Chapter 6

1"Where has your beloved gone, O fairest of women? Where has your beloved turned, that we may seek him with you?"   אאָנָה הָלַ֣ךְ דּוֹדֵ֔ךְ הַיָּפָ֖ה בַּנָּשִׁ֑ים אָ֚נָה פָּנָ֣ה דוֹדֵ֔ךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁ֖נּוּ עִמָּֽךְ:
Where has your beloved gone: The nations taunt and provoke Israel, “Where has your Beloved gone?” Why has He left you abandoned like a widow?   אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ: מְאַנִּים וּמְקַנְטְרִים הָאֻמּוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, "אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ? לָמָּה הִנִּיחַ אוֹתָךְ עֲזוּבָה אַלְמָנָה"?
Where has your beloved turned: When He returned and caused His spirit to rest on Cyrus, and sanctioned the rebuilding of the Temple, and they commenced to build, they came and said to them, “Where has your Beloved turned?” If He is returning to you, we will seek Him with you, as is stated (Ezra 4:1f): “Now the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin heard that the people of the exile were building a Temple, etc. And they approached Zerubbabel, etc.: Let us build with you, for like you we seek your God, etc.” But their intention was for evil, in order to stop the work. And they replied to them:   אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ: כְּשֶׁחָזַר וְהִשְׁרָה רוּחוֹ עַל כֹּרֶשׁ, וְנָתַן רְשׁוּת לִבְנוֹת הַבַּיִת, וְהִתְחִילוּ לִבְנוֹת, בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לָהֶם: "אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ?" אִם חוֹזֵר הוּא אֵלַיִךְ נְבַקְּשֶׁנּוּ עִמָּךְ, כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ צָרֵי יְהוּדָה וּבִנְיָמִן כִּי בְנֵי הַגּוֹלָה בוֹנִים הֵיכָל וגו' וַיִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל זְרֻבָּבֶל וגו' 'נִבְנֶה עִמָּכֶם כִּי כָכֶם נִדְרוֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם וגו'". וְכַוָּנָתָם לְרָעָה, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁבִּיתָם מִן הַמְּלָאכָה. וְהֵם מְשִׁיבִים:
2"My beloved has gone down to his garden, to the spice beds, to graze in the gardens and to gather roses.   בדּוֹדִי֙ יָרַ֣ד לְגַנּ֔וֹ לַֽעֲרֻג֖וֹת הַבֹּ֑שֶׂם לִרְעוֹת֙ בַּגַּנִּ֔ים וְלִלְקֹ֖ט שֽׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים:
My beloved has gone down to his garden: He commanded us to build His Temple, and He will be there with us.   דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ: צִוָּה לָנוּ לִבְנוֹת הֵיכָלוֹ וְיִהְיֶה שָׁם עִמָּנוּ:
to the spice beds: to the place where the incense is burned.   לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם: מְקוֹם מִקְטַר הַקְּטֹרֶת:
to graze in the gardens: And further, He went down to pasture His flocks in the gardens where they were scattered, i.e., those who did not come up from the exile. He causes His Shechinah to rest upon them in the synagogues and in the study halls.   לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים: וְעוֹד יָרַד לִרְעוֹת צֹאנוֹ בַּגַּנִּים אֲשֶׁר נָפוֹצוּ שָׁם אוֹתָם שֶׁלֹּא עָלוּ מִן הַגּוֹלָה מַשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת:
and to gather roses: He listens and hearkens to those who speak of His Torah, to collect their merits and to inscribe them in a memorial book before Him, as it is stated (Mal. 3:16): “Then the God-fearing men spoke…[and a book of remembrance was written before Him…]” Now, concerning your request to seek with us and to build with us, “I am my Beloved’s,” but you are not His, and you shall not build with us, as it is stated (Ezra 4:3): “It is not for you and for us to build a House for our God,” and Scripture states further (Neh. 2:20): “and you have no portion or right or memorial in Jerusalem.”   וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים: שׁוֹמֵעַ וּמַקְשִׁיב נִדְבָּרִים בְּתוֹרָתוֹ לִלְקֹט זְכֻיּוֹתֵיהֶן וּלְכָתְבָם בְּסֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי ה' וגו'". וּמַה שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים לְבַקְּשׁוֹ עִמָּנוּ וְלִבְנוֹת עִמָּנוּ, "אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי" וְלֹא אַתֶּם לוֹ, וְלֹא תִבְנוּ עִמָּנוּ, כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "לֹא לָכֶם וְלָנוּ לִבְנוֹת בַּיִת לֵאלֹהֵינוּ". וְאוֹמֵר "וְלָכֶם אֵין חֵלֶק וּצְדָקָה וְזִכָּרוֹן בִּירוּשָׁלָיִם":
3I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine, who grazes among the roses."   גאֲנִ֤י לְדוֹדִי֙ וְדוֹדִ֣י לִ֔י הָֽרוֹעֶ֖ה בַּשּֽׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים:
who grazes among the roses: who pastures his flocks in a calm and goodly pasture.   הָרוֹעֶה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים: הָרוֹעֶה אֶת צֹאנוֹ בְּמִרְעֶה נוֹחַ וְטוֹב:
4"You are fair, my beloved, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, awesome as the bannered legions.   דיָפָ֨ה אַ֤תְּ רַעְיָתִי֙ כְּתִרְצָ֔ה נָאוָ֖ה כִּירֽוּשָׁלָ֑ ִם אֲיֻמָּ֖ה כַּנִּדְגָּלֽוֹת:
You are fair, my beloved, as Tirzah: And the Holy One, blessed be He, praises her for this: You are fair, my beloved, when you are desirable (רְצוּיָה) to me. So it is expounded in Sifrei (Deut. 6:9).   יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה: וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַלְּסָהּ עַל זֹאת, "יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי", כְּשֶׁאַתְּ רְצוּיָה לִי. כָּךְ הוּא נִדְרַשׁ בְּסִפְרֵי:
comely: are you now as at first in Jerusalem.   נָאוָה: אַתְּ עַתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה בִירוּשָׁלָיִם:
awesome as the bannered legions: the legions of angels. I will cast your awe upon them (upon your adversaries) so that they should not wage war and stop you from the work, as is stated in Ezra (ch. 5).   אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת: חֵילֵי מַלְאָכִים. אֵימָתֵךְ אָטִיל עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא לְהִלָּחֵם וּלְהַשְׁבִּיתְכֶם מִן הַמְּלָאכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּעֶזְרָא:
5Turn away your eyes from me, for they have made me haughty; your hair is like a flock of goats that streamed down from Gilead.   ההָסֵ֤בִּי עֵינַ֨יִךְ֙ מִנֶּגְדִּ֔י שֶׁ֥הֵ֖ם הִרְהִיבֻ֑נִי שַׂעְרֵךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הָֽעִזִּ֔ים שֶׁגָּֽלְשׁ֖וּ מִן־הַגִּלְעָֽד:
Turn away your eyes from me: as a young man whose betrothed is dear and sweet to him, and her eyes are comely, and he says to her, “Turn away your eyes from me, for when I see you, my heart becomes haughty and proud, and my spirit becomes arrogant, and I cannot resist.”   הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי: כְּבָחוּר שֶׁאֲרוּסָתוֹ חֲבִיבָה וַעֲרֵבָה עָלָיו וְעֵינֶיהָ נָאוֹת. וְאוֹמֵר לָהּ, "הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי כִּי בִרְאוֹתִי אוֹתָךְ לִבִּי מִשְׁתַּחֵץ וּמִתְגָּאֶה עָלַי, וְרוּחִי גַסָּה בִי, וְאֵינִי יָכוֹל לְהִתְאַפֵּק":
they have made me haughty: Heb. הִרְהִיבֻנִי. They made my heart arrogant, like (Ps. 90:10): “but their pride (וְרָהְבָּם) is toil and pain;” (Isa. 30:7): “They are haughty (רַהַב), idlers,” asoijer in Old French, to make proud. The allegorical meaning is as follows: The Holy One, blessed be He, said: In this Temple, it is impossible to restore to you the Ark, the Ark cover, and the cherubim, which made Me proud in the First Temple, to show you great affection, until you betrayed Me.   הִרְהִיבֻנִי: הֵגֵסוּ לִבִּי, כְּמוֹ "וְרָהְבָּם עָמָל וָאָוֶן", "רַהַב הֵם שָׁבֶת", אישווי"ר בְּלַעַ"ז. וְהַדֻּגְמָא כָךְ הוּא: אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּמִקְדָּשׁ זֶה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהָשִׁיב לָכֶם אָרוֹן וְכַפֹּרֶת וּכְרוּבִים, שֶׁהֵם הִרְהִיבוּנִי בְּבַיִת רִאשׁוֹן, לְהַרְאוֹתְכֶם חִבָּה יְתֵרָה עַד שֶׁמְּעַלְתֶּם בִּי:
your hair is like a flock of goats: in the small, the tender, and the slight ones among you, there is much praise.   שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים: בִּקְטַנִּים וְרַכִּים וְדַקִּים שֶׁבָּכֶם יֵשׁ שֶׁבַח הַרְבֵּה:
6Your teeth are like a flock of ewes that came up from the washing, all of which are perfect and there is no bereavement among them.   ושִׁנַּ֨יִךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הָֽרְחֵלִ֔ים שֶֽׁעָל֖וּ מִן־הָֽרַחְצָ֑ה שֶׁכֻּלָּם֙ מַתְאִימ֔וֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָ֖ה אֵ֥ין בָּהֶֽם:
Your teeth are like a flock of ewes: The officers and the mighty men among you are all [devoted to] goodness.   שִׁנַּיִךְ: קְצִינִים וְגִבּוֹרִים שֶׁבֵּיךְ כֻּלָּם לְטוֹבָה:
like a flock of ewes: This ewe is entirely devoted to holiness: its wool is for the blue thread, its flesh for a sacrifice, its horns for shofaroth, its thighs for flutes, its intestines for harps, its hide for a drum; but the wicked were likened to dogs, for they have nothing to offer to holiness.   כְּעֵדֶר הָרְחֵלִים: הָרָחֵל הַזֹּאת כֻּלָּהּ קְדוֹשָׁה: צַמְרָהּ לִתְכֵלֶת, בְּשָׂרָהּ לְקָרְבָּן, קַרְנֶיהָ לְשׁוֹפָרוֹת, שׁוֹקֶיהָ לַחֲלִילִין, מֵעֶיהָ לְכִנּוֹרוֹת, עוֹרָהּ לְתף, אֲבָל הָרְשָׁעִים נִמְשְׁלוּ לִכְלָבִים שֶׁאֵין מֵהֶם לִקְדֻשָּׁה כְּלוּם:
7Your temple is like a split pomegranate from beneath your kerchief.   זכְּפֶ֤לַח הָֽרִמּוֹן֙ רַקָּתֵ֔ךְ מִבַּ֖עַד לְצַמָּתֵֽךְ:
8There are sixty queens and eighty concubines, and innumerable maidens.   חשִׁשִּׁ֥ים הֵ֨מָּה֙ מְלָכ֔וֹת וּשְׁמֹנִ֖ים פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים וַֽעֲלָמ֖וֹת אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר:
There are sixty queens: Abraham and his descendants (Song Zuta). The sons of Keturah are sixteen. Ishmael and his sons are thirteen. Isaac and his sons are three. The sons of Jacob are twelve. The sons of Esau are sixteen, thus totaling sixty. And if you say that Timna should be excluded because she was a woman, then count Abraham in the number.   שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְלָכוֹת: אַבְרָהָם וְיוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ. בְּנֵי קְטוּרָה שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה, יִשְׁמָעֵאל וּבָנָיו שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה, יִצְחָק וּבָנָיו ג', בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר, בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו ט"ז, בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים, הֲרֵי שִׁשִּׁים. וְאִם תּאמַר, צֵא מֵהֶם תִּמְנַע שֶׁהִיא אִשָּׁה, אַבְרָהָם מִן הַמִּנְיָן:
and eighty concubines: Noah and his sons until Abraham, all the generations of those who left the Ark (Song Zuta)-you will find them to be eighty. And just as the queens, who are the kings’ wives, are superior in greatness to the concubines, so were Abraham and his descendants of great esteem, and superior in their esteem over everyone, as you will see. Hagar was the daughter of kings [and became Sarah’s maidservant (Gen. Rabbah 45:1)]. Timna was the daughter of rulers and became Esau’s concubine (ibid. 82:15), and Scripture says (Gen. 14:17): “to the Valley of Shaveh (שָׁוֶה), etc.” They all unanimously (הֻשְווּ) resolved to make Abraham king over them.   וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים: נֹחַ וּבָנָיו עַד אַבְרָהָם. כָּל תּוֹלְדוֹת יוֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה שְׁמֹנִים תִּמְצָאֵם. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁהַמְּלָכוֹת, שֶׁהֵם נְשֵׁי הַמֶּלֶךְ, יְתֵרוֹת בִּגְדֻלָּה עַל הַפִּילַגְשִׁים, כָּךְ הָיוּ אַבְרָהָם וְיוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ חֲשׁוּבִים גְּדוֹלִים וִיתֵרִים בַּחֲשִׁיבוּת עַל הַכֹּל, כַּאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶה. הָגָר בַּת מְלָכִים הָיְתָה, תִּמְנַע בַּת שִׁלְטוֹנִים הָיְתָה, וְנַעֲשֵׂית פִּילֶגֶשׁ לְעֵשָׂו. וְאוֹמֵר "אֶל עֵמֶק שָׁוֵה וגו'" הֻשְׁווּ כֻלָּם בְּעֵצָה אַחַת וְהִמְלִיכוּ אֶת אַבְרָהָם עֲלֵיהֶם:
and innumerable maidens: All these were divided into many families.   וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר: לְמִשְׁפָּחוֹת הַרְבֵּה נֶחְלְקוּ כָל אֵלֶּה:
9My dove, my perfect one, is but one; she is one to her mother, she is the pure one of she who bore her; daughters saw her and praised her, queens and concubines, and they lauded her;   טאַחַ֥ת הִיא֙ יֽוֹנָתִ֣י תַמָּתִ֔י אַחַ֥ת הִיא֙ לְאִמָּ֔הּ בָּרָ֥ה הִ֖יא לְיֽוֹלַדְתָּ֑הּ רָא֤וּהָ בָנוֹת֙ וַֽיְאַשְּׁר֔וּהָ מְלָכ֥וֹת וּפִֽילַגְשִׁ֖ים וַֽיְהַֽלְלֽוּהָ:
My dove is but one: And of all of them, one is My chosen one as a perfect dove, for she is wholehearted with her mate.   אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי: וּמִכֻּלָּם אַחַת הִיא הַנִּבְחֶרֶת לִי לְיוֹנָה תַמָּה, שֶׁהִיא תְמִימַת לֵב עִם בֶּן זוּגָהּ:
she is one to her mother: to her assembly. Many controversies exist in the study halls. All of them stem from the desire to understand the Torah in a well founded manner and according to its true meaning.   אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ: לִכְנֵסִיָּתָהּ. הַרְבֵּה מַחֲלוֹקוֹת בְּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת כֻּלָּם לִבָּם לְהָבִין תּוֹרָה עַל מְכוֹנָהּ וְעַל אֲמִתָּתָהּ:
she is the pure one of she who bore her: Jacob perceived that perfect bed without any blemish, and he thanked and praised the Omnipresent, as it is said (Gen. 47:31): “And Israel prostrated himself because of the esteem of the bed.”   בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ: יַעֲקֹב רָאָה אוֹתָהּ מִטָּה שְׁלֵמָה בְּלֹא פְסוּל וְהוֹדָה וְקִלֵּס לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּה":
daughters saw her: Israel in her greatness.   רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת: אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְדֻלָּתָהּ:
and they lauded her: And what was their praise?   וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ: וּמַה הִיא קִלּוּסָן?
10Who is this who looks forth like the dawn, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, awesome as the bannered legions?"   ימִי־זֹ֥את הַנִּשְׁקָפָ֖ה כְּמוֹ־שָׁ֑חַר יָפָ֣ה כַלְּבָנָ֗ה בָּרָה֙ כַּֽחַמָּ֔ה אֲיֻמָּ֖ה כַּנִּדְגָּלֽוֹת:
Who is this who looks forth: upon us. [Looking] from a high place to a low place is called הַשְּׁקָפָה. So is the Temple higher than all lands.   מִי זֹאת הַנִּשְׁקָפָה: עָלֵינוּ? מִמָּקוֹם הַגָּבֹהַּ לַנָּמוּךְ קְרוּיָה הַשְׁקָפָה. כָּךְ בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ גָּבֹהַּ מִכָּל אֲרָצוֹת:
like the dawn: which progressively lights up little by little; so were the Israelites in the Second Temple. In the beginning, Zerubbabel was the governor of Judah, but not a king, and they were subjugated to Persia and to Greece, and afterwards, the house of the Hasmoneans defeated them and they became kings.   כְּמוֹ שָׁחַר: הוֹלֵךְ וּמֵאִיר מְעַט מְעַט, כָּךְ הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי. בַּתְּחִלָּה זְרֻבָּבֶל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה וְלֹא מֶלֶךְ, וְהָיוּ מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים לְפָרַס וּלְיָוָן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִצְּחוּם בֵּית חַשְׁמוֹנַאי וְנַעֲשׂוּ מְלָכִים:
awesome as the bannered legions: awesome among the mighty men as the bannered legions of kings. All this the Holy One, blessed be He, praises the congregation of Israel, “You are fair, my beloved, as Tirzah,” and the entire matter until here.   אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת: אֲיֻמָּה בְגִבּוֹרֶיהָ כְּנִדְגָּלוֹת שֶׁל מְלָכִים. כָּל זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַלֵּס אֶת כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. "יָפָה אַתְּ רַעְיָתִי כְּתִרְצָה", וְכָל הָעִנְיָן עַד כַּאן:
11"I went down to the nut garden to see the green plants of the valley, to see whether the vine had blossomed, the pomegranates were in bloom.   יאאֶל־גִּנַּ֤ת אֱגוֹז֙ יָרַ֔דְתִּי לִרְא֖וֹת בְּאִבֵּ֣י הַנָּ֑חַל לִרְאוֹת֙ הֲפָֽרְחָ֣ה הַגֶּ֔פֶן הֵנֵ֖צוּ הָֽרִמֹּנִֽים:
I went down to the nut garden: This too is included in the words of the Shechinah: “Behold I came to this Second Temple to you.”   אֶל גִּנַּת אֱגוֹז יָרַדְתִּי: עוֹד זֶה מִדִּבְרֵי שְׁכִינָה, הִנֵּה בָאתִי אֶל מִקְדָּשׁ שֵׁנִי זֶה, אֵלָיִךְ:
to see the green plants of the valley: what moisture of good deeds I would see in you.   לִרְאוֹת בְּאִבֵּי הַנָּחַל: מַה לַּחְלוּחִית מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים אֶרְאֶה בָךְ:
whether the vine had blossomed: whether you caused Torah scholars, scribes, and teachers of Mishnah to blossom.   הֲפָרְחָה הַגֶּפֶן: אִם תַּפְרִיחוּ לְפָנַי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים וְסוֹפְרִים וְשׁוֹנִים:
the pomegranates were in bloom: [This refers to] those who fulfill the commandments, who are full of merits. Why were the Israelites compared to a nut? Just as this nut-all you see is wood, and what is inside is not discernible, and you crack it and find it full of sections of edible food, so are the Israelites modest and humble in their deeds, and the students among them are not discernible, and they do not boast by announcing their [own] praise. But if you examine him, you find him full of wisdom. There are many additional homiletic interpretations of this matter. Just as if this nut falls into the mud, its interior does not become sullied, so are the Israelites exiled among the nations and smitten with many blows, but their deeds are not sullied.   הֵנֵצוּ הָרִמֹּנִים: מְקַיְּמֵי מִצְוֹת מְלֵאֵי זְכֻיּוֹת. לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱגוֹז? מָה אֱגוֹז זֶה, אַתָּה רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ כֻלּוֹ עֵץ וְאֵין נִכָּר מַה בְּתוֹכוֹ, פּוֹצְעוֹ וּמוֹצְאוֹ מָלֵא מְגוּרוֹת מְגוּרוֹת שֶׁל אֳכָלִים, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל צְנוּעִין וְעִנְוְתָנִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וְאֵין תַּלְמִידִים שֶׁבָּהֶן נִכָּרִים, וְאֵין מִתְפָּאֲרִים לְהַכְרִיז עַל שִׁבְחָן, בְּדַקְתּוֹ אַתָּה מוֹצֵא אוֹתוֹ מָלֵא חָכְמָה. וְעוֹד כַּמָּה מִדְרָשׁוֹת לַדָּבָר: מָה אֱגוֹז זֶה נוֹפֵל בַּטִּיט וְאֵין מַה שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ נִמְאָס, אַף יִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִין לְבֵין הָאֻמּוֹת וְלוֹקִין מַלְקִיּוֹת הַרְבֵּה וְאֵין מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם נִמְאָסִין:
12I did not know; my soul made me chariots for a princely people."   יבלֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי נַפְשִׁ֣י שָׂמַ֔תְנִי מַרְכְּב֖וֹת עַמִּ֥י־נָדִֽיב:
I did not know: The congregation of Israel laments: I did not know to beware of sin, that I should retain my honor and my greatness, and I erred in the matter of groundless hatred and controversy, which intensified during the reign of the Hasmonean kings, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, until one of them brought the kingdom of Rome and received the kingship from their hand and became their vassal, and since then, my soul made me to be chariots, that the nobility of other nations ride upon me.   לֹא יָדַעְתִּי: כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִתְאוֹנֶנֶת: "לֹא יָדַעְתִּי לְהִזָּהֵר מִן הַחֵטְא שֶׁאֶעֱמֹד בִּכְבוֹדִי וּבִגְדֻלָּתִי, וְנִכְשַׁלְתִּי בְּשִׂנְאַת חִנָּם וּמַחֲלֹקֶת שֶׁגָּבְרָה בְמַלְכֵי בֵית חַשְׁמוֹנַאי, הוֹרְקְנוֹס וַאֲרִיסְתּוֹבְלוֹס, עַד שֶׁהָיָה מֵבִיא אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶת מַלְכוּת רוֹמִי וְקִבֵּל מִיָּדוֹ הַמְּלוּכָה וְנַעֲשָׂה לוֹ עֶבֶד, וּמֵאָז 'נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי' לִהְיוֹת 'מֶרְכָּבוֹת' לְהַרְכִּיב עָלַי נְדִיבוּת שְׁאָר אֻמּוֹת:
a princely people: Heb. עַמִי נָדִיב like:. עַם נָדִיב, the “yud” being superfluous, like the “yud” of (Deut. 33:16): “the One Who took up His abode (שֹּׁכְנִי) in the thornbush;” (Gen. 31:39): “stolen (גְנֻבְתִי) by day;” (Lam. 1:1): “populous (רַבָּתִי עַם).”   עַמִּי נָדִיב: כְּמוֹ עַם נָדִיב. יו"ד יְתֵרָה כיו"ד שֶׁל "שֹׁכְנִי סְנֶה," "גְּנֻבְתִי יוֹם", "רַבָּתִי עָם":
my soul made me: I myself appointed them over me, as it is stated (Jer. 13:21): “and you accustomed them to be princes over you as head.”   נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי: אֲנִי בְעַצְמִי מִנִּיתִים עָלַי, כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "וְאַתְּ לִמַּדְתְּ אֹתָם עָלַיִךְ אַלֻּפִים לְרֹאשׁ":