1

When a person takes an oath that he will not eat anything on that day and he ate less than an olive-sized portion of food, he is not liable. For "eating" does not involve a quantity less than an olive-sized portion.1 It is as if he partook of less than the minimum measure of a nevelah, a trefe, or the like.2

If he said: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat this substance," and he ate it, he is liable even if the substance concerning which he took the oath is one mustard seed or smaller.3

א

מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל הַיּוֹם כְּלוּם וְאָכַל פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת פָּטוּר. שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילָה פְּחוּתָה מִכְּזַיִת. וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּאוֹכֵל חֲצִי שִׁעוּר מִנְּבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְאִם אָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל דָּבָר זֶה וַאֲכָלוֹ חַיָּב. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַדָּבָר שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע עָלָיו זֶרַע חַרְדָּל אֶחָד אוֹ פָּחוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ:

2

If he took an oath that he would not taste anything and partook of even the smallest amount of food, he is liable.4

ב

נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעֹם כְּלוּם וְאָכַל כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב:

3

When a person takes an oath that he will not eat on a specific day and drinks, he is liable, because [a prohibition against] eating includes drinking.5 Therefore, if he both ate and drank, he is liable only for one set of lashes6 if he acted willfully or one sin offering if he transgressed inadvertently.

ג

מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל הַיּוֹם וְשָׁתָה חַיָּב שֶׁהַשְּׁתִיָּה בִּכְלַל אֲכִילָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָכַל וְשָׁתָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מַלְקוֹת אַחַת אִם הָיָה מֵזִיד אוֹ חַטָּאת אַחַת אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג:

4

When a person took an oath not to drink on a given day, he is permitted to eat, because [a prohibition against] drinking does not include eating. How much must he drink for him to be liable? It appears to me7 that he is not liable unless he drinks a revi'it8 as is the case with regard to other prohibitions.9

ד

נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתֶּה הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לֶאֱכל. שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילָה בִּכְלַל שְׁתִיָּה. וְכַמָּה יִשְׁתֶּה וִיהֵא חַיָּב. נִרְאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה רְבִיעִית כִּשְׁאָר הָאִסּוּרִין:

5

When a person takes an oath that he will not eat on a particular day and partook of many types of food, or he takes an oath that he will not drink on a particular day and partakes of many types of beverages, he is only liable once.10 Even if he said: "[I am taking] an oath that today I will not eat meat, bread, or beans," and he eat all [these types of food]. He is only liable once. All [of these foods] can be joined together to reach the measure of an olive-sized portion.11

ה

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל הַיּוֹם וְאָכַל מִינִין הַרְבֵּה. אוֹ שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֶשְׁתֶּה הַיּוֹם וְשָׁתָה מִינֵי מַשְׁקִין הַרְבֵּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל הַיּוֹם בָּשָׂר וּפַת וְקִטְנִית וְאָכַל הַכּל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. וְכֻלָּן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת:

6

When a person takes an oath that he will neither eat nor drink and then eats and drinks, he is liable twice. Although drinking is included in eating, since he specifically said: "And I will not drink," he revealed his intention not to include drinking in eating.12 Thus it is as if he took an oath on this independently and this independently. Therefore he is liable twice.

ו

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְשֶׁלֹּא אֶשְׁתֶּה וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהַשְּׁתִיָּה בִּכְלַל אֲכִילָה. וְהוֹאִיל וּפֵרֵט וְאָמַר וְשֶׁלֹּא אֶשְׁתֶּה גִּלָּה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא כָּלַל הַשְּׁתִיָּה בִּכְלַל הָאֲכִילָה וְנִמְצָא כְּנִשְׁבָּע עַל זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְעַל זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם:

7

Similarly, if a person said: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat bread from wheat, bread from barley, or bread from buckwheat," he is liable for each one individually if he partakes of them. He mentioned "bread" three times13 to make a distinction and cause him to be liable for each one individually.

ז

וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל פַּת חִטִּין וּפַת שְׂעוֹרִין וּפַת כֻּסְּמִין וַאֲכָלָן חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר פַּת וּפַת וּפַת אֶלָּא לְחַלֵּק וּלְחַיֵּב עַל כָּל אַחַת:

8

[The following laws apply when a person's] colleague was persistently imploring him to eat at his [home], telling him: "Come and drink with me, wine, milk, and honey." If he answers: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not drink wine, milk, and honey," he is liable for each one individually if he partakes of them. [To be liable only once,] he should have said: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not drink anything," or "...[that I will not drink] what you said." Since he repeated the phrase, stating each one individually,14 he revealed his intention that he obligated himself with an oath for each and every type [of beverage] individually. Therefore [the beverages] are not combined with each other [to reach the minimum measure]15 and the person is liable only when he eats the minimum measure from each one individually. Since a sin offering is required for each one individually, they are like fat and blood which cannot be combined for [the measure of] an olive-sized portion as explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.16

ח

הָיָה חֲבֵרוֹ מְסַרְהֵב בּוֹ לֶאֱכל אֶצְלוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ בּוֹא וּשְׁתֵה עִמִּי יַיִן וְחָלָב וּדְבַשׁ. וְאָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֵינִי שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן וְחָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְשָׁתָה מֵהֶן חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֵינִי שׁוֹתֶה כְּלוּם אוֹ מַה שֶּׁאָמַרְתָּ וּמִשֶּׁחָזַר וּפֵרֵט גִּלָּה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁחִיֵּב עַצְמוֹ בִּשְׁבוּעָה עַל כָּל מִין וּמִין בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כַּשִּׁעוּר מִמִּין אֶחָד. הוֹאִיל וְהֵן חֲלוּקִין לְחַטָּאוֹת הֲרֵי הֵן כְּחֵלֶב וְדָם שֶׁאֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְזַיִת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת:

9

[When one says: "I am taking] an oath that I will not eat this loaf," or "...that I will not eat it," once he eats an olive-sized portion of it, he is liable.17 [If he says:] "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat it up,"18 he is not liable until he eats the entire loaf.

If he says: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat this loaf; [I am taking] an oath that I will not eat it up," should he eat it,19 he is liable only once.20

ט

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל אוֹתָהּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָכַל מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת חַיָּב. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכָלֶנָּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶת כֻּלָּהּ. אָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכָלֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת:

10

Similarly, if one said: ["I am taking] an oath that I will not eat today,"21 and then took an oath concerning a loaf that he would not eat it up, [even though] he eats the entire [loaf] that day, he is not liable only once.22 Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.23 [The rationale is that] an oath does not take effect when another is already in effect.24

If, however, one took an oath that he would not eat up a loaf and afterwards, took an oath that he would not eat anything or that he would not eat this loaf, he is liable twice. [The rationale is that] at the time he took the oath that he would not eat it up, he would not be liable unless he ate the entire loaf. Thus when he took a second oath that he would not eat anything or that he would not eat the loaf, he is liable [for the latter oath,] when he eats an olive-sized portion. And when he eats the entire [loaf], he is liable for his first oath.

י

וְכֵן אִם אָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל הַיּוֹם וְחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל הַכִּכָּר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכָלֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ כֻּלָּהּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. שֶׁאֵין שְׁבוּעָה חָלָה עַל שְׁבוּעָה. אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁבַּע עַל הַכִּכָּר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכָלֶנָּה וְחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל כְּלוּם. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ וַאֲכָלָהּ כֻּלָּהּ חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנָּה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כֻּלָּהּ. וּכְשֶׁחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל [כְּלוּם] אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל אוֹתָהּ מִשֶּׁיֹּאכַל מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת יִתְחַיֵּב וּכְשֶׁיֹּאכַל כֻּלָּהּ יִתְחַיֵּב בִּשְׁבוּעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה:

11

[When a person takes] an oath not to eat figs and afterwards, takes an oath not to eat figs and grapes, he is liable twice for [eating] figs. [The rationale is that] he included the figs which were forbidden in the first oath with grapes that were permitted. Since the second oath took effect with regard the grapes, it also took effect with regard the figs and he becomes liable for two oaths, as we explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.25

יא

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל תְּאֵנִים. וְחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל הַתְּאֵנִים וְעַל הָעֲנָבִים. חַיָּב עַל הַתְּאֵנִים שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּלַל הַתְּאֵנִים שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ בִּשְׁבוּעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה עִם הָעֲנָבִים שֶׁהָיוּ מֻתָּרִין וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁחָלָה שְׁבוּעָה שְׁנִיָּה עַל הָעֲנָבִים חָלָה עַל הַתְּאֵנִים וְנִתְחַיֵּב בִּשְׁתֵּי שְׁבוּעוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת:

12

[If one said: "I am taking] an oath that I will not eat eight [of this item]," "...an oath that I will not eat nine," and "...an oath that I will not eat ten," he is liable only once whether he ate eight, nine, or ten.26

יב

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל שְׁמוֹנֶה. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל תֵּשַׁע. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל עֶשֶׂר. בֵּין שֶׁאָכַל שְׁמוֹנֶה בֵּין שֶׁאָכַל תֵּשַׁע בֵּין שֶׁאָכַל עֶשֶׂר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת:

13

[If one said: "I am taking] an oath that I will not ten," "...an oath that I will not eat nine," and "...an oath that I will not eat eight," if he eats ten, he is liable three times, one for each oath.27 Similarly, if he eats nine, he is liable twice. If he eats eight, he is liable once.28

יג

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל עֶשֶׂר. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל תֵּשַׁע. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל שְׁמוֹנֶה. אִם אָכַל עֶשֶׂר חַיָּב שָׁלֹשׁ עַל כָּל שְׁבוּעָה וּשְׁבוּעָה אַחַת. וְכֵן אִם אָכַל תֵּשַׁע חַיָּב שְׁתַּיִם. אָכַל שְׁמוֹנֶה חַיָּב אַחַת:

14

[The following rules apply when a person says: "I am taking] an oath that I will not eat figs," and then takes another oath that he will not eat figs and dates together.29 If he forgot, ate figs, and set aside a sacrifice,30 afterwards, forgot, and ate grapes, he is not liable for the grapes. [The rationale is that] this is like half the measure [for which one is liable]31 and one does not bring a sacrifice for half the measure.

יד

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל תְּאֵנִים וְחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל תְּאֵנִים וַעֲנָבִים כְּאַחַת. וְשָׁגַג וְאָכַל תְּאֵנִים וְהִפְרִישׁ קָרְבָּן. וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁגַג וְאָכַל עֲנָבִים אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל הָעֲנָבִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כַּחֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְאֵין מְבִיאִין קָרְבָּן עַל חֲצִי שִׁעוּר:

15

Similar [laws apply if] one took an oath that he would not eat ten, and then took an oath that he would not eat ten and nine.32 If he ate ten, separated a sacrifice,33 and then forgot and ate nine, this is like half the measure and one does not bring a sacrifice for half the measure. For the final oath concerned not eating nineteen.34

טו

וְכֵן הַנִּשְׁבָּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל עֶשֶׂר וְחָזַר וְנִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל עֶשֶׂר וְתֵשַׁע וְאָכַל עֶשֶׂר וְהִפְרִישׁ קָרְבָּן וְחָזַר וְשָׁגַג וְאָכַל תֵּשַׁע הֲרֵי זֶה כַּחֲצִי שִׁעוּר. וְאֵין מְבִיאִין קָרְבָּן עַל חֲצִי שִׁעוּר. שֶׁעִנְיַן שְׁבוּעָה אַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל תֵּשַׁע וְעֶשֶׂר:

16

[When a person says: "I am taking] an oath that I will not eat this large loaf if I eat this small loaf," if he forgets this stipulation when he eats the smaller loaf and afterwards willfully eats the larger [loaf], he is liable [for lashes].35

טז

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ הַגְּדוֹלָה אִם אֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ הַקְּטַנָּה וְשָׁכַח תְּנַאי זֶה בְּעֵת שֶׁאָכַל הַקְּטַנָּה וְאָכַל אַחַר כָּךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה בְּמֵזִיד חַיָּב:

17

If he ate the small one while he remembered the stipulation and knew that by eating it, the larger one would become forbidden and then forgot and ate the larger one while thinking that it was not forbidden yet, he is exempt.36 If he ate both of them unintentionally,37 he is exempt.38 [If he ate them] both willfully, he is liable,39 regardless of whether he ate the larger one first40 or last.

יז

אָכַל אֶת הַקְּטַנָּה וְהוּא זוֹכֵר הַתְּנַאי וְיוֹדֵעַ שֶׁבַּאֲכִילָתָהּ תֵּאָסֵר הַגְּדוֹלָה וְשָׁכַח וְאָכַל אֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וְכִמְדֻמֶּה לוֹ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נֶאֶסְרָה פָּטוּר. אָכַל שְׁתֵּיהֶן בִּשְׁגָגָה פָּטוּר. שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּמֵזִיד בֵּין שֶׁאָכַל הַגְּדוֹלָה בַּתְּחִלָּה אוֹ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה חַיָּב:

18

Similarly, if he made the two loafs dependent on each other,41 taking an oath saying: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat one of these [loaves] if I eat the other." If he forgot the stipulation and ate one of them and then willfully ate the other, he is liable.42

יח

וְכֵן אִם תְּלָאָן זוֹ בָּזוֹ וְנִשְׁבַּע וְאָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל אַחַת מֵהֶם אִם אָכַלְתִּי הָאַחֶרֶת וְשָׁכַח הַתְּנַאי וְאָכַל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְאָכַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה בְּזָדוֹן חַיָּב:

19

If he ate the first one willfully, but the second one inadvertently, he is exempt. [If he ate them] both willfully, he is liable.43

יט

אָכַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּזָדוֹן וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה בִּשְׁגָגָה פָּטוּר. שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּזָדוֹן חַיָּב:

20

[When a person says: "I am taking] an oath that I will eat this loaf today," and the day passes without him eating it, should he have acted unintentionally, he must bring an adjustable guilt offering. If he acted willfully, he is not liable for lashes, because he did not perform a deed,44 even though he violated [the prohibition against] taking a false oath.

כ

שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֹכַל כִּכָּר זוֹ הַיּוֹם וְעָבַר הַיּוֹם וְלֹא אֲכָלָהּ. בְּשׁוֹגֵג מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד. בְּמֵזִיד אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר עַל שְׁבוּעַת שֶׁקֶר:

21

Why is a person who took an oath that he ate liable for lashes [if] he did not eat and one [who took an oath] that he did not eat [liable] if he did eat, even though he did not perform a deed. Because at the time he took the oath, he was taking a false oath.45 If, however, a person takes an oath that he will perform [a particular activity], it is not a false oath at the time it was taken.

כא

וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לוֹקֶה אִם נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁאָכַל וְהוּא לֹא אָכַל אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל וְהוּא אָכַל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה מַעֲשֶׂה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֵּעֵת שְׁבוּעָתוֹ לַשֶּׁקֶר נִשְׁבַּע. אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה וְהוּא לֹא עָשָׂה אֵינָהּ שְׁבוּעַת שֶׁקֶר מִשְּׁעַת שְׁבוּעָה:

22

[The following laws apply when] a person tells a colleague: "[I am taking] an oath that I will not eat at your [home],"46 or [his colleague] was persistently imploring him to eat at his [home] and he refuses. If he takes an oath and says: "My oath [will take effect] if I eat at your [home]," or if he says: "There will be no oath if I do not eat at your [home],"47 these all bring about prohibitions. [It is considered that] he took an oath that he would not eat at his [home]. If he used all of these expressions [together] and transgressed and ate, he is only liable once.48

כב

מִי שֶׁאָמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁבוּעָה לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ אוֹ שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֵינִי אוֹכֵל לְךָ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְסַרְהֵב בּוֹ לֶאֱכל אֶצְלוֹ וְהוּא נִמְנַע וְנִשְׁבַּע וְאָמַר שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֹכַל לְךָ. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לֹא שְׁבוּעָה לֹא אֹכַל לְךָ. כָּל אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין וַהֲרֵי נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל אֶצְלוֹ. וְאִם אָמַר כָּל הַלְּשׁוֹנוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וְעָבַר וְאָכַל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת: