Chapter 33

1Woe to you who spoil and you are not spoiled, and who deal treacherously, and they did not deal treacherously with you. When you finish your spoiling, you shall be spoiled, when you finish dealing treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with you.   אה֣וֹי שׁוֹדֵ֗ד וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א שָׁד֔וּד וּבוֹגֵ֖ד וְלֹא־בָ֣גְדוּ בָ֑ךְ כַּֽהֲתִֽמְךָ֚ שׁוֹדֵד֙ תּוּשַּׁ֔ד כַּנְּלֹֽתְךָ֥ לִבְגֹּ֖ד יִבְגְּדוּ־בָֽךְ:
Woe: To the enemy, that you constantly spoil, but you are not spoiled, and you constantly deal treacherously, but no man deals treacherously with you or spoils you.  
when you finish: being a spoiler, when you finish your spoiling of those upon whom it was decreed to be spoiled by you, you shall be spoiled.  
when you finish dealing treacherously: (כַּנְּלֹתְ) Menahem classified כַּנְלֹתְ with (Job 15:29) “And their destruction (מִנְלָם) shall not fall to the earth,” in one group (Machbereth Menahem, p. 123). In the word מִנְלָם, the first ‘mem’ is a radical which sometimes is absent, like the ‘mem’ of מַאֲמָר, a statement, and of מַדָּע, knowledge, and it is possibly an expression of ending, according to the context. כַּנְּלֹתְ is an expression of ‘when you finish.’“And מִנְלָם shall not fall to the earth,” the destruction decreed upon them shall not fall to the earth to become progressively void, but will become progressively stronger.  
2O Lord, be gracious to us! We have hoped for You. Be their arm every morning, also our salvation in time of trouble.   ביְהֹוָ֥ה חָנֵּ֖נוּ לְךָ֣ קִוִּ֑ינוּ הֱיֵ֚ה זְרֹעָם֙ לַבְּקָרִ֔ים אַף־יְשֽׁוּעָתֵ֖נוּ בְּעֵ֥ת צָרָֽה:
Be their arm: of the spoiled ones in the hand of the spoiler. (Note that we followed other editions of Rashi. Nach Lublin is erroneous in this passage.)  
every morning: Daily, when they are in straits, also You be our salvation in time of trouble.  
3From the sound of roaring peoples have wandered; from Your exaltation, nations have scattered.   גמִקּ֣וֹל הָמ֔וֹן נָֽדְד֖וּ עַמִּ֑ים מֵרֹ֣מְמֻתֶ֔ךָ נָֽפְצ֖וּ גּוֹיִֽם:
From the sound of roaring: that emanated from before You, peoples wandered until here when You performed wondrous miracles for us.  
4And your booty shall be gathered like the gathering of the locusts, like the roaring of the cisterns does he roar therein.   דוְאֻסַּ֣ף שְׁלַלְכֶ֔ם אֹ֖סֶף הֶֽחָסִ֑יל כְּמַשַּׁ֥ק גֵּבִ֖ים שֹׁקֵ֥ק בּֽוֹ:
And your booty shall be gathered: This refers back to “when you finish dealing treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with you,” and your booty, you, who spoil My people, when your reckoning comes, the remnant of My people shall plunder you and gather your booty like the gathering of locusts, each one of whom gathers grain for himself in summer; here too, each one will plunder for himself.  
like the roaring of the cisterns: Like the sound of the roar of water gathering and falling into the cisterns in the river, so will those coming to plunder and pillage, roar. מַשַּׁק is an expression of roaring. Comp. (Prov. 28: 15) “A roaring lion and a growling (שׁוֹקֵק) bear.” Also (Zeph. 2: 9), “The noise (מִמְשַׁק) of the thorns.” When the wind blows on the thorns, and they knock against one another, they produce a sound. Comp. also, (Joel 2:9) “In the city they roar (יָשֹׁקּוּ).”  
cisterns: (גֵּבִים) like (supra 30:14) “or to scoop water from a cistern (מִגֶּבֶא).” Our Sages expounded it in the Aggadah of Chapter Chelek (San. 94b) as referring to the booty of Sennacherib’s soldiers.  
5The Lord is exalted, for He dwells on high; He has filled Zion with justice and righteousness.   הנִשְׂגָּ֣ב יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּ֥י שֹׁכֵ֖ן מָר֑וֹם מִלֵּ֣א צִיּ֔וֹן מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָֽה:
for He dwells on high: He demonstrated His might, that He is exalted above all, and He has the upper hand.  
6And the faith of your times shall be the strength of salvations, wisdom and knowledge; fear of the Lord, that is his treasure.   ווְהָיָה֙ אֱמוּנַ֣ת עִתֶּ֔יךָ חֹ֥סֶן יְשׁוּעֹ֖ת חָכְמַ֣ת וָדָ֑עַת יִרְאַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה הִ֥יא אֽוֹצָרֽוֹ:
And the faith of your times, etc.: And it shall be for you for strength of salvations and for wisdom and knowledge, that you will be faithful to your Creator concerning the times that He set for you for terumoth and tithes at the time of their separation, for gleanings, forgotten sheaves, and the corner of the field in their time, to leave them over for the poor, to keep release years and jubilee years in their time. Another explanation is:  
faith of your times: What you believed in the Holy One, blessed be He, in times that passed over you, and you hoped for salvation, shall become your strength.  
fear of the Lord: That you shall fear Him - that is a good treasure to open up for you from before Him.  
7Behold [for] their altar they have cried in the street; ambassadors of peace weep bitterly.   זהֵן אֶרְאֶלָּ֔ם צָֽעֲק֖וּ חֻ֑צָה מַלְאֲכֵ֣י שָׁל֔וֹם מַ֖ר יִבְכָּיֽוּן:
Behold [for] their altar they have cried in the street: The prophet was prophesying consolations and saying that the retribution had already been completed, and from now I will rise and exalt Myself to redeem them. Behold for their Arel - that is the altar (see above 29:1) - they have already cried and lamented in their streets and in their squares with weeping and wailing.  
ambassadors of peace: And the ambassadors whom they send, who were wont to bring tidings of peace, cry bitterly and say, “Highways have become desolate, the wayfarer has stopped.”  
8Highways have become desolate, the wayfarer has stopped; he has abrogated the treaty, despised cities, considered no man.   חנָשַׁ֣מּוּ מְסִלּ֔וֹת שָׁבַ֖ת עֹבֵ֣ר אֹ֑רַח הֵפֵ֚ר בְּרִית֙ מָאַ֣ס עָרִ֔ים לֹ֥א חָשַׁ֖ב אֱנֽוֹשׁ:
he has abrogated the treaty: The enemy has abrogated the treaty he made with Israel.  
despised cities: He despised in his eyes; no enemy considers any man.  
9The land mourns, it has been cut off; he disgraced the Lebanon, it was cut off; the Sharon became like the plain, and Bashan and Karmel have become emptied.   טאָבַ֚ל אֻמְלְלָה֙ אָ֔רֶץ הֶחְפִּ֥יר לְבָנ֖וֹן קָמַ֑ל הָיָ֚ה הַשָּׁרוֹן֙ כָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה וְנֹעֵ֥ר בָּשָׁ֖ן וְכַרְמֶֽל:
mourns: (אָבֵל) an expression of mourning.  
it was cut off: Dried and cut off.  
became: (הָיָה, lit. was.) This is the past tense.  
the Sharon: The name of a region of pasture for animals, as we learned (Men. 87a): Rams from Moab, calves from Sharon.  
like the plain: a ruin.  
have become emptied: (וְנֹעֵר) An expression of shaking out. Comp. (Ex. 14:27): “And the Lord shook (וַיְנַעֵר).”  
10"Now I will rise," says the Lord. "Now I will be raised; now I will be exalted.   יעַתָּ֥ה אָק֖וּם יֹאמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה עַתָּה֙ אֵֽרוֹמָ֔ם עַתָּ֖ה אֶנָּשֵֽׂא:
Now I will rise: Because of the many evils the enemy perpetrated against My people, I will no longer restrain Myself; now I will rise, be raised and be exalted.  
11You shall conceive chaff; you shall bear stubble. Your breath is fire; it shall consume you."   יאתַּֽהֲר֥וּ חֲשַׁ֖שׁ תֵּ֣לְדוּ קַ֑שׁ רֽוּחֲכֶ֕ם אֵ֖שׁ תֹּֽאכַלְכֶֽם:
chaff: (חֲשַׁשׁ) a kind of chaff, something that is easily ignited.  
your breath is fire: From your body shall emanate breath of fire and will consume the chaff and the stubble.  
12And the peoples shall be as the burnings of lime; severed thorns, with fire they shall be burnt.   יבוְהָי֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים מִשְׂרְפ֣וֹת שִׂ֑יד קוֹצִ֥ים כְּסוּחִ֖ים בָּאֵ֥שׁ יִצַּֽתּוּ:
severed: (כְּסוּחִים) Comp. (Lev. 25:4) “You shall not prune.” Onkelos renders: לָא תִכְסָח.  
13Hearken, you far-off ones, what I did, and know, you near ones, My might.   יגשִׁמְע֥וּ רְחוֹקִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֑יתִי וּדְע֥וּ קְרוֹבִ֖ים גְּבֻֽרָתִֽי:
you far-off ones: Those who believe in Me and do My will from their youth.  
you near ones: Repentant sinners who have recently drawn near to Me.  
14Sinners in Zion were afraid; trembling seized the flatterers, 'Who will stand up for us against a consuming fire? Who will stand up for us against the everlasting fires?'   ידפָּֽחֲד֚וּ בְצִיּוֹן֙ חַטָּאִ֔ים אָֽחֲזָ֥ה רְעָדָ֖ה חֲנֵפִ֑ים מִ֣י | יָג֣וּר לָ֗נוּ אֵשׁ אֽוֹכֵלָ֔ה מִֽי־יָג֥וּר לָ֖נוּ מֽוֹקְדֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם:
Sinners in Zion were afraid: How they would find an opening to repent.  
Who will stand up for us against a consuming fire?: (lit., Who will live for us a consuming fire?) I.e., who will stand up for us to appease burning wrath? Alternatively, who among us will dwell, i.e., who among us will dwell in Zion with the Rock, Who is a consuming fire? And he replies, “He who walks righteously, etc.”  
15He who walks righteously, and speaks honestly, who contemns gain of oppression, who shakes his hands from taking hold of bribe, closes his ear from hearing of blood, and closes his eyes from seeing evil.   טוהֹלֵ֣ךְ צְדָק֔וֹת וְדֹבֵ֖ר מֵֽישָׁרִ֑ים מֹאֵ֞ס בְּבֶ֣צַע מַֽעֲשַׁקּ֗וֹת נֹעֵ֚ר כַּפָּיו֙ מִתְּמֹ֣ךְ בַּשֹּׁ֔חַד אֹטֵ֚ם אָזְנוֹ֙ מִשְּׁמֹ֣עַ דָּמִ֔ים וְעֹצֵ֥ם עֵינָ֖יו מֵֽרְא֥וֹת בְּרָֽע:
He who walks righteously: Who will be found? One who walks righteously.  
who shakes his hands: (eskot in O.F.).  
closes his ear: (אֹטֵם) Comp. (I Kings 6:4) “transparent but closed (אֲטֻמִים).”  
and closes: (וְעֹצֵם) Comp. (supra 29:10) “And He has closed (וַיְעַצֵּם) your eyes.”  
16He shall dwell on high; rocky fortresses shall be his defense; his bread shall be given [him], his water sure.   טזהוּא מְרוֹמִ֣ים יִשְׁכֹּ֔ן מְצָד֥וֹת סְלָעִ֖ים מִשְׂגַּבּ֑וֹ לַחְמ֣וֹ נִתָּ֔ן מֵימָ֖יו נֶֽאֱמָנִֽים:
his bread shall be given: He will not seek bread, for it will be supplied to him from heaven.  
his water sure: The source of his water will not fail. I.e., his seed will become great, and all his wants will be supplied.  
17The King in His beauty shall your eyes behold; they shall see [from] a distant land.   יזמֶ֥לֶךְ בְּיָפְי֖וֹ תֶּֽחֱזֶ֣ינָה עֵינֶ֑יךָ תִּרְאֶ֖ינָה אֶ֥רֶץ מַרְחַקִּֽים:
The King in His beauty shall your eyes behold: (The Holy One, blessed be He, Who is a King, Him you shall see from a distant land where you are standing. You shall see the miracles and the greatness that I will perform for you, and a people of a strange tongue, of obscure speech, shall not see the Shechinah of the King in His beauty. [This does not appear in many editions.]) The King in His beauty shall your eyes behold. To you, O righteous man, I say that you shall merit to see the splendor of the Shechinah of the Omnipresent.  
they shall see [from] a distant land: Jonathan renders: You shall look and see those who go down to the land of Gehinnom.  
18Your heart shall meditate [in] fear; where is he who counts, where is he who weighs, where is he who counts the towers?   יחלִבְּךָ֖ יֶהְגֶּ֣ה אֵימָ֑ה אַיֵּ֚ה סֹפֵר֙ אַיֵּ֣ה שֹׁקֵ֔ל אַיֵּ֖ה סֹפֵ֥ר אֶת־הַמִּגְדָּלִֽים:
Your heart shall meditate [in] fear: When you see the princes and the savants of the heathens, who ruled during their lifetime, and who are now being judged in Gehinnom, your heart will meditate in terror, and you will say, "Where is the wisdom and the greatness of these men? Where is the one who, during his lifetime, would count and weigh every word of wisdom, for they would ask him every counsel of the kingdom?  
Where is he who counts the towers: This too is a matter of the kingdom. He is appointed over the houses of the kingdom, how many they are, and how many towers a certain city requires. Comp. (Ps. 48:13) “Encircle Zion and surround it, count its towers,” how many towers it requires.  
19A people of a strange tongue you shall not see, a people of speech too obscure to comprehend, of stammering tongue, without meaning.   יטאֶת־עַ֥ם נוֹעָ֖ז לֹ֣א תִרְאֶ֑ה עַ֣ם עִמְקֵ֚י שָׂפָה֙ מִשְּׁמ֔וֹעַ נִלְעַ֥ג לָשׁ֖וֹן אֵ֥ין בִּינָֽה:
A people of a strange tongue: (נוֹעָז) like לוֹעֵז. These are all the heathens, whose language is not the holy tongue. ([Other editions read:] These are Assyria and Babylon, whose language is not the holy tongue.) ([Manuscripts read:] These are all the nations whose language is not the holy tongue.)  
you shall not see: You shall not esteem in your heart, for they shall all be dark and humble.  
speech… obscure: (שָׂפָה, lit. lip.) Comp. (Gen. 11:1) “And all the land was one speech (שָׂפָה).”  
of stammering tongue: (נִלְעָג לָשׁוֹן). Comp. (32:4) “The tongue of the stammerers (לְשׁוֹן עִלְּגִים),” (and of obscure speech. All this is a foreign language, for they do not understand the holy tongue.)  
20See Zion, the city of our gathering; your eyes shall see Jerusalem, a tranquil dwelling, a tent that shall not fall, whose pegs shall never be moved, and all of whose ropes shall not be torn.   כחֲזֵ֣ה צִיּ֔וֹן קִרְיַ֖ת מֽוֹעֲדֵ֑נוּ עֵינֶיךָ֩ תִרְאֶ֨ינָה יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֜ם נָוֶ֣ה שַֽׁאֲנָ֗ן אֹ֚הֶל בַּל־יִצְעָן֙ בַּל־יִסַּ֚ע יְתֵדֹתָיו֙ לָנֶ֔צַח וְכָל־חֲבָלָ֖יו בַּל־יִנָּתֵֽקוּ:
See Zion: But whom will you see in your heart to be regarded as a kingdom and a ruling power? Zion, which is the city of our meeting place.  
that shall not fall: (יִצְעָן) shall not be lowered. Comp. (Jud. 4:11) “Elon-bezaanannim (אֵלוֹן בְּצַעֲנַנִּים),” which is rendered as: the plain of pits (מִישׁוֹר אַגְנַיָּא) , which are pits in the fields, called kombes in O.F. Comp. (Baba Kamma 61b) “The pits of the earth (אַגְנֵי דְאַרְעָא) they are considered,” where water gathers from the mountains and the hills. I believe that the ‘beth’ of the word בְּצַעֲנַנִּים is not radical, but is a prefix.  
whose pegs shall never be moved: (יִסַּע) The pegs with which they tie the ropes of the tent he shall not move them from the earth, from the place into which they are thrust. Comp. (I Kings 5:31) “And they quarried (וַיַּסִּעוּ) great stones.” Also (Jud. 16:3), “And he plucked them (וַיִּסּעֵם) together with the bolt,” an expression of uprooting.  
21But there, the Lord is mighty for us; a place of broad rivers and streams, where a galley with oars shall not go, and a great ship shall not pass.   כאכִּ֣י אִם־שָׁ֞ם אַדִּ֚יר יְהֹוָה֙ לָ֔נוּ מְקֽוֹם־נְהָרִ֥ים יְאֹרִ֖ים רַֽחֲבֵ֣י יָדָ֑יִם בַּל־תֵּ֚לֶךְ בּוֹ֙ אֳנִי־שַׁ֔יִט וְצִ֥י אַדִּ֖יר לֹ֥א יַֽעַבְרֶֽנּוּ:
But there: ‘But’ refers back to ‘whose pegs shall never be moved,’ and ‘shall not be torn.’ The evil shall not be, only the good. There the Lord shall be mighty for us, and the city shall be a place of rivers and streams, in the manner it is said in Ezekiel (47: 4f.): “And He measured a thousand (cubits), and He led me… a stream that I could not cross.” And so did Joel prophesy (4: 18) “And a spring shall emanate from the house of the Lord,” that it shall become progressively stronger.  
a galley with oars: a ship that floats on the water.  
and a great ship: (וְצִי אַדִּיר) and a great ship [from Jonathan].  
22For the Lord is our judge; the Lord is our ruler; the Lord is our king; He shall save us.   כבכִּ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ שֹֽׁפְטֵ֔נוּ יְהֹוָ֖ה מְחֹֽקְקֵ֑נוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה מַלְכֵּ֖נוּ ה֥וּא יֽוֹשִׁיעֵֽנוּ:
For the Lord is our judge: Our prince and judge.  
23Your ropes are loosed, not to strengthen their mast properly; they did not spread out a sail; then plunder [and] booty were divided by many; the lame takes the prey.   כגנִטְּשׁ֖וּ חֲבָלָ֑יִךְ בַּל־יְחַזְּק֚וּ כֵן־תָּרְנָם֙ בַּל־פָּ֣רְשׂוּ נֵ֔ס אָ֣ז חֻלַּ֚ק עַד־שָׁלָל֙ מַרְבֶּ֔ה פִּסְחִ֖ים בָּ֥זְזוּ בַֽז:
Your ropes: that draw the ship, you sinful city. ([Mss. yield:] you, sinful Rome.)  
properly: prepared well.  
a sail: Heb. נס, the sail of a ship.  
they did not spread out a sail: They will not be able to spread the sail that guides the boat.  
then plunder [and] booty were divided: (עד) related to עֲדָאָה, plunder, in Aramaic.  
by many: Many will divide the plunder of the heathens. ([Mss. yield:] the plunder of Edom.) ([Others:] the nations.) ([Still others:] Sennacherib.)  
lame: Israel, who were weak until now.  
24And the neighbor shall not say, "I am sick." The people dwelling therein is forgiven of sin.   כדוּבַל־יֹאמַ֥ר שָׁכֵ֖ן חָלִ֑יתִי הָעָ֛ם הַיּשֵׁ֥ב בָּ֖הּ נְשֻׂ֥א עָו‍ֹֽן:
And the neighbor shall not say: (I.e., the neighbor of) Israel.  
“I am sick”: Because of this nation, this misfortune has befallen me, for  
The people: Israel, who is called a people, that dwells in Jerusalem, shall be forgiven of sin.