Chapter 48

1Hearken to this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and who emanated from the waters of Judah, who swear by the name of the Lord and make mention of the God of Israel, neither in truth nor in righteousness.   אשִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֣את בֵּית־יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב הַנִּקְרָאִים֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִמֵּ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יָצָ֑אוּ הַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֣ים | בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֗ה וּבֵֽאלֹהֵ֚י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יַזְכִּ֔ירוּ לֹ֥א בֶֽאֱמֶ֖ת וְלֹ֥א בִצְדָקָֽה:
Hearken to this: The two tribes destined to go in exile to Babylon.  
O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel: That is the tribe of Benjamin, who are not called by the tribe of Judah, but by the general name of the tribes of Israel.  
and who emanated from the waters of Judah: And the tribe of Judah who emanated and ran from the waters of Judah’s pail, as Scripture states (Num. 24:7): “Water shall run out of his pails.”  
neither in truth: As Jeremiah said, (5:2) “And if they say, ‘As the Lord lives,’ surely they swear falsely,” i.e., you were unworthy of being redeemed, but since they were called [as being] from the Holy City, and that caused them not to be exiled with the ten tribes in the time of Sennacherib, to Halah and Habor, for they have no redemption.  
2For they are called [as being] from the Holy City, and they leaned on the God of Israel; the Lord of Hosts is His name.   בכִּֽי־מֵעִ֚יר הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ נִקְרָ֔אוּ וְעַל־אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִסְמָ֑כוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ:
and they leaned on the God of Israel: in the days of Hezekiah, about whom it is written (2 Kings 18:5): “He trusted in the Lord God of Israel.” That caused them not to be exiled except in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, who exiled them to Babylon, and they had a redemption through Cyrus.  
3The first things I told from then, and they emanated from My mouth and I let [you] hear them; suddenly I did [them] and they came to pass.   גהָרִֽאשֹׁנוֹת֙ מֵאָ֣ז הִגַּ֔דְתִּי וּמִפִּ֥י יָֽצְא֖וּ וְאַשְׁמִיעֵ֑ם פִּתְאֹ֥ם עָשִׂ֖יתִי וַתָּבֹֽאנָה:
The first things: that passed, [viz.] the redemption from Egypt and Hezekiah’s salvation from the hand of Sennacherib.  
I told from then: When they had not yet come about, and suddenly I did it.  
and they came to pass: as I told before through My prophets.  
4Because of My knowledge that you are obstinate, and your nape is a sinew of iron, and your forehead is brazen.   דמִדַּעְתִּ֕י כִּ֥י קָשֶׁ֖ה אָ֑תָּה וְגִ֚יד בַּרְזֶל֙ עָרְפֶּ֔ךָ וּמִצְחֲךָ֖ נְחוּשָֽׁה:
Because of My knowledge that you are obstinate.: Heb. מִדַּעְתִּי. Because I knew you, that you are obstinate, and if the miracle would come and I had not told of it before, you would say, “My idol performed them, and they were not from the Holy One, blessed be He.” Therefore, I told you from then; when it had not yet come to pass etc. מִדַּעְתִּי [although usually translated ‘from My knowledge,’ in this case,] ; the ‘mem’ denotes the giving of a reason, like ‘Because I knew.’ A similar form [is found in Deut. 7:8:], “For, because of the Lord’s love (מֵאַהֲבַת) for you, and because of His observing (וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ) the oath.”  
5And I told you from then; when it had not yet come to pass I let you hear it; lest you say, "My idol performed them, and my graven image and my molten image ordained them."   הוָֽאַגִּ֚יד לְךָ֙ מֵאָ֔ז בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֑יךָ פֶּן־תֹּאמַר֙ עָצְבִּ֣י עָשָׂ֔ם וּפִסְלִ֥י וְנִסְכִּ֖י צִוָּֽם:
6You have heard, see all of it; and you, will you not tell? I let you hear new things from now, and hidden things that you did not know.   ושָׁמַ֚עְתָּ חֲזֵה֙ כֻּלָּ֔הּ וְאַתֶּ֖ם הֲל֣וֹא תַגִּ֑ידוּ הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֚יךָ חֲדָשׁוֹת֙ מֵעַ֔תָּה וּנְצֻר֖וֹת וְלֹ֥א יְדַעְתָּֽם:
You have heard, see all of it: You have heard the first ones that I told; see that all of them have come about.  
and you, will you not tell: and testify for Me that nothing failed?  
I let you hear new things from now: Now I come back and let you hear new things that are new to you, but to Me they are revealed from time immemorial.  
and hidden things: and things guarded in My treasure houses, and you did not know them.  
7Now they have been created and not from then, and before the day, and you did not hear them, lest you say, "I knew them."   זעַתָּ֚ה נִבְרְאוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מֵאָ֔ז וְלִפְנֵי־י֖וֹם וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתָּ֑ם פֶּן־תֹּאמַ֖ר הִנֵּ֥ה יְדַעְתִּֽין:
Now they have been created and not from then: are they.  
and before the day: that they take place I let you hear of them.  
and you did not hear them: until this day. The words, “and before the day,” refer back to “I let you hear,” as stated above.  
8Neither did you hearken, neither did you know, nor was your ear opened from then, for I knew that you would deal treacherously, and you were called transgressor from the womb.   חגַּ֣ם לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ גַּם לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתָּ גַּ֕ם מֵאָ֖ז לֹֽא־פִתְּחָ֣ה אָזְנֶ֑ךָ כִּ֚י יָדַ֙עְתִּי֙ בָּג֣וֹד תִּבְגּ֔וֹד וּפֹשֵׁ֥עַ מִבֶּ֖טֶן קֹ֥רָא לָֽךְ:
Neither did you hearken: Jonathan renders: Neither did you hearken to the words of the prophets, neither did you accept the teaching of the Torah, nor did you bend your ear to the words of the blessings and the curses of My covenant that I established with you at Horeb.  
for I knew that you would deal treacherously: When I came down to save you from the hands of the Egyptians, it was revealed to Me that you would eventually deal treacherously. Nevertheless, I kept the oath of the Patriarchs. This is what is stated (Ex. 3:7): “I saw the affliction of My people.” [The Hebrew expression for “I saw,” is רָאֹה רָאִיתִי, a double verb form, which denotes] two seeings. I see that they will eventually deal treacherously, but, nevertheless, I saw the affliction of My people. Rabbi Tanhuma expounded it in this manner.  
and… transgressor from the womb: Since you were in Egypt, as it is related in Ezekiel (20:5): “And I made Myself known in the land of Egypt, etc. (v. 7) and I said to them, [Cast away, each man the abominations of his eyes, and do not contaminate yourselves with the idols of Egypt].”  
9For the sake of My name I defer My anger, and My praise is that I restrain My wrath for you, not to cut you off.   טלְמַ֚עַן שְׁמִי֙ אַֽאֲרִ֣יךְ אַפִּ֔י וּתְהִלָּתִ֖י אֶֽחֱטָם־לָ֑ךְ לְבִלְתִּ֖י הַכְרִיתֶֽךָ:
I defer My anger: Heb. (אַאֲרִי אַפִּי). Despite the future form, it is an expression of the present.  
and My praise is that I restrain My wrath: Heb. אֶחֱטָם. And this is My praise, that I restrain My wrath for you. אֶחֱטָם is an expression of חֹטֶם, a nose. I will close My nose not to allow the smoke of My nostrils to go out and not to be angry with you, for, when one is angry, smoke comes out of his nostrils, as Scripture states (Ps. 18:9): “Smoke rose in His nose.” Likewise, every expression of ‘kindling of anger’ אַף) (חֲרוֹן is an expression of the heating of the nose, (Job. 42:7) “My anger was kindled (חָרָה אַפִּי).” Comp. also (ibid. 30:30) “And my bones were burnt (חָרָה) from heat.” My nose was heated (נִחַר) from much heat."  
10Behold I have refined you, but not as silver; I have chosen for you the crucible of poverty.   יהִנֵּ֥ה צְרַפְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א בְכָ֑סֶף בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ בְּכ֥וּר עֹֽנִי:
but not as silver: [lit. but not with silver.] Not with the fire of Gehinnom, as silver is refined through fire.  
I have chosen for you: Heb. בְּחַרְתִּי. I have chosen for you the crucible of poverty as opposed to the crucible of fire. A crucible (כּוּר) is a vessel in which they melt silver and gold.  
11For My sake, for My sake I will do, for how shall it be profaned? And My honor I will not give to another.   יאלְמַֽעֲנִ֧י לְמַֽעֲנִ֛י אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה כִּֽי־אֵ֣יךְ יֵחָ֑ל וּכְבוֹדִ֖י לְאַחֵ֥ר לֹֽא־אֶתֵּֽן:
For My sake: For the sake of My holy name.  
for how shall it be profaned: How shall My name be profaned when I utterly destroy you?  
And My honor I will not give to another: That your enemies shall say that their God is powerful.  
12Hearken to Me, O Jacob, and Israel, who was called by Me, I am He, I am first, yea I am last.   יבשְׁמַ֚ע אֵלַי֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מְקֹֽרָאִ֑י אֲנִי־הוּא֙ אֲנִ֣י רִאשׁ֔וֹן אַ֖ף אֲנִ֥י אַֽחֲרֽוֹן:
Hearken to Me, O Jacob: The name that your father called you.  
and Israel, who was called by Me: You were called Israel by Me (Gen. 32:29). Jonathan renders: Israel, My summoned one.  
13Even My hand laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand measured the heavens with handbreadths; I call them, they stand together.   יגאַף־יָדִי֙ יָ֣סְדָה אֶ֔רֶץ וִֽימִינִ֖י טִפְּחָ֣ה שָׁמָ֑יִם קֹרֵ֥א אֲנִ֛י אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יַֽעַמְד֥וּ יַחְדָּֽו:
14All of you, gather and hearken, who of them told these? The Lord loves him, who shall do His work in Babylon and [show] His arm [upon the] Chaldeans.   ידהִקָּֽבְצ֚וּ כֻלְּכֶם֙ וּֽשְׁמָ֔עוּ מִ֥י בָהֶ֖ם הִגִּ֣יד אֶת־אֵ֑לֶּה יְהֹוָ֣ה אֲהֵב֔וֹ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֚ה חֶפְצוֹ֙ בְּבָבֶ֔ל וּזְרֹע֖וֹ כַּשְׂדִּֽים:
The Lord loves him: He who will perform the will of the Holy One, blessed be He, upon Babylon.  
and [show] His arm: He will show in the land of the Chaldees, and concerning Cyrus he states this.  
15I, yea I spoke, I even called him, I brought him, and his way prospered.   טואֲנִ֥י אֲנִ֛י דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אַף־קְרָאתִ֑יו הֲבִֽיאֹתִ֖יו וְהִצְלִ֥יחַ דַּרְכּֽוֹ:
I: redeemed Israel from Egypt, and I will redeem all Israel from the last exile and from the four corners of the earth.  
I even called him: [i.e., I called] Cyrus. Others say: The Lord loves Israel. I even called him, [i.e.,] Abraham. This calling is an expression of exaltation, to be My called one. Comp. (Num. 1: 16), “These are the called ones of the congregation.”  
16Draw near to Me, hearken to this; in the beginning I did not speak in secret, from the time it was, there was I, and now, the Lord God has sent me, and His spirit.   טזקִרְב֧וּ אֵלַ֣י שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֗את לֹ֚א מֵרֹאשׁ֙ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר דִּבַּ֔רְתִּי מֵעֵ֥ת הֱיוֹתָ֖הּ שָׁ֣ם אָ֑נִי וְעַתָּ֗ה אֲדֹנָ֧י יֱהֹוִ֛ה שְׁלָחַ֖נִי וְרוּחֽוֹ:
from the time it was, there was I: [Jonathan paraphrases:] From the time the nations ceased fearing Me, there I brought Abraham your father near to My service.  
and now, the Lord God has sent me, and His spirit: [Jonathan paraphrases:] Said the prophet, “And now, the Lord God has sent me, and His word.” This is an intermingling of words. The one who said this did not say that [i.e., the first part of the verse was said by God, and the second part by the prophet]. And the Aggadic Midrash of Rabbi Tanhuma (Yithro 21) explains: Hearken to this, this alludes to Moses’ Torah, referred to as “This is the Torah.” In the beginning, I did not speak in secretat Sinai. And the prophet says, “From the time that thing was that, He says, I was there.” And we learned from here that all the prophets stood at Sinai. And now He sent me to prophesy to them. Even in this version there is an intermingling of words. “In the beginning I did not speak in secret,” was said by the Shechinah.“From the time it was, there was I,” was said by the prophet. It is possible to interpret it so that there should not be intermingling of words [as follows:] Draw near to me, hearken to this what I prophesy to you regarding the downfall of Babylon and your redemption. In the beginning I did not speak that in secret. From the time it was, that the Holy One, blessed be He, decreed to bring it, there I was. This teaches that from the time of the decree, the Holy One, blessed be He, appoints the prophet who is destined to prophesy regarding the matter in the council of the heavenly household, although it has not yet been created.  
17So said the Lord, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, "I am the Lord your God, Who teaches you for your profit, Who leads you by the way you should go.   יזכֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה גֹּֽאַלְךָ֖ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֨י יְהֹוָ֚ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ מְלַמֶּדְךָ֣ לְהוֹעִ֔יל מַדְרִֽיכְךָ֖ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ תֵּלֵֽךְ:
18Had you hearkened to My commandments, your peace would be as a river, and your righteousness like the waves of the sea.   יחל֥וּא הִקְשַׁ֖בְתָּ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָ֑י וַיְהִ֚י כַנָּהָר֙ שְׁלוֹמֶ֔ךָ וְצִדְקָֽתְךָ֖ כְּגַלֵּ֥י הַיָּֽם:
19And your seed would be like the sand and those emanating from your innards [would be] like its innards; his name shall neither be cut off nor destroyed from before Me.   יטוַיְהִ֚י כַחוֹל֙ זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וְצֶֽאֱצָאֵ֥י מֵעֶ֖יךָ כִּמְעוֹתָ֑יו לֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת וְלֹֽא־יִשָּׁמֵ֛ד שְׁמ֖וֹ מִלְּפָנָֽי:
like its innards: of the sea, like the fish of the sea for multitude.  
20Leave Babylon, flee from the Chaldeans; with a voice of singing declare, tell this, publicize it to the end of the earth; say, "The Lord has redeemed His servant Jacob."   כצְא֣וּ מִבָּבֶל֘ בִּרְח֣וּ מִכַּשְׂדִּים֒ בְּק֣וֹל רִנָּ֗ה הַגִּ֚ידוּ הַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ זֹ֔את הֽוֹצִיא֖וּהָ עַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ אִמְר֕וּ גָּאַ֥ל יְהֹוָ֖ה עַבְדּ֥וֹ יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
21And they did not thirst when He led them in the wastelands, He made water run from a rock for them; He split a rock and water flowed.   כאוְלֹ֣א צָֽמְא֗וּ בָּֽחֳרָבוֹת֙ ה֣וֹלִיכָ֔ם מַ֥יִם מִצּ֖וּר הִזִּ֣יל לָ֑מוֹ וַיִּ֨בְקַע־צ֔וּר וַיָּזֻ֖בוּ מָֽיִם:
22"There is no peace," said the Lord. "for the wicked."   כבאֵ֣ין שָׁל֔וֹם אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה לָֽרְשָׁעִֽים:
for the wicked: For Nebuchadnezzar and his seed.