Chapter 47

1Descend and sit on the dust, virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground without a throne, daughter of the Chaldees, for no longer shall they call you tender and delicate.   ארְדִ֣י | וּשְׁבִ֣י עַל־עָפָ֗ר בְּתוּלַת֙ בַּת־בָּבֶ֔ל שְׁבִֽי־לָאָ֥רֶץ אֵֽין־כִּסֵּ֖א בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כִּ֣י לֹ֚א תוֹסִיפִי֙ יִקְרְאוּ־לָ֔ךְ רַכָּ֖ה וַֽעֲנֻגָּֽה:
without a throne: Without a kingdom.  
for no longer: [lit. for you shall not continue,] that they call you tender and delicate.  
2Take millstones and grind flour, bare your covered parts, uncover the paths, bare [your] leg, cross rivers.   בקְחִ֥י רֵחַ֖יִם וְטַֽ֣חֲנִי קָ֑מַח גַּלִּ֨י צַמָּתֵ֧ךְ חֶשְׂפִּי־שֹׁ֛בֶל גַּלִּי־שׁ֖וֹק עִבְרִ֥י נְהָרֽוֹת:
Take millstones: This is hard labor, i.e., subordinate yourself from now on, to the kings of Persia and Media. Alternatively: And grind flour for supplies on the road of your exile.  
bare your covered parts: Your arms and your legs, parts veiled, tied, and covered.  
uncover the paths: Heb. חֶשְׂפִּי שֹׁבֶל. Uncover the paths of the water that is upon them, for that way you shall go out into exile, or bare your leg and cross rivers.  
3Your nakedness shall be uncovered; yea your shame shall be seen; I will take revenge and I will not entreat any man.   גתִּגָּל֙ עֶרְוָתֵ֔ךְ גַּ֥ם תֵּֽרָאֶ֖ה חֶרְפָּתֵ֑ךְ נָקָ֣ם אֶקָּ֔ח וְלֹ֥א אֶפְגַּ֖ע אָדָֽם:
I will not entreat any man: I will ask no man to take My revenge.  
4Our redeemer, the Lord of Hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel.   דגֹּֽאֲלֵ֕נוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ קְד֖וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Our redeemer, the Lord of Hosts is His name: The prophet states: All this the Lord of Hosts does, to redeem us from there.  
on the aged you made your yoke very heavy: On the aged, who were unable to bear hard work, you made heavy your yoke.  
5Sit silently and come into the darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans, for they shall no longer call you mistress of kingdoms.   השְׁבִ֥י דוּמָ֛ם וּבֹ֥אִי בַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כִּ֣י לֹ֚א תוֹסִיפִי֙ יִקְרְאוּ־לָ֔ךְ גְּבֶ֖רֶת מַמְלָכֽוֹת:
6I became wroth with My people, I violated My heritage, and I delivered them into your hand; you did not show them mercy; on the aged you made your yoke very heavy.   וקָצַ֣פְתִּי עַל־עַמִּ֗י חִלַּ֙לְתִּי֙ נַֽחֲלָתִ֔י וָֽאֶתְּנֵ֖ם בְּיָדֵ֑ךְ לֹא־שַׂ֚מְתְּ לָהֶם֙ רַֽחֲמִ֔ים עַל־זָקֵ֕ן הִכְבַּ֥דְתְּ עֻלֵּ֖ךְ מְאֹֽד:
7And you said, "I will forever be a mistress," until you did not take these to heart, you did not remember its end.   זוַתֹּ֣אמְרִ֔י לְעוֹלָ֖ם אֶֽהְיֶ֣ה גְבָ֑רֶת עַ֣ד לֹא־שַׂ֥מְתְּ אֵ֙לֶּה֙ עַל־לִבֵּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א זָכַ֖רְתְּ אַֽחֲרִיתָֽהּ:
And you said: to yourself, “I will forever be a mistress, and no retribution shall come upon me,” and this thing enticed you until you did not take to heart these blows that would come upon you, and you did not remember the end of your evil that you have done.  
8And now, hearken to this, delicate one, who sits securely, who says to herself, "I am [it], and there is none besides me; I will not sit [as] a widow; neither will I know bereavement."   חוְעַתָּ֞ה שִׁמְעִי־זֹ֚את עֲדִינָה֙ הַיֹּשֶׁ֣בֶת לָבֶ֔טַח הָאֹֽמְרָה֙ בִּלְבָ֔בָהּ אֲנִ֖י וְאַפְסִ֣י ע֑וֹד לֹ֚א אֵשֵׁב֙ אַלְמָנָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א אֵדַ֖ע שְׁכֽוֹל:
delicate one: Heb. עֲדִינָה. Jonathan renders: מְפַנֶּקְתָּא, delicate.  
and there is none besides me: Heb. וְאַפְסִי. And there is none outside of me. Like אֵין זוּלָתִי.  
9And these two shall come to you in a second in one day, bereavement and widowhood; in their full measure, they shall come upon you with the multitude of your sorceries, with the great abundance of your charms.   טוְתָבֹאנָה֩ לָּ֨ךְ שְׁתֵּי־אֵ֥לֶּה רֶ֛גַע בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד שְׁכ֣וֹל וְאַלְמֹ֑ן כְּתֻמָּם֙ בָּ֣אוּ עָלַ֔יִךְ בְּרֹ֣ב כְּשָׁפַ֔יִךְ בְּעָצְמַ֥ת חֲבָרַ֖יִךְ מְאֹֽד:
these two: that you said that you would not sit as a widow and you would not know bereavement, shall suddenly come upon you.  
bereavement: of your inhabitants.  
and widowhood: of your king. Any burial of children or exile of the people of a land is called bereavement.  
in their full measure: All of them, complete in their decree, the bereavement and the widowhood.  
your charms: Heb. חֲבָרַיִ. An expression of sorcery. Comp. (Deut. 18:11) “And a charmer (וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר).”  
10And you trusted in your evil, you said, "No one sees me." Your wisdom and your knowledge-that perverted you. And you said to yourself, "I am [it], and there is none besides me."   יוַתִּבְטְחִ֣י בְרָֽעָתֵ֗ךְ אָמַ֙רְתְּ֙ אֵ֣ין רֹאָ֔נִי חָכְמָתֵ֥ךְ וְדַעְתֵּ֖ךְ הִ֣יא שֽׁוֹבְבָ֑תֶךְ וַתֹּֽאמְרִ֣י בְלִבֵּ֔ךְ אֲנִ֖י וְאַפְסִ֥י עֽוֹד:
your wisdom and your knowledge: Your wisdom and the evil of your heart that perverted you. They turned your heart to be perverted, envesede in O.F. It perverted you from the way of other people (other daughters [mss. and K’li Paz]).  
11And evil shall come upon you, you shall not know how to remove it by prayer; and calamity shall befall you, you shall not know how to rid yourself of it; and desolation shall come upon you suddenly, you shall not know.   יאוּבָ֧א עָלַ֣יִךְ רָעָ֗ה לֹ֚א תֵֽדְעִי֙ שַׁחְרָ֔הּ וְתִפֹּ֚ל עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ הוָֹ֔ה לֹ֥א תֽוּכְלִ֖י כַּפְּרָ֑הּ וְתָבֹ֨א עָלַ֧יִךְ פִּתְאֹ֛ם שֹׁאָ֖ה לֹ֥א תֵדָֽעִי:
you shall not know how to remove it by prayer: Heb. לֹא תֵדְעִי שַׁחְרָהּ. You shall not know to pray about it (Jonathan). Whom will you beseech to extricate you therefrom?  
to rid yourself of it: Heb. כַּפְּרָהּ, to wipe it away and to remove it, and this is every expression of atonement (כַּפָּרָה). It is an expression of wiping and taking away.  
12Stand now with your charms and with the multitude of your sorceries, in which you toiled since your youth; perhaps you will be able to help, perhaps you will gain strength.   יבעִמְדִי־נָ֚א בַֽחֲבָרַ֙יִךְ֙ וּבְרֹ֣ב כְּשָׁפַ֔יִךְ בַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגַ֖עַתְּ מִנְּעוּרָ֑יִךְ אוּלַ֛י תּֽוּכְלִ֥י הוֹעִ֖יל אוּלַ֥י תַּֽעֲרֽוֹצִי:
Stand now: Strengthen yourself now.  
perhaps you will gain strength: Heb. תַּעֲרוֹצִי. Jonathan renders: Perhaps you will be able to become strong.  
13You have wearied with the multitude of your counsels; let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators of what will come upon you, stand up and save you.   יגנִלְאֵ֖ית בְּרֹ֣ב עֲצָתָ֑יִךְ יַֽעַמְדוּ־נָ֨א וְיֽוֹשִׁיעֻ֜ךְ הֹֽבְרֵ֣י (כתיב הֹֽבְרֵ֣ו) שָׁמַ֗יִם הַֽחֹזִים֙ בַּכּ֣וֹכָבִ֔ים מֽוֹדִעִים֙ לֶֽחֳדָשִׁ֔ים מֵֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָבֹ֖אוּ עָלָֽיִךְ:
astrologers: Heb. הֹבְרֵי שָׁמַיִם. Jonathan renders it like ‘the gazers of the heavens,’ who gaze at the constellations of the heavens. He compares it to (Song 6:10) “Clear (בָּרָה) as the sun,” and to (Job 33:3) “Spoke a clear (בָּרוּר) word.” And so did Menahem associate it with them (Machbereth Menahem p. 47f.); those who clarify the orbit of the constellations, and he interpreted it thus because the diviners are unable to determine the seconds of the day and the night until the heaven is perfectly clear to them. Micah, too, said in prophecy (3:6), “It has become too dark for you to divine.” This teaches us that on a dark day the stars are sealed, and they cannot divine (ibid. p. 13).  
the monthly prognosticators of what will come upon you: For when the moon is in its first phase [lit. renewed], they see at the time of its ‘birth’ part of what is destined to come, but they do not know it clearly. Therefore, it is stated, “of what.” Similarly, he says elsewhere (supra 8:19): “who chirp and mutter,” like these birds who chirp and mutter and do not know why.  
14Behold they were like stubble, fire burnt them, they shall not save themselves from the power of the flame; there is no coal by which to warm oneself, [or] fire opposite which to sit.   ידהִנֵּ֨ה הָי֚וּ כְקַשׁ֙ אֵ֣שׁ שְׂרָפָ֔תַם לֹֽא־יַצִּ֥ילוּ אֶת־נַפְשָׁ֖ם מִיַּ֣ד לֶֽהָבָ֑ה אֵין־גַּחֶ֣לֶת לַחְמָ֔ם א֖וּר לָשֶׁ֥בֶת נֶגְדּֽוֹ:
Behold they were: Your stargazers were like stubble.  
there is no coal by which to warm oneself: They have no remnant, like stubble, the fire of which does not leave over coals by whose fire one can warm himself.  
15So were they to you, those for whom you toiled; your traffickers since your youth, each one strayed to his side, no one saves you.   טוכֵּ֥ן הָֽיוּ־לָ֖ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָגָ֑עַתְּ סֹֽחֲרַ֣יִךְ מִנְּעוּרַ֗יִךְ אִ֚ישׁ לְעֶבְרוֹ֙ תָּע֔וּ אֵ֖ין מֽוֹשִׁיעֵֽךְ:
each one strayed to his side: each one to his way, to the side of his face [i.e., each one wandered away in the direction he was facing].