.“ But Dunash (p. 27) interpreted אדדם as an expression of silence (דממה) , and likewise (above 37:7): ” Wait (דום) for the Lord, etc.“ Accordingly, the interpretation of אדדם is: ” I will be dumb, “ and I was silent until I came to the House of God with shouts of joy, as (above 39:2): ” I will guard my mouth [as though with] a muzzle, etc.“ and as (above 38:14): ” But I am like a deaf man, I do not hear, and like a mute, etc.“ דם is the radical of אדדם I would walk with them, as (Gen. 37:4): ” And they could not speak with him in peace," [equivalent to] לדבר עמו בשלום.  
a celebrating multitude: who were going to celebrate, and on this the liturgical poet (in the morning service of Parashat Shekalim, in the Yotzer of [the prayer] “Ayleh Ezcherah”): “A vast celebrating multitude, flooding like a river.” According to the Midrash Aggadah (Mid. Ps. 42:4), it is Greek, because they call a pool of water “chogegin.”  
6Why are you downcast, my soul, and why do you stir within me? Hope to God, for I will yet thank Him for the salvations of His presence.   ומַה־תִּֽשְׁתּ֬וֹחֲחִ֨י | נַפְשִׁי֘ וַתֶּֽהֱמִ֪י עָ֫לָ֥י הוֹחִ֣ילִי לֵֽ֖אלֹהִים כִּי־ע֥וֹד אוֹדֶ֗נּוּ יְשׁוּע֥וֹת פָּנָֽיו:
are you downcast: Heb. תשתוחחי, an expression of (below 44:26): “For our soul is cast down (שחה) to the dust.” When שַּׁח is used in the reflexive (מתפעל) , the “tav” separates the radicals in the manner of every word whose root begins with “shin.”  
Hope: Wait and look forward to the redemption.  
7My God, my soul is downcast upon me; therefore, I will remember You from the land of Jordan and the peaks of Hermon, from the young mountain.   זאֱֽלֹהַ֗י עָלַי֘ נַפְשִׁ֪י תִשְׁתּ֫וֹחָ֥ח עַל־כֵּ֗ן אֶ֖זְכָּרְךָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ יַרְדֵּ֑ן וְ֜חֶרְמוֹנִ֗ים מֵהַ֥ר מִצְעָֽר:
I will remember You from the land of Jordan: From what You did for us in the Jordan and the peaks of Hermon; after all the provocation with which we provoked You in Shittim, You dried the Jordan for us.  
from the young mountain: From Mount Sinai, which is younger than other mountains; after we provoked You there with the episode of the [Golden] Calf, You forgave our iniquities and went with us. All these I remember in my exile, when You have refrained from doing good for me, and Your decrees are being renewed one after the other.  
8Deep calls to deep to the sound of Your water channels; all Your breakers and waves passed over me.   חתְּהֽוֹם־אֶל־תְּה֣וֹם ק֖וֹרֵא לְק֣וֹל צִנּוֹרֶ֑יךָ כָּל־מִשְׁבָּרֶ֥יךָ וְ֜גַלֶּ֗יךָ עָלַ֥י עָבָֽרוּ:
Deep calls to deep: One trouble calls the next one.  
to the sound of Your water channels: (Tes canals in Old French, canaux in modern French) which spray retribution upon me like flooding waters, until all Your breakers and waves have passed over me.“Your breakers” is an expression of the waves of the sea, because the waves of the sea ascend, break, and fall.  
9By day, may the Lord command His kindness, and at night, may His resting place be with me, a prayer to the God of my life.   טיוֹמָ֚ם | יְצַוֶּ֬ה יְהֹוָ֨ה | חַסְדּ֗וֹ וּ֖בַלַּיְלָה שִׁירֹ֣ה עִמִּ֑י תְּ֜פִלָּ֗ה לְאֵ֣ל חַיָּֽי:
By day, may the Lord command His kindness: May the light of the redemption come, and may the Lord command His kindness to us.  
and at night: In the darkness of the exile and the troubles.  
may His resting place be with me: Heb. שירה. May His resting place be in our midst. שּׁירה is an expression of camping, as we translate (II Sam. 17:26): “And Israel encamped,” וּשְּׁרָא. I learned this from the Great Masorah, which associates this [word] with (I Kings 5:12): “And his songs (שירו) were a thousand and five,” in the “aleph-beth” of two words with different meanings (homonyms). This taught [me] that this is not an expression of song, but the Midrash Aggadah does interpret it as an expression of song, interpreting in this manner: Israel says to the Holy One, blessed be He: “We remember what You did for us in Egypt. You commanded us one commandment by day on the eve of the Passover, and we observed it, and at night, You redeemed us and we sang Hallel before You. But now we keep many commandments, yet You do not redeem us. Because of this, I will say to God, my Rock, ‘Why have You forgotten me?’”  
10I will say to God, my Rock, "Why have You forgotten me? Why should I walk in gloom under the oppression of the enemy?"   יאֽוֹמְרָ֚ה | לְאֵ֥ל סַלְעִי֘ לָמָ֪ה שְׁכַ֫חְתָּ֥נִי לָֽמָּה־קֹדֵ֥ר אֵ֜לֵ֗ךְ בְּלַ֣חַץ אוֹיֵֽב:
in gloom: Heb. קדר, an expression of blackness, as (Micah 3: 6): “and… shall be darkened (וקדר) about them.”  
11With murder in my bones, my oppressors have reproached me by saying to me all day long, "Where is your God?"   יאבְּרֶ֚צַח | בְּֽעַצְמוֹתַ֗י חֵֽרְפ֥וּנִי צֽוֹרְרָ֑י בְּאָמְרָ֖ם אֵלַ֥י כָּל־הַ֜יּ֗וֹם אַיֵּ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
With murder in my bones, my oppressors have reproached me: It seemed to me as though they were killing me, so confined within my bones was that with which my oppressors provoke and reproach me.  
12Why are you downcast, my soul, and why do you stir within me? Hope to God, for I will yet thank Him for the salvations of my countenance and my God.   יבמַה־תִּֽשְׁתּ֬וֹחֲחִ֨י | נַפְשִׁי֘ וּמַה־תֶּֽהֱמִ֪י עָ֫לָ֥י הוֹחִ֣ילִי לֵֽ֖אלֹהִים כִּי־ע֣וֹד אוֹדֶ֑נּוּ יְשׁוּעֹ֥ת פָּ֜נַ֗י וֵֽאלֹהָֽי:
my countenance and my God: The Holy One, the light of my countenance, my GodI still have hope in Him. Why, then, should you stir?