Chapter 28

1Woe is to the crown of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim and the young fruit of an inferior fig is the position of his glory, which is at the end of a valley of fatness, crushed by wine.   אה֗וֹי עֲטֶ֚רֶת גֵּאוּת֙ שִׁכֹּרֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְצִ֥יץ נֹבֵ֖ל צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֛ר עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ גֵּֽיא־שְׁמָנִ֖ים הֲל֥וּמֵי יָֽיִן:
the drunkards of Ephraim: who would become intoxicated with the wine of the state of Prugitha, as (the Rabbis) stated (Shabbath 147b): The water of Damascus and the wine of Prugitha robbed away the ten tribes.  
and the young fruit of an inferior fig is the position of his glory: And the position of the planting of his glory - the young fruit of his blossom shall be  
inferior figs: (נֹבֵל) They are the spoiled figs, as we learned in Berachoth (40b): For noveloth. And our Sages explained: Burned by the heat.  
young fruit: (צִיץ) synonymous with נֵץ, as the Targum renders: (Num. 27:13) וַיָּצֵץצִיץ, “and it produced young fruit,” as וְאָנֵץנֵץ.  
which is: planted.  
at the head of a valley of fatness: That is Kinnereth, whose fruits are sweet, and there they crush themselves with wine.  
crushed with wine: הֲלוּמֵי יַיִן. This may also be interpreted as follows: תפארתו אשר על ראש וכו׳ צבי, (his glorious beauty, which is, etc.): His glorious beauty, which is on the head of the ten tribes, anointed with pride with the best oils, as it is said (Amos 6:6): “With the best oils they anoint themselves.” גֵּיא is an expression of pride, as (supra 16:6): “Moab, they have become very proud.” (And that blossom will be like a wilting blossom) crushed by wine. So he calls them because of their drunkenness, and it is said concerning them (Amos 6:6): “Those who drink with basins of wine.”  
2Behold God [has] a strong and powerful [wind], like a downpour of hail, a storm of destruction, like a stream of powerful, flooding water, He lays it on the land with [His] hand.   בהִנֵּ֨ה חָזָ֚ק וְאַמִּץ֙ לַֽאדֹנָ֔י כְּזֶ֥רֶם בָּרָ֖ד שַׂ֣עַר קָ֑טֶב כְּ֠זֶרֶם מַ֣יִם כַּבִּירִ֥ים שֹׁטְפִ֛ים הִנִּ֥יחַ לָאָ֖רֶץ בְּיָֽד:
Behold: The Lord has a strong and powerful wind, which is like a downpour of hail and a storm of קֶטֶב מְרִירִי, bitter destruction.  
He lays it on the land with [His] hand: He shall place it on their land with His strong hand and cast down the inferior figs from fig trees.  
3With the feet, they shall be trampled, the crown of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim.   גבְּרַגְלַ֖יִם תֵּֽרָמַ֑סְנָה עֲטֶ֥רֶת גֵּא֖וּת שִׁכּוֹרֵ֥י אֶפְרָֽיִם:
4And his glorious beauty shall be the young fruit of an inferior fig, which is on the head of the valley of fatness; as a fig that ripens before the summer, which, if the seer sees it, he will swallow it while it is still in his hand.   דוְהָ֨יְתָ֜ה צִיצַ֚ת נֹבֵל֙ צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹ֖אשׁ גֵּ֣יא שְׁמָנִ֑ים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ֙ בְּטֶ֣רֶם קַ֔יִץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְאֶ֚ה הָֽרֹאֶה֙ אוֹתָ֔הּ בְּעוֹדָ֥הּ בְּכַפּ֖וֹ יִבְלָעֶֽנָּה:
as a fig that ripens before the summer: like the ripening of the young fruits of an inferior fig.  
before the summer: the time of the ripening of other figs, which, because of its early ripening, he pounces on it and swallows it while it is still in his hand. So (Dan. 9:14), “He hastened the evil and brought it upon us.”  
5On that day, the Lord of Hosts shall be for a crown of beauty and for a diadem of glory, for the rest of His people.   הבַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לַֽעֲטֶ֣רֶת צְבִ֔י וְלִצְפִירַ֖ת תִּפְאָרָ֑ה לִשְׁאָ֖ר עַמּֽוֹ:
On that day: When the transgressors are destroyed.  
for a crown of beauty: for the remaining righteous men among them.  
6And for a spirit of justice to him who sits in judgment, and for might for those who bring back the war to the gate.   ווּלְר֖וּחַ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט לַיּוֹשֵׁב֙ עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט וְלִ֨גְבוּרָ֔ה מְשִׁיבֵ֥י מִלְחָמָ֖ה שָֽׁעְרָה:
And for a spirit of justice: will the Holy One, blessed be He, be, i.e., to teach justice, to him who sits in judgment.  
and for might: will He be for those who bring back the war, the war of Torah.  
7These, too, erred because of wine and strayed because of strong wine; priest and prophet erred because of strong wine, they became corrupt because of wine; they went astray because of strong wine, they erred against the seer, they caused justice to stumble.   זוְגַם־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ בַּיַּ֣יִן שָׁג֔וּ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֖ר תָּע֑וּ כֹּהֵ֣ן וְנָבִיא֩ שָׁג֨וּ בַשֵּׁכָ֜ר נִבְלְע֣וּ מִן־הַיַּ֗יִן תָּעוּ֙ מִן־הַשֵּׁכָ֔ר שָׁגוּ֙ בָּֽרֹאֶ֔ה פָּק֖וּ פְּלִֽילִיָּֽה:
These too: who sit in judgment and return the war in this generation, i.e., the best and most esteemed among them, erred because of wine, for now there is no good in them.  
they erred against the seer: They mocked the words of the prophets. Jonathan renders: with eating delicacies, which they saw as a pleasure to them.  
they caused justice to stumble: (פָּקוּ פְּלִילֶיהָ), they caused justice to stumble. פָּקוּ is an expression similar to (Nahum 2: 11), “The stumbling (פִּיק) of knees” ; (I Sam. 25:31) “A stumbling block (פּוּקָה).”  
8For all tables were filled with vomit and ordure, without place.   חכִּי כָּל־שֻׁלְחָנ֔וֹת מָֽלְא֖וּ קִ֣יא צֹאָ֑ה בְּלִ֖י מָקֽוֹם:
For all tables: I.e., all their tables are of sacrifices for the dead, i.e., the pagan deities, which are like vomit and ordure.  
without a place: (I.e.) the mind cannot tolerate them.  
9Whom shall he teach knowledge and to whom shall he explain the message? To those weaned from milk, removed from breasts?   טאֶת־מִי֙ יוֹרֶ֣ה דֵעָ֔ה וְאֶת־מִ֖י יָבִ֣ין שְׁמוּעָ֑ה גְּמוּלֵי֙ מֵֽחָלָ֔ב עַתִּיקֵ֖י מִשָּׁדָֽיִם:
Whom shall he teach knowledge: Perhaps to babes who know not to understand, since the adults have turned to an evil way?  
those weaned from milk: separated from milk.  
removed from breasts: (עַתִּיקֵי) an expression similar to (Gen. 12:8), “And he removed (וַיַּעְתֵּק) from there.” Alternatively, separated from the Torah, which is called milk, and removed from breasts, removed from before Torah scholars.  
10For a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept, a line for a line, a line for a line, a little there, a little there.   יכִּ֣י צַ֚ו לָצָו֙ צַ֣ו לָצָ֔ו קַ֥ו לָקָ֖ו קַ֣ו לָקָ֑ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֥יר שָֽׁם:
For a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept: The prophet commands them from the Holy One, blessed be He, but they - they have a precept of the idols, equal to this precept, and the prophet repeatedly admonishes them, and they always say, “We have a precept for the precept.” Ours is superior to yours.  
a line for a line: They have a plumb-line of wicked judgments equal to the plumb-line of justice.  
a little there, a little there: The prophet says to them, “In a short time evil will come upon you,” and they say, “A little there, let Him hurry, let Him hasten His deeds in a short time.”  
11For with distorted speech and in another language, does he speak to this people.   יאכִּי בְּלַֽעֲגֵ֣י שָׂפָ֔ה וּבְלָשׁ֖וֹן אַחֶ֑רֶת יְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה:
With distorted speech: שָׂפָה) (בְּלַעֲגֵי Similarly, לְעָגִים and (infra 32:4), עִלְּגִים, are both expressions of distorted speech, which is not readily grasped.  
he speaks to this people: Everyone who speaks to them words of prophecy or admonition is to them like a distorted language, which they cannot understand.  
12For he said to them, "This is the rest; give rest to the weary, and this is the tranquility," but they would not listen.   יבאֲשֶׁ֣ר | אָמַ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם זֹ֚את הַמְּנוּחָה֙ הָנִ֣יחוּ לֶֽעָיֵ֔ף וְזֹ֖את הַמַּרְגֵּעָ֑ה וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּא שְׁמֽוֹעַ:
For he said: The prophet said to them, “This is the rest,” that you should have rest, “give rest to the weary,” that you shall not rob him, “and this” shall be “tranquility” for them (var. for you).  
13And the word of the Lord shall be for them a precept for a precept, a precept for a precept, a line for a line, a line for a line, a little there, a little there, in order that they go and stumble backwards and be broken, and be trapped and caught.   יגוְהָיָ֨ה לָהֶ֜ם דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֗ה צַ֣ו לָצָ֞ו צַ֚ו לָצָו֙ קַ֚ו לָקָו֙ קַ֣ו לָקָ֔ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֣יר שָׁ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן יֵֽלְכ֜וּ וְכָֽשְׁל֚וּ אָחוֹר֙ וְנִשְׁבָּ֔רוּ וְנֽוֹקְשׁ֖וּ וְנִלְכָּֽדוּ:
And the word of the Lord shall be, etc.: According to their measure, He shall mete out to them; He shall decree upon them with His word upon them, a precept of the nations that enslave them, upon a precept, a command upon a command, labor upon labor; a line of retribution commensurate with the line of sins that they committed (lit., in their hand); קַו לָקָו, derived from קוה, a hope instead of a hope; they will hope for light, and behold, there will be darkness.  
a little there, a little there: In a short time, it shall come upon them, and they shall become few there in the land of their enemies.  
14Therefore, listen to the word of the Lord, men of scorn, allegorists of this people who are in Jerusalem.   ידלָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אַנְשֵׁ֣י לָצ֑וֹן מֹֽשְׁלֵי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
the allegorists of this people: who express their scorn as an allegory, such as:  
15For you said, "We have made a treaty with death, and with the grave we have set a limit; when an overflowing scourge passes, it shall not come upon us, for we have made lies our shelter and in falsehood have we hidden ourselves.   טוכִּ֣י אֲמַרְתֶּ֗ם כָּרַ֚תְנוּ בְרִית֙ אֶת־מָ֔וֶת וְעִם־שְׁא֖וֹל עָשִׂ֣ינוּ חֹזֶ֑ה שׁ֣וֹט (כתיב שֹׁ֣יט) שׁוֹטֵ֚ף כִּֽי־יַֽעֲבֹר֙ (כתיב עֲבֹר֙) לֹ֣א יְבוֹאֵ֔נוּ כִּ֣י שַׂ֧מְנוּ כָזָ֛ב מַחְסֵ֖נוּ וּבַשֶּׁ֥קֶר נִסְתָּֽרְנוּ:
We made a treaty with death: that it come not upon us.  
we have made a limit: a boundary that it should not cross. Comp. (Ps. 117:30) “the boundary (מְחוֹז) of their desire,” similarly (I Kings 7:4),"An edge opposite an edge (מֶחֱזָה אֶל מֶחֱזָה). They are all an expression of a boundary and an extremity of a thing, asomajjl in O.F.  
an overflowing scourge: a scourge that travels throughout the land.  
it shall not come upon us: (יְבוֹאֵנוּ), the usual form for a transitive verb with a direct object. It shall not come upon us.  
we have made lies: We have made idolatry.  
our shelter: (מַחְסֵנוּ) our shelter.  
and in falsehood have we hidden ourselves: We have hoped in idols to conceal us.  
16Therefore, so has the Lord God said: "Behold, I have laid as a foundation a stone in Zion, a fortress stone, a costly cornerstone, a foundation well founded; the believer shall not hasten.   טזלָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה הִנְנִ֛י יִסַּ֥ד בְּצִיּ֖וֹן אָ֑בֶן אֶ֣בֶן בֹּ֜חַן פִּנַּ֚ת יִקְרַת֙ מוּסָ֣ד מוּסָּ֔ד הַמַּֽאֲמִ֖ין לֹ֥א יָחִֽישׁ:
Behold, I have laid a foundation: This is the past tense. Comp. (Esther 1:8) “For so had the king established (יִסַּד).” And so must it be interpreted: Behold, I am He Who has already laid [a stone in Zion. Already] a decree has been decreed before Me, and I have set up the King Messiah, who shall be in Zion as an אֶבֶן בּוֹחֵן, a fortress stone, an expression of a fortress and strength. Comp. (infra 32:14) “A tower and a fortress (וּבֹחֵן).” Comp. also (supra 23:13) “They erected its towers (בַּחוּנָיו).”  
a foundation well founded: (מוּסַד מוּסָּד). The first one is voweled with a pattah because it is in the construct state, a foundation of a foundation, which is a solid foundation.  
the believer shall not hasten: Whoever believes this word shall not hasten it. He shall not say, “If it is true, let it come quickly.”  
17And I will make justice the line, and righteousness the plummet, and hail shall sweep away the shelter of lies, and water shall flood the hidingplace.   יזוְשַׂמְתִּ֚י מִשְׁפָּט֙ לְקָ֔ו וּצְדָקָ֖ה לְמִשְׁקָ֑לֶת וְיָעָ֣ה בָרָד֙ מַחְסֵ֣ה כָזָ֔ב וְסֵ֥תֶר מַ֖יִם יִשְׁטֹֽפוּ:
And I will make justice the line: Before the advent of that king, I will bring decrees upon you to end the transgressors among you, and I will make the judgment of chastening to the line; i.e., I will make the line the standard of chastening (var. the line of My standard, chastening), to bring upon you, and righteousness I will make that it should be the plummet that straightens the building of walls, i.e. that righteousness shall go before them and straighten their ways, that the transgressors shall be destroyed and the righteous shall remain.  
and hail shall sweep away the shelter of lies: That covering that you said, “For we have made lies our shelter,” I will bring hail and it shall sweep it away. (וְיָעָה) is an expression of sweeping. Comp. (I Kings 7:40) “the shovels (הַיָּעִים)” with which they scoop up the ashes from the stoves.  
the hiding place: concerning which you said, “And in falsehood have we hidden ourselves,” the water shall flood it, i.e. I will bring a multitude of nations that will break your monuments and your graven images. The expression of מִשְׁפָּט mentioned here is jostise (justice) in O.F.  
18And your treaty with death shall be nullified, and your limit with the grave shall not endure; when an overflowing scourge passes, you shall be trampled by it.   יחוְכֻפַּ֚ר בְּרִֽיתְכֶם֙ אֶת־מָ֔וֶת וְחָזֽוּתְכֶ֥ם אֶת־שְׁא֖וֹל לֹ֣א תָק֑וּם שׁ֚וֹט שׁוֹטֵף֙ כִּ֣י יַֽעֲבֹ֔ר וִֽהְיִ֥יתֶם ל֖וֹ לְמִרְמָֽס:
And your treaty with death shall be nullified: The treaty about which you said, “We have made a treaty with death,” shall be nullified. Every expression of כַּפָּרָה, atonement, is really an expression of wiping or removing something. Compare (Gen. 32:21): “I shall appease (אֲכַפְּרָה) his anger,” (lit., I will wipe away his anger.)  
and your limit: which you said, “With the grave we set a limit.”  
an overflowing scourge: which you said, “will not come upon us,” you shall be trampled by it.  
19When it passes, it shall take you, for every morning it shall pass, by day and by night, and it shall be only terror to understand the message.   יטמִדֵּ֚י עָבְרוֹ֙ יִקַּ֣ח אֶתְכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־בַבֹּ֧קֶר בַּבֹּ֛קֶר יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר בַּיּ֣וֹם וּבַלָּ֑יְלָה וְהָיָ֥ה רַק־זְוָעָ֖ה הָבִ֥ין שְׁמוּעָֽה:
every morning: I.e., I will always bring decrees upon you.  
and it shall be sheer terror to understand the message: Terror for all those who hear, to understand the messages of the harsh retributions that I will bring upon you. All who hear shall quake.  
20For the bed is too short for one to stretch, and the ruler-it shall be narrow when he enters.   ככִּֽי־קָצַ֥ר הַמַּצָּ֖ע מֵֽהִשְׂתָּרֵ֑עַ וְהַמַּסֵּכָ֥ה צָ֖רָה כְּהִתְכַּנֵּֽס:
For the bed is too short for one to stretch: When I bring the enemy upon you, he shall press you so that you will not be able to supply his work. When he spreads out his bed upon you, it will be too short for the one who lies on it to stretch.  
to stretch: (מֵהִשְׂתָּרֵעַ) to lengthen one’s limbs, estandejlejjr in O.F.  
and the ruler it shall be narrow: (וְהַמַּסֵּכָה) The prince who will rule over you - your place will be cramped for him when he enters it. Our Rabbis, however, expounded it as referring to the idol that Manasseh brought into the heichal, (the Temple proper) (II Chron. 33:7). This bed is too short מֵהִשְׂתָּרֵעַ, for two friends to rule over it. I explained it according to its simple meaning, and in this manner Jonathan rendered it. The Midrashic interpretation of our Rabbis, however, can be reconciled with the context. I.e., why do I bring this retribution upon you? Because the bed is too narrow for Me alone to stretch out on it, as it is said (I Kings 8:27): “Behold the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain You.” Surely, when you bring in a molten image with Me, so to speak, the place is too narrow for us.  
21For like the mountain of breaches shall the Lord arise, like the valley in Gibeon He shall be incensed; to perform His deed, strange is His deed, and to perform His work, strange is His work.   כאכִּ֚י כְהַר־פְּרָצִים֙ יָק֣וּם יְהֹוָ֔ה כְּעֵ֖מֶק בְּגִבְע֣וֹן יִרְגָּ֑ז לַֽעֲשׂ֚וֹת מַֽעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ זָ֣ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֔הוּ וְלַֽעֲבֹד֙ עֲבֹ֣דָת֔וֹ נָכְרִיָּ֖ה עֲבֹדָתֽוֹ:
For like the mountain of breaches: Jonathan paraphrases: For, just as the mountains quaked when the glory of the Lord was revealed on the day of King Uzziah, (supra. 6:4,) and as the miracles He performed for Joshua in the valley of Gibeon (Jos. 10:12f) (to punish the wicked who transgressed His word,) so shall He be revealed to punish those who perform (strange deeds, strange are their deeds, and those who worship pagan deities, strange is their worship).  
strange is His deed: He will seem to you as a stranger, for He will bring upon them ([all other editions:] upon you) harsh retribution.  
and to perform His work: (וְלַעֲבֹד עֲבֹדָתוֹ) like work of the soil, ‘laborer’ in O.F.  
22And now, do not scorn, lest your pains become strong, for a complete destruction have I heard from the Lord God of Hosts upon the entire land.   כבוְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תִּתְלוֹצָ֔צוּ פֶּֽן־יֶֽחְזְק֖וּ מֽוֹסְרֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־כָלָ֨ה וְנֶֽחֱרָצָ֜ה שָׁמַ֗עְתִּי מֵאֵ֨ת אֲדֹנָ֧י יֱהֹוִ֛ה צְבָא֖וֹת עַל־כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
And now, do not scorn: saying, “We have made a treaty with death.”  
your pains: (מוֹסְרֵיכֶם) your pains.  
23Give ear and listen to my voice; hearken and listen to my saying.   כגהַֽאֲזִ֥ינוּ וְשִׁמְע֖וּ קוֹלִ֑י הַקְשִׁ֥יבוּ וְשִׁמְע֖וּ אִמְרָתִֽי:
24Shall the plowman plow all day to sow? Shall he open and harrow his soil?   כדהֲכֹ֣ל הַיּ֔וֹם יַֽחֲרֹ֥שׁ הַחֹרֵ֖שׁ לִזְרֹ֑עַ יְפַתַּ֥ח וִֽישַׂדֵּ֖ד אַדְמָתֽוֹ:
all day: This is the interrogative. Therefore, it is voweled with a hataf pattah.  
shall… plow: One who plows to sow - does the one who plows to sow plow forever? If so, what does he accomplish? Similarly, the prophets admonish you to bring you back to do good deeds. Shall they admonish forever and not accomplish?  
Shall he open and harrow his soil?: Shall he never sow but always open the soil with plowshares and plowing implements? יְשַׂדֵּד is an expression of work of the field. Shall he open and harrow? First he makes wide furrows and later he makes small furrows. This we learned in the Midrash of Rabbi Tanhuma.  
25Is it not so? When he smooths its surface, he scatters the black cumin and casts the cumin, and he places the prominent wheat, and the barley for a sign, and the spelt on its border.   כההֲלוֹא֙ אִם־שִׁוָּ֣ה פָנֶ֔יהָ וְהֵפִ֥יץ קֶ֖צַח וְכַמֹּ֣ן יִזְרֹ֑ק וְשָׂ֨ם חִטָּ֚ה שׂוֹרָה֙ וּשְׂעֹרָ֣ה נִסְמָ֔ן וְכֻסֶּ֖מֶת גְּבֻֽלָתֽוֹ:
Is it not: so that the plowman, as soon as he plows, smooths the surface of the soil and afterwards sows.  
he scatters the black cumin: If he comes to sow black cumin, he sows it by scattering it, and if he comes to sow cumin, he sows it by casting it. קצח is a kind of food.  
and he places the prominent wheat, and the barley for a sign, and the spelt on its borders: And if he comes to sow grain, this is his custom. He sows the wheat in the middle of the furrow, and the barley he sows around it for a sign, and the spelt he sows on the borders of the field [and its boundaries]. שׂוֹרָה is an expression of ruling (שְׂרָרָה). He sows it in the center, and it appears ([printed editions] is found) to rule over the barley and the spelt.  
26And He shall chasten him justly, he whose God directs him.   כווְיִסְּר֥וֹ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט אֱלֹהָ֥יו יוֹרֶֽנּוּ:
And He shall chasten him justly: Likewise, he whose God directs him, He shall not send prophets forever to admonish him. Since he does not heed admonition, He shall chasten him with judgments of chastening in order that the toil of His admonition will help, like the one who smoothes the surface of the earth to sow, in order that the toil of his plowing that he plowed shall succeed.  
27For not with a grooved [implement] is black cumin threshed, [neither] does a wagon wheel turn around on cumin, but black cumin is beaten with a staff and cumin with a rod.   כזכִּ֣י לֹ֚א בֶֽחָרוּץ֙ י֣וּדַשׁ קֶ֔צַח וְאוֹפַ֣ן עֲגָלָ֔ה עַל־כַּמֹּ֖ן יוּסָּ֑ב כִּ֧י בַמַּטֶּ֛ה יֵחָ֥בֶט קֶ֖צַח וְכַמֹּ֥ן בַּשָּֽׁבֶט:
with a grooved [implement]: That is a wooden implement, made with grooves, and its name is מוֹרַג, a threshing-board, and one cuts the straw with it to be straw fodder.  
For not with a grooved [implement]: do they thresh the black cumin, for its seed is easily extracted from within its straw, and, likewise, on cumin they do not turn the wheel of a wagon to thresh it, because the black cumin is easily beaten with a staff and the cumin with a rod.  
28Bread grain is crushed but it is not threshed forever, and the wheel of his wagon shall break, and its separators, he does not crush it.   כחלֶ֣חֶם יוּדָ֔ק כִּ֛י לֹ֥א לָנֶ֖צַח אָד֣וֹשׁ יְדוּשֶׁ֑נּוּ וְ֠הָמַם גִּלְגַּ֧ל עֶגְלָת֛וֹ וּפָֽרָשָׁ֖יו לֹֽא־יְדֻקֶּֽנּוּ:
Bread grain is crushed: And whom (sic) do they crush with harsh implements? The bread of grain (sic), because it is not easily beaten.  
but it is not threshed forever: This כִּי is used in the sense of ‘but.’ But they do not crush it forever, [because they will not crush the seed kernels forever for them to be threshed to be crushed through the threshing- board and the wagon wheel].  
and the wheel of his wagon shall break and its separators: And when they turn the wagon wheels over to crush it and thresh it, even the wheel breaks, and the remaining implements of the wagon with it, that separate the grain from its straw, he will not crush it, and the wheat is not crushed to be ground.  
be threshed (: אָדוֹשׁ יְדוּשֶׁנּוּ. The repetition is peculiar.) Comp. (Ezekiel 31:11) “He will deal (עָשׂה יַעֲשֶׂה) ,” also (supra 22: 18): “He shall wind you around (צָנוֹף יִצְנָפְ).” And this ‘alef’ comes instead of a ‘heh’. Comp. (II Chron. 20:35) “And afterwards Jehoshaphat joined (אִתְחַבֵּר),” like הִתְחַבֵּר. Here too, אָדוֹשׁ is like] הִדּוֹשׁ, and Menahem classified it in this manner (Machbereth p. 68).  
29This too comes forth from the Lord of Hosts: He gave marvelous counsel, made great wisdom.   כטגַּם־זֹ֕את מֵעִ֛ם יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת יָצָ֑אָה הִפְלִ֣א עֵצָ֔ה הִגְדִּ֖יל תּֽוּשִׁיָּֽה:
This too, etc.: This too, like the custom of threshers of grain and those who flail black cumin and cumin, comes forth from the Holy One, blessed be He.  
He gave marvelous counsel: to show you hints in the manner of riddles and with an allegory, marvelous and obscure, for, just as with the cumin and the black cumin, with which they do not deal harshly by overthreshing them because they are easily flailed, so, if you would hasten to accept reproof, He would not bear heavily upon you with decrees, but since you are hard to accept reproof, like the grain that is hard to thresh, therefore, He will mete out heavy punishment upon you ([printed editions] - He will make it very heavy for you), but He will not strive and smite forever, ([certain editions] He will not strive and crush forever to destroy) just as one does not thresh forever, and His arrows and His blows shall terminate but you shall not terminate, in the manner that the wagon wheel breaks, but the wheat is not crushed. [If, however, you were easily destroyed, he would not test you with harsh afflictions, like the flax merchant, when he knows that his flax is of high quality, he beats it.]