Chapter 31

1Woe to those who go down to Egypt for aid, and who rely on horses and trust in chariots which are many, and on riders who are very strong, and they did not rely on the Holy One of Israel and the Lord they did not seek.   אה֣וֹי הַיֹּֽרְדִ֚ים מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְעֶזְרָ֔ה וְעַל־סוּסִ֖ים יִשָּׁעֵ֑נוּ וַיִּבְטְח֨וּ עַל־רֶ֜כֶב כִּ֣י רָ֗ב וְעַ֚ל פָּֽרָשִׁים֙ כִּֽי־עָֽצְמ֣וּ מְאֹ֔ד וְלֹ֚א שָׁעוּ֙ עַל־קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה לֹ֥א דָרָֽשׁוּ:
Woe: Concerning Hoshea and the ten tribes who went down to Egypt for aid, who sent emissaries to So, king of Egypt (II Kings 17).  
on horses: that come from there, for they are swift runners.  
rely: (יִשָּׁעֵנוּ) and they did not rely on the Holy One of Israel as Hezekiah did, concerning whom it is written: (II Kings 18:5, 7): “He trusted in the Lord God of Israel… and he rebelled against the king of Assyria.”  
2He too is wise, and He brought evil, and His words He did not retract; and He rose up on the house of evildoers and upon the aid of workers of iniquity.   בוְגַם־ה֚וּא חָכָם֙ וַיָּ֣בֵא רָ֔ע וְאֶת־דְּבָרָ֖יו לֹ֣א הֵסִ֑יר וְקָם֙ עַל־בֵּ֣ית מְרֵעִ֔ים וְעַל־עֶזְרַ֖ת פֹּֽ֥עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן:
and His words He did not retract: What He said, “And the Lord shall take you back to Egypt in ships” (Deut. 28:68). This is payment in kind, for I said to you, “You shall no longer see it (ibid.),” and you went there of your own free will. Eventually, you shall go there in exile against your will.  
and He rose: on the ten tribes, who are a house of evildoers, and on the Egyptians who came to their aid.  
3Now the Egyptians are men and not God, and their horses are flesh and not spirit, and the Lord shall turn His hand, and the helper shall stumble and the helped one shall fall, and together all of them shall perish.   גוּמִצְרַ֚יִם אָדָם֙ וְלֹֽא־אֵ֔ל וְסֽוּסֵיהֶ֥ם בָּשָׂ֖ר וְלֹא־ר֑וּחַ וַֽיהֹוָ֞ה יַטֶּ֣ה יָד֗וֹ וְכָשַׁ֚ל עוֹזֵר֙ וְנָפַ֣ל עָזֻ֔ר וְיַחְדָּ֖ו כֻּלָּ֥ם יִכְלָיֽוּן:
shall turn His hand: For the Holy One, blessed be He, supports everything with His hand, and when He turns it, they will fall, like one who holds something in his hand, and when he inclines his hand, it falls. So is the Midrash Aggadah (Mechilta, Exodus 15:12). Jonathan, however, renders: shall raise the blow of His might.  
4For so has the Lord said to me, "As a lion or a young lion growls over his prey, although a band of shepherds gather against him, from their voice he is not dismayed and from their stirring he is not subdued, so shall the Lord of Hosts descend to gather an army on Mount Zion and on its hill.   דכִּֽי־כֹ֣ה אָֽמַר־יְהֹוָ֣ה | אֵלַ֡י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶהְגֶּה֩ הָֽאַרְיֵ֨ה וְהַכְּפִ֜יר עַל־טַרְפּ֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִקָּרֵ֚א עָלָיו֙ מְלֹ֣א רֹעִ֔ים מִקּוֹלָם֙ לֹ֣א יֵחָ֔ת וּמֵֽהֲמוֹנָ֖ם לֹ֣א יַֽעֲנֶ֑ה כֵּ֗ן יֵרֵד֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לִצְבֹּ֥א עַל־הַר־צִיּ֖וֹן וְעַל־גִּבְעָתָֽהּ:
As… growls: (יֶהְגֶּה) a roaring sound. Comp. (infra 59:11) “And like doves we will moan נֶהְגֶּה) (הָגֹה.”  
although a band of shepherds gather against him: (יִקָּרֵא, lit., will be called.) They will gather upon him with a stirring shout.  
band of shepherds: (מְלֹא) a gathering of shepherds. Comp. (Jer. 12: 6) “They called after you a band (מָלֵא).” Comp. also (Job 16: 10) “Together they gather (יִתְמַלָּאוּן) against me.” All of these are expressions of gathering.  
he is not subdued: (יַעֲנֶה) he will not humble himself, he will not make himself as a poor man. Comp. (Exodus 10:3) “To humble yourself (לֵעָנוֹת) from before Me.” Comp. also (Hosea 5:5) “And the pride of Israel shall be humbled (וְעָנָה).”  
so shall… descend: (This intimates that God will descend) and will not be afraid of the stirring (or the multitude) of the nations.  
5Like flying birds, so shall the Lord of Hosts protect Jerusalem, protecting and saving, passing over and rescuing."   הכְּצִפֳּרִ֣ים עָפ֔וֹת כֵּ֗ן יָגֵ֛ן יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת עַל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם גָּנ֥וֹן וְהִצִּ֖יל פָּס֥וֹחַ וְהִמְלִֽיט:
passing over: (פָּסוֹחַ) passing over. Alternatively, it may be interpreted as an expression of sparing.  
and rescuing: He will extricate Israel from the strait. This is an expression of rescue (esmoucer in O.F.).  
6Return to Him, against Whom you have thought deeply to turn away, O children of Israel.   ושׁ֗וּבוּ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר הֶֽעְמִ֥יקוּ סָרָ֖ה בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Return: To the One about Whom you have thought deeply how to turn away from Him, now return to Him.  
7For on that day, they shall despise, each man his silver idols and his golden idols, which your hands have made for you [for] a sin.   זכִּי בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִמְאָס֗וּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵ֣י כַסְפּ֔וֹ וֶֽאֱלִילֵ֖י זְהָב֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשׂ֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם יְדֵיכֶ֖ם חֵֽטְא:
8And Assyria shall fall by the sword of one not a man, and the sword of one who is not a man shall consume him, and he shall flee from before a sword, and his chosen ones shall melt.   חוְנָפַ֚ל אַשּׁוּר֙ בְּחֶ֣רֶב לֹא־אִ֔ישׁ וְחֶ֥רֶב לֹֽא־אָדָ֖ם תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ וְנָ֥ס לוֹ֙ מִפְּנֵי־חֶ֔רֶב וּבַֽחוּרָ֖יו לָמַ֥ס יִֽהְיֽוּ:
9And his rock shall pass from fear, and his princes shall be dismayed at the miracle, the word of the Lord, whose fire is in Zion and Whose stove is in Jerusalem.   טוְסַלְעוֹ֙ מִמָּג֣וֹר יַֽעֲב֔וֹר וְחַתּ֥וּ מִנֵּ֖ס שָׂרָ֑יו נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁר־א֥וּר לוֹ֙ בְּצִיּ֔וֹן וְתַנּ֥וּר ל֖וֹ בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And his rock shall pass from fear: And his strength shall be weakened from great fear.  
shall be dismayed at the miracle: Because of the great miracles that the Holy One, blessed be He, performs for Israel.  
whose fire is in Zion: There the fire will be prepared to burn them.