Chapter 32

1Behold for righteousness shall a king reign, and over princes who rule with justice.   אהֵ֥ן לְצֶ֖דֶק יִמְלָךְ־מֶ֑לֶךְ וּלְשָׂרִ֖ים לְמִשְׁפָּ֥ט יָשֽׂרוּ:
Behold, for righteousness shall a king reign: Behold a king has no right to reign except to execute righteous judgment.  
and over princes who rule with justice: And over whom should he reign? Over princes who rule with justice. The prophet says this concerning Ahaz, who was a wicked man, but Hezekiah his son shall rule, and he is worthy. ([Manuscripts read:] And he is worthy of reigning.)  
2And the man shall be as a hiding- place from the wind and a shelter from the rain, as rivulets of water in an arid land, as the shade of a huge rock in a weary land.   בוְהָֽיָה־אִ֥ישׁ כְּמַֽחֲבֵא־ר֖וּחַ וְסֵ֣תֶר זָ֑רֶם כְּפַלְגֵי־מַ֣יִם בְּצָי֔וֹן כְּצֵ֥ל סֶֽלַע־כָּבֵ֖ד בְּאֶ֥רֶץ עֲיֵפָֽה:
And the man shall be: The hero in the fear of the Holy One, blessed be He - that is Hezekiah - shall be for Israel.  
as a hiding place from the wind: As a shelter of a rock, where people hide because of the wind, and they hide there because of the heat ([mss. read:] because of the rain), so will those remaining from the ten tribes trust in him.  
in an arid land.: (בְּצָיוֹן) an expression of dryness, desolation (צִיָּה).  
as the shade of a huge rock in a weary land: In a sunny place, where the earth is weary and dry and yearning for shade.  
3And the eyes of them that see shall not be sealed,   גוְלֹ֥א תִשְׁעֶ֖ינָה עֵינֵ֣י רֹאִ֑ים וְאָזְנֵ֥י שֹֽׁמְעִ֖ים תִּקְשַֽׁבְנָה:
And the eyes of them that see shall not be sealed: (Heb. תִשְׁעֶינָה) Not as they are now, that “his ears are becoming heavy, and his eyes are becoming sealed (הָשַׁע) ” (supra 6:10), an expression of sealing.  
4And the heart of the hasty shall understand to know, and the ears of them that hear shall attend, and the tongue of the stammerers shall hasten to speak clearly.   דוּלְבַ֥ב נִמְהָרִ֖ים יָבִ֣ין לָדָ֑עַת וּלְשׁ֣וֹן עִלְּגִ֔ים תְּמַהֵ֖ר לְדַבֵּ֥ר צַחֽוֹת:
And the heart of the hasty shall understand to know: Not like now, that “this people’s heart is becoming fat” (ibid.).  
and the tongue of the stammerers, etc.: Not like now, “for with distorted speech” (supra 28:11).  
stammerers: Anyone who does not know how to direct his speech to be clear is termed עִלֵּג or נִלְעַג.  
5A vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall a deceitful person be said to be noble.   הלֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֥א ע֛וֹד לְנָבָ֖ל נָדִ֑יב וּלְכִילַ֕י לֹ֥א יֵֽאָמֵ֖ר שֽׁוֹעַ:
deceitful: (כִּילַי) a plotting deceiver, who plots evil.  
noble: (שׁוּעַ) an expression of a lord, to whom everyone turns (שׁוֹעִין).  
6For a vile person speaks villainly, and his heart works iniquity, to practice flattery, and to speak lies about the Lord, to empty the soul of the hungry, and the drink of the thirsty he causes to fail.   וכִּ֚י נָבָל֙ נְבָלָ֣ה יְדַבֵּ֔ר וְלִבּ֖וֹ יַֽעֲשֶׂה־אָ֑וֶן לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת חֹ֗נֶף וּלְדַבֵּ֚ר אֶל־יְהֹוָה֙ תּוֹעָ֔ה לְהָרִיק֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ רָעֵ֔ב וּמַשְׁקֵ֥ה צָמֵ֖א יַחְסִֽיר:
speaks villainy: (יְדַבֵּר) like מְדַבֵּר, a present tense.  
works iniquity: (יַעֲשֶׂה) Gathers thoughts of iniquity. Comp. (Deut. 8:17) “Gathered (עָשָׂה) for me this wealth.”  
to practice flattery: (לֲעֲשׂוֹת) He thinks thoughts how he can practice flattery. חֹנֵף is a noun; therefore, the accent is on the first syllable, it is vowelized with a ‘pattah’ (now called a ‘segol’).  
and the drink of the thirsty he causes to fail: According to the simple meaning, they rob the poor. The Targum, (however, paraphrases:) The words of the Torah, which are like water to the thirsty, they plan to nullify.  
7As for the deceitful person, his instruments are evil; he plans wicked plots, to destroy the poor with false words, and when the needy speaks a plea.   זוְכֵלַ֖י כֵּלָ֣יו רָעִ֑ים הוּא זִמּ֣וֹת יָעָ֔ץ לְחַבֵּ֚ל עֲנִיִּים֙ (כתיב עֲנִוִּים֙) בְּאִמְרֵי־שֶׁ֔קֶר וּבְדַבֵּ֥ר אֶבְי֖וֹן מִשְׁפָּֽט:
and when the needy speaks a plea: (מִשְׁפָּט) To destroy the needy in his plea (מִשְׁפָּטוֹ). This word מִשְׁפָּט is an expression denoting the initial presentation of the case; when the needy presents his pleas, this one plans wicked plots to trap him with his devices. The word מִשְׁפָּט has three meanings: the initial pleas (derajjsnement in O.F.), the sentence (joujjment), and the execution of the verdict, that they discipline him with chastisement (joustize in O.F.).  
8But the generous person plans generous deeds, and he, because of generous deeds, shall stand.   חוְנָדִ֖יב נְדִיב֣וֹת יָעָ֑ץ וְה֖וּא עַל־נְדִיב֥וֹת יָקֽוּם:
because of generous deeds, shall stand: Because of his generous acts, he will have preservation.  
9Complacent women, rise, harken to my voice, confident daughters, bend your ears to my speech.   טנָשִׁים֙ שַֽׁאֲנַנּ֔וֹת קֹ֖מְנָה שְׁמַ֣עְנָה קוֹלִ֑י בָּנוֹת֙ בֹּֽטְח֔וֹת הַאְזֵ֖נָּה אִמְרָתִֽי:
Complacent women: Provinces that dwell in tranquility [from Jonathan].  
confident daughters: Walled cities that dwell confidently [from Jonathan].  
10Year after year, shall you be troubled, you confident ones, for the vintage has failed; the ingathering shall not come.   ייָמִים֙ עַל־שָׁנָ֔ה תִּרְגַּ֖זְנָה בֹּֽטְח֑וֹת כִּי כָּלָ֣ה בָצִ֔יר אֹ֖סֶף בְּלִ֥י יָבֽוֹא:
Year after year: (lit., ‘days upon a year.’) Comp. (supra 29:1) “Add year to year,” and your sins are constantly becoming more serious, until eventually you shall be troubled, those who are now confident, for the vintage of the grapes shall be over for them, and the ingathering of the grain shall not come into the house.  
the ingathering: (אֹסֶף) This is a noun; therefore, its accent is on the first syllable and it is vowelized with a ‘pattah’ (now called a ‘segol’).  
11Tremble, complacent ones, to be troubled, confident ones, to undress and to bare, and to gird on the loins.   יאחִרְדוּ֙ שַֽׁאֲנַנּ֔וֹת רְגָ֖זָה בֹּֽטְח֑וֹת פְּשֹׁ֣טָה וְעֹ֔רָה וַֽחֲג֖וֹרָה עַל־חֲלָצָֽיִם:
to be troubled: (רְגָזָה) to be troubled. (This is an infinitive despite the absence of the ‘lammed.’)  
to undress: (פְּשֹׁטָה) to undress. (This too is an infinitive with the ‘lammed’ missing.)  
and to bare: (וְעֹרָה) An expression of ‘naked’ (עֶרְיָה) (Micah 1:11).  
and to gird: (וַחֲגוֹרָה) Therefore, the accent is before the last syllable, and so did Jonathan render: Undress and bare yourselves and gird on your loins. Since they will undress and bare themselves of their garments, they will not gird on their garments but on their loins.  
12[They shall beat] on the breasts, lamenting, for the desirable fields, for the fruitful vines.   יבעַל־שָׁדַ֖יִם סֹֽפְדִ֑ים עַל־שְׂדֵי־חֶ֕מֶד עַל־גֶּ֖פֶן פֹּֽרִיָּה:
on the breasts, lamenting: They shall beat their heart.  
for the desirable fields: For the fields of their desire. The Midrash Aggadah (See twenty-fourth poem to Lamentations Rabbah) states: For the sages of the Sanhedrin, who are like breasts that nurture, they will lament, and for the city of their desire that will be plowed up like a field, and for the fruitful - vine that is Israel, called a vine, as it is said (Psalms 80:9): “You plucked a vine out of Egypt.”  
13On my people's soil thorns and briers shall come up, for on all the houses of joy, the joyful city.   יגעַל אַדְמַ֣ת עַמִּ֔י ק֥וֹץ שָׁמִ֖יר תַּֽעֲלֶ֑ה כִּי עַל־כָּל־בָּתֵּ֣י מָשׂ֔וֹשׂ קִרְיָ֖ה עַלִּיזָֽה:
Thorns and briers: The Targum renders: הוּבֵאִי וּבוּר various types of thorns, for all this destruction shall be on all houses of joy, and on  
the joyful city: Jerusalem, which is “the joy of all the land” (Lamentations 2:15).  
14For the palace has been forsaken, the multitude of the city has been abandoned, rampart and tower are amidst ruins forever, a joy for wild donkeys, a pasture for flocks.   ידכִּֽי־אַרְמ֣וֹן נֻטָּ֔שׁ הֲמ֥וֹן עִ֖יר עֻזָּ֑ב עֹ֣פֶל וָבַ֜חַן הָיָ֨ה בְּעַ֚ד מְעָרוֹת֙ עַד־עוֹלָ֔ם מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ פְּרָאִ֖ים מִרְעֵ֥ה עֲדָרִֽים:
For the palace: The king’s palace has been forsaken.  
the multitude of the city: has been exiled.  
rampart and tower: My Temple, which was a fortification for them.  
are amidst ruins: (הָיָה בְּעַד מְעָרוֹת), shall be amidst ruins. מְעָרוֹת is an expression similar to (Psalms 137: 7) “Raze it, raze it (עָרוּ עָרוּ).” בְּעַד is like “(Job 22:13) Can He judge through (הַבְעַד) a thick cloud?”  
forever: Until the time of the end.  
a joy for wild donkeys: For the lust of Ishmael and his hosts.  
15Until a spirit be poured us from on high, and the desert shall become a fruitful field, and the fruitful field shall be regarded as a forest.   טועַד־יֵֽעָרֶ֥ה עָלֵ֛ינוּ ר֖וּחַ מִמָּר֑וֹם וְהָיָ֚ה מִדְבָּר֙ לַכַרְמֶ֔ל וְהַכַּרְמֶ֖ל (כתיב וְכַּרְמֶ֖ל) לַיַּ֥עַר יֵֽחָשֵֽׁב:
Until… be poured upon us: (יֵעָרֶה) He shall pour upon us. Comp. (Gen. 24:2) “And she emptied (וַתְּעַר) her pitcher.” An expression of pouring applies to spirit. Comp. (Zech. 12:10) “And I will pour upon the house of David… a spirit of grace.” Comp. also (Joel 3: 1) “I will pour My spirit upon all flesh.”  
shall be regarded as a forest: (Jonathan renders:) Great cities, like this forest, which is full of trees.  
16And justice shall dwell in the desert, and righteousness shall reside in the fruitful field.   טזוְשָׁכַ֥ן בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה בַּכַּרְמֶ֥ל תֵּשֵֽׁב:
And justice shall dwell in the desert: In Jerusalem, which is like a desert.  
and righteousness shall reside in the fruitful field: That is the land of Israel, which in those days shall be like a fruitful field.  
17And the deed of righteousness shall be peace, and the act of righteousness [shall be] tranquility and safety until eternity.   יזוְהָיָ֛ה מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה הַצְּדָקָ֖ה שָׁל֑וֹם וַֽעֲבֹדַת֙ הַצְּדָקָ֔ה הַשְׁקֵ֥ט וָבֶ֖טַח עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
18And My people shall dwell in a dwelling of peace, and in secure dwellings and in tranquil resting-places.   יחוְיָשַׁ֥ב עַמִּ֖י בִּנְוֵ֣ה שָׁל֑וֹם וּבְמִשְׁכְּנוֹת֙ מִבְטַחִ֔ים וּבִמְנוּחֹ֖ת שַֽׁאֲנַנּֽוֹת:
19And He shall hail down the hailing of the forest, and into the low state shall the city be humbled.   יטוּבָרַ֖ד בְּרֶ֣דֶת הַיָּ֑עַר וּבַשִּׁפְלָ֖ה תִּשְׁפַּ֥ל הָעִֽיר:
And He shall hail down the hailing of the forest: (וּבָרַד בְּרֶדֶתהַיָּעַר) Perforce, this word וּבָרָד is not a noun, since half of it is vowelized with a ‘kamatz’ and half of it with a ‘pattah’ in an expression of פָּעַל. (Rashi distinguishes בָּרַד from בָּרָד, the noun denoting hail.) And so is its interpretation, an expression of an action, like ‘and he shall wash’ (וְרָחַץ), ‘and he shall sit’ (וְיָשַׁב), ‘and he shall stand’ (וְעָמַד). Here too, וּבָרַד ‘and He shall hail down the hailing of the forest.’ Then the ‘beth’ of בְּרֶדֶת is a radical, like עֲטֶרֶת, ‘a crown,’ עֲקֶרֶת ‘a barren woman.’ That is to say that the Holy One, blessed be He, shall rain down the rain of the coals of the wicked, those who are now built up and full of cities like a forest.  
and into the low state: Into which Israel has been humbled until now, shall the metropolis of Persia (Seir, Edom, [according to various mss.]) be humbled. In a similar manner did Jonathan render it: And hail will come down and kill the camps of the nations.  
20Fortunate are you who sow by all waters, those who send forth the feet of the ox and the donkey.   כאַשְׁרֵיכֶ֕ם זֹֽרְעֵ֖י עַל־כָּל־מָ֑יִם מְשַׁלְּחֵ֥י רֶֽגֶל־הַשּׁ֖וֹר וְהַֽחֲמֽוֹר:
Fortunate are you: Israel, that the sowing of your righteousness has succeeded like those who sow by all waters. From now on, you shall reap and gather the grain of your good reward; you shall send forth the feet of the ox to thresh the grain, and the donkey to bring it into the house. So did Jonathan render it: You shall receive the reward of your good work.