1

There are five factors that disqualify ritual slaughter and the fundamentals of the laws of shechitah are to guard against each of these factors: They are: shehiyah, dirasah, chaladah, hagramah, and ikur.1

א

חֲמִשָׁה דְּבָרִים מַפְסִידִין אֶת הַשְּׁחִיטָה. וְעִקַּר הִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה לְהִזָּהֵר בְּכָל אַחַת מֵהֶן. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. שְׁהִיָּה. דְּרָסָה. חֲלָדָה. הַגְרָמָה. וְעִקּוּר:

2

What is meant by shehiyah? A person began to slaughter and lifted up his hand before he completed the slaughter and waited. Whether he did so inadvertently, intentionally, or because of forces beyond his control, [the following rules apply] if he or another person completed the slaughter. If he waited the amount of time it would take to lift up the animal, cause it to lie down, and slaughter it, his slaughter is not acceptable. If he waited less than this amount of time, his slaughter is acceptable.

ב

שְׁהִיָּה כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִתְחִיל לִשְׁחֹט וְהִגְבִּיהַּ יָדוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְמֹר הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְשָׁהָה בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד בֵּין בְּאֹנֶס וְחָזַר הוּא אוֹ אַחֵר וְגָמַר אֶת הַשְּׁחִיטָה. אִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וְיַרְבִּיצֶנָּה וְיִשְׁחֹט שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאִם שָׁהָה פָּחוֹת מִכְּדֵי זֶה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

3

With regard to a small domesticated animal:2, the measure of shehiyah is the amount of time it would take to lift up the animal, cause it to lie down, and slaughter it. With regard to a large domestic animal,3 the measure of shehiyah is the amount of time it would take to lift up the animal, cause it to lie down, and slaughter it.4 With regard to a fowl, the measure of shehiyah is the amount of time it would take to lift up a small animal, cause it to lie down, and slaughter it.5

ג

הָיְתָה בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה שִׁעוּר שְׁהִיָּתָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה וְיַרְבִּיצֶנָּה וְיִשְׁחֹט. וְאִם הָיְתָה גַּסָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהֶנָּה וְיַרְבִּיצֶנָּה וְיִשְׁחֹט. וּבְעוֹף כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה וְיַרְבִּיצֶנָּה וְיִשְׁחֹט:

4

When a person cut [the signs] for a while, waited for a while, cut for a while, waited for a while until he concluded the slaughter without waiting the measure that disqualifies an animal at any one time, but over the times he waited over the entire period would equal the measure of shehiyah, there is an unresolved doubt whether [the animal is considered] a nevelah.6

Similarly, if he waited the amount of time it takes to lift up the animal, cause it to lie down, and cut only a portion of the signs, but not to slaughter it entirely, there is an unresolved doubt whether [the animal is considered] a nevelah.

ד

שָׁחַט מְעַט וְשָׁהָה מְעַט וְחָזַר וְשָׁחַט מְעַט וְשָׁהָה מְעַט עַד שֶׁגָּמַר הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְלֹא שָׁהָה בְּפַעַם אַחַת שִׁעוּר הַשְּׁהִיָּה אֲבָל כְּשֶׁתַּחְשֹׁב כָּל זְמַן הַשְּׁהִיּוֹת יִצְטָרֵף מִכֻּלָּן שִׁעוּר שְׁהִיָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה. וְכֵן אִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהֶנָּה וְיַרְבִּיצֶנָּה וּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁחֹט כְּמוֹ מִעוּט הַסִּימָנִין בִּלְבַד לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁחֹט שְׁחִיטָה גְּמוּרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה:

5

If he slaughtered the majority of one of the signs for a fowl or the majority of both signs for an animal, the slaughter is permitted even if he waited half the day and then returned and finished cutting the signs.7 For since the minimum measure for slaughter was met, it is as if he is cutting slaughtered meat.

ה

שָׁחַט רֹב אֶחָד בְּעוֹף אוֹ רֹב שְׁנַיִם בִּבְהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁהָה חֲצִי הַיּוֹם וְחָזַר וְגָמַר חֲתִיכַת הַסִּימָנִין הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט בָּהּ כַּשִּׁעוּר הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְחַתֵּךְ בְּשַׂר הַשְּׁחוּטָה:

6

If one cuts half or less of the windpipe and waits an extended period, he may return and complete the slaughter; [his previous acts] are of no consequence.8 If, however, he cut the majority of [an animal's] windpipe or perforated the gullet even slightly and then waited the [disqualifying] measure, [the slaughter] is unacceptable.9 [This applies] whether he returned and completed cutting where he began or slaughtered the animal entirely in a different place. [The rationale is] that when the majority of the windpipe is slit or the gullet of either an animal or a fowl is perforated even slightly, the animal is comparable to a nevelah and ritual slaughter is not effective for it, as will be explained.10

ו

שָׁחַט בַּקָּנֶה לְבַדּוֹ חֶצְיוֹ אוֹ מִעוּטוֹ וְשָׁהָה זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וְגוֹמֵר הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְאֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט רֹב הַקָּנֶה אוֹ שֶׁנִּקֵּב בַּוֵּשֶׁט כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְשָׁהָה כַּשִּׁעוּר בֵּין שֶׁחָזַר וְגָמַר הַשְּׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִתְחִיל בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁחַט שְׁחִיטָה גְּמוּרָה בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ הָעוֹף שֶׁנִּפְסַק רֹב הַקָּנֶה שֶׁלָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּקַּב הַוֵּשֶׁט בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ נְבֵלָה וְאֵין הַשְּׁחִיטָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

7

It is thus explained for you that the concept of shehiyah does not exist with regard to the windpipe of a fowl at all. For if he slit the majority of the windpipe and waited, he has already completed the slaughter of [the fowl]. When he goes back and completes it, it is as if he is cutting meat.11 If he slit less than half the windpipe and waited, he may return and [complete the] slaughter whenever he desires,12 for it is not disqualified as a nevelah unless the majority of the windpipe has been cut.

ז

הִנֵּה נִתְבָּאֵר לְךָ שֶׁאֵין שְׁהִיָּה בַּקָּנֶה בָּעוֹף כְּלָל. שֶׁאִם שָׁחַט רֹב הַקָּנֶה וְשָׁהָה כְּבָר נִגְמְרָה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֶׁחָזַר וְגָמַר מְחַתֵּךְ בָּשָׂר הוּא. וְאִם שָׁחַט בְּמִעוּט הַקָּנֶה וְשָׁהָה הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וְשׁוֹחֵט כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ נֶאֱסֶרֶת מִשּׁוּם נְבֵלָה עַד שֶׁיִּפָּסֵק רֹב הַקָּנֶה:

8

[The following rules apply when] one slaughtered a fowl and waited, but does not know whether the gullet was perforated or not.13 He should return and cut the windpipe alone in another place,14 let [the fowl] be until it dies, and then check the gullet from the inside.15 If a drop of blood was not found on it, it is apparent that it was not perforated and it is acceptable.

ח

שָׁחַט הָעוֹף וְשָׁהָה בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם נִקַּב הַוֵּשֶׁט אוֹ לֹא נִקַּב חוֹזֵר וְשׁוֹחֵט הַקָּנֶה לְבַדּוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר וּמַנִּיחוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת וּבוֹדֵק הַוֵּשֶׁט מִבִּפְנִים. אִם לֹא נִמְצֵאת בּוֹ טִפַּת דָּם בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא נִקַּב וּכְשֵׁרָה:

9

What is meant by chaladah?16 For example, one inserted the knife between one sign and another.17 Whether one then slits the upper sign above or cuts the lower sign below in the manner of ritual slaughter, [the slaughter] is unacceptable.

ט

חֲלָדָה כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִכְנִיס הַסַּכִּין בֵּין סִימָן לְסִימָן. בֵּין שֶׁפָּסַק הַסִּימָן הָעֶלְיוֹן לְמַעְלָה בֵּין שֶׁשָּׁחַט הַתַּחְתּוֹן לְמַטָּה שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ שְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה:

10

If he inserted the knife beneath the [animal's] skin and slit both the signs in the ordinary fashion, hid the knife under tangled wool, or spread a cloth over the knife and the neck18 and slaughtered under the cloth, since the knife is not openly revealed, there is an unresolved doubt whether [the animal is considered] a nevelah. Similarly, if slaughtered less than half the signs with chaladah and completed the slaughter without chaladah, there is an unresolved doubt whether [the animal is considered] a nevelah.

י

הִכְנִיס אֶת הַסַּכִּין תַּחַת הָעוֹר וְשָׁחַט שְׁנֵי הַסִּימָנִים כְּדַרְכָּן. אוֹ שֶׁהֶחְלִיד אֶת הַסַּכִּין תַּחַת צֶמֶר מְסֻבָּךְ. אוֹ שֶׁפָּרַס מַטְלִית עַל הַסַּכִּין וְעַל הַצַּוָּאר וְשָׁחַט תַּחַת הַמַּטְלִית הוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַסַּכִּין גְּלוּיָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה. וְכֵן אִם שָׁחַט מִעוּט הַסִּימָנִים בְּהַחְלָדָה וְגָמַר הַשְּׁחִיטָה שֶׁלֹּא בְּהַחְלָדָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה:

11

What is meant by dirasah?19 For example, one struck the neck with a knife as one strikes with a sword, cutting the signs at one time, without passing [the knife] back and forth or one placed the knife on the neck and pressed, cutting downward like one cuts radishes or squash until he cuts the signs, [the slaughter] is unacceptable.

יא

דְּרָסָה כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִכָּה בְּסַכִּין עַל הַצַּוָּאר כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּכִּין בְּסַיִף וְחָתַךְ הַסִּימָנִין בְּבַת אַחַת בְּלֹא הוֹלָכָה וְלֹא הוֹבָאָה. אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ הַסַּכִּין עַל הַצַּוָּאר וְדָחַק וְחָתַךְ לְמַטָּה כְּחוֹתֵךְ צְנוֹן אוֹ קִישׁוּת עַד שֶׁחָתַךְ הַסִּימָנִין הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה:

12

What is meant by hagramah?20 This refers to one who slaughters at a high point on the windpipe21 where it is not fit to slaughter. There are two [nodes, like kernels of] wheat at the top of the windpipe, at the large ring.22 [The following rules apply if] one slaughtered in the midst of these kernels. If he left even the slightest portion of them intact above [the place of slaughter], it is acceptable, for he slaughtered from the slanting cap [of the windpipe] or lower. This is within the place that is fit for ritual slaughter. If, however, he did not leave any portion of them intact, but instead cut above them, this is considered as [being slaughtered with] hagramah and it is unacceptable.

יב

הַגְרָמָה כֵּיצַד. זֶה הַשּׁוֹחֵט בַּקָּנֶה לְמַעְלָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִשְׁחִיטָה. וּכְמוֹ שְׁנֵי חִטִּים יֵשׁ בְּסוֹף הַקָּנֶה לְמַעְלָה בְּטַבַּעַת גְּדוֹלָה. שָׁחַט בְּתוֹךְ הַחִטִּים אִם שִׁיֵּר מֵהֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְמַעְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי שָׁחַט מִשִּׁפּוּי כּוֹבַע וּלְמַטָּה. וְהוּא מִן הַמָּקוֹם הָרָאוּי לִשְׁחִיטָה. וְאִם לֹא שִׁיֵּר מֵהֶן כְּלוּם אֶלָּא שָׁחַט לְמַעְלָה מֵהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻגְרֶמֶת וּפְסוּלָה:

13

If one slit the majority of one sign [for a fowl] or the majority of both signs [for an animal] and then completed the slaughter through dirasah or hagramah, it is acceptable, for the minimum measure was slaughtered in the proper manner.23

If at first, he slit a third [of the windpipe]24 through hagramah, and then cut two thirds in the appropriate manner, the slaughter is acceptable.25 If he cut a third in the appropriate manner, cut a third through hagramah, and then cut the last third in the appropriate manner, the slaughter is acceptable.26 If at first, he slit a third through hagramah, cut a third in the appropriate manner, and then cut a third through hagramah, the slaughter is unacceptable.27 If one cut [a portion of] an animal's throat with derisah or chaladah, it is unacceptable, whether it was the first or second third.28

יג

שָׁחַט רֹב הָאֶחָד אוֹ רֹב הַשְּׁנַיִם וְהִשְׁלִים הַשְּׁחִיטָה בִּדְרָסָה אוֹ בְּהַגְרָמָה הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁחַט הַשִּׁעוּר כָּרָאוּי. הִגְרִים בַּתְּחִלָּה שְׁלִישׁ וְשָׁחַט שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישִׁים הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שָׁחַט שְׁלִישׁ וְהִגְרִים שְׁלִישׁ וְחָזַר וְשָׁחַט שְׁלִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן כְּשֵׁרָה. הִגְרִים שְׁלִישׁ וְשָׁחַט שְׁלִישׁ וְחָזַר וְהִגְרִים שְׁלִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאִם דָּרַס אוֹ הֶחְלִיד בֵּין בַּשְּׁלִישׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בֵּין בַּשְּׁלִישׁ הָאֶמְצָעִי הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה:

14

What is meant by ikur? That the gullet and/or the windpipe were displaced29 and slid [from their place] before the conclusion of the slaughter. If, however, one slit an entire sign or its majority in a fowl, and then the second sign slipped, the slaughter is acceptable.30

יד

עִקּוּר כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת וְהִיא הַקָּנֶה אוֹ הַוֵּשֶׁט וְנִשְׁמַט אֶחָד מֵהֶן אוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶן קֹדֶם גְּמַר שְׁחִיטָה. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט אֶחָד בָּעוֹף אוֹ רֻבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁמַט הַסִּימָן הַשֵּׁנִי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

15

If one of the signs was displaced and afterwards, one slit the other, the slaughter is unacceptable.31 If one slit one of the signs [of a fowl] and then discovered that the other one was displaced, but it is unknown whether it was displaced before slaughter32 or after slaughter,33 there is an unresolved question whether [the fowl] is a nevelah.

טו

נִשְׁמַט אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁחַט אֶת הַשֵּׁנִי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. שָׁחַט אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְנִמְצָא הַשֵּׁנִי שָׁמוּט וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה נִשְׁמַט אוֹ אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה:

16

If the sign that was cut for ritual slaughter is discovered to have been displaced, [the fowl or animal]34 is acceptable, for certainly, it was displaced after the slaughter. For if it had been displaced before ritual slaughter, it would have hung loosely and it would not have been able to be slaughtered [effectively].35

טז

נִמְצָא הַסִּימָן הַשָּׁחוּט שָׁמוּט הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁוַּדַּאי אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה נֶעֱקַר. שֶׁאִלּוּ נֶעֱקַר קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה הָיָה מִתְדַּלְדֵּל וְלֹא נִשְׁחָט:

17

When does the above apply? When [the slaughterer] did not hold the signs in his hand when he slit them. If, however, he held the signs and slaughtered, it is possible that [the signs] could have been slit [effectively even] after they were displaced.36 Therefore, if a sign is discovered to be displaced and slaughtered,37 there is an unresolved question whether [the animal or the fowl] is a nevelah.

יז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁלֹּא תָּפַס הַסִּימָנִין בְּיָדוֹ כְּשֶׁשָּׁחַט. אֲבָל אִם תְּפָסָן וְשָׁחַט אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁתִּשָּׁחֵט אַחַר הָעִקּוּר וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם נִמְצֵאת שְׁמוּטָה וּשְׁחוּטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה:

18

Whenever we have used the term "unacceptable," the animal is a nevelah and if a person partakes of an olive-sized portion of it, he is liable for lashes for partaking of a nevelah. For only an acceptable slaughter as commanded by Moses our teacher of blessed memory prevents an animal from being considered a nevelah as we explained.38 Whenever there is an unresolved doubt whether slaughter [is acceptable], there is an unresolved doubt whether the animal is a nevelah.39 A person who partakes of it is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.

יח

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ בִּשְׁחִיטָה פְּסוּלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה. וְאִם אָכַל מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת לוֹקֶה מִשּׁוּם אוֹכֵל נְבֵלָה שֶׁאֵין מוֹצִיא מִידֵי נְבֵלָה אֶלָּא שְׁחִיטָה כְּשֵׁרָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְכָל סָפֵק בִּשְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי הוּא סְפֵק נְבֵלָה וְהָאוֹכֵל מִמֶּנָּה מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

19

When the thigh of an animal and [the meat40 of] its hollow were removed and thus it appears lacking when it crouches, it is a nevelah.41 [It is] as if half of it was cut away and it was divided into two bodies. Thus slaughter is not effective with regard to it.

Similarly, if [the animal's] backbone was broken together with the majority of the meat, its back was ripped open like a fish, the majority of the windpipe was been severed,42 or the gullet was perforated in a place fit for slaughter,43 it is considered as a nevelah while alive and slaughter will not be effective with regard to it. The same laws apply to both an animal and a fowl with regard to all these matters.

יט

בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּטַּל יָרֵךְ שֶׁלָּהּ וַחֲלָלָה עִמָּהּ עַד שֶׁתֵּרָאֶה חֲסֵרָה כְּשֶׁתִּרְבַּץ הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ חֶצְיָהּ וְנֶחְלְקָה לִשְׁנֵי גּוּפוֹת וְאֵין הַשְּׁחִיטָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהּ. וְכֵן אִם נִשְׁבְּרָה מִפְרֶקֶת וְרֹב בָּשָׂר עִמָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרְעָה מִגַּבָּהּ כְּדָג אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסַק רֹב הַקָּנֶה אוֹ שֶׁנִּקַּב הַוֵּשֶׁט בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם הָרָאוּי לִשְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה מֵחַיִּים וְאֵין הַשְּׁחִיטָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהּ. וְאֶחָד הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶחָד הָעוֹף בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה:

20

The gullet has two membranes: the external membrane is red and the inner membrane is white.44 If only one of them is perforated, [the animal] is acceptable.45 If they are both perforated even to the slightest degree in a place fit for slaughter, it is a nevelah.46 [This applies] whether it was slaughtered in the place of the perforation or in another place, slaughter will not be effective with regard to it. If they were both perforated, [even when] one [hole] does not correspond to the other, the animal is a nevelah47.

כ

שְׁנֵי עוֹרוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ לַוֵּשֶׁט. הַחִיצוֹן אָדֹם וְהַפְּנִימִי לָבָן. נִקַּב הָאֶחָד מֵהֶן בִּלְבַד כְּשֵׁרָה. נִקְּבוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם הָרָאוּי לִשְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה. וּבֵין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה בִּמְקוֹם הַנֶּקֶב בֵּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטָה בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר אֵין הַשְּׁחִיטָה מוֹעֶלֶת בָּהּ. נִקְּבוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם זֶה שֶׁלֹּא כְּנֶגֶד זֶה נְבֵלָה:

21

When the gullet is perforated and a scab forms which covers it, the scab is of no consequence and it is considered perforated as it was beforehand.48 If a thorn is detected standing in the gullet, there is an unresolved doubt whether the animal is a nevelah. We fear that perhaps a scab developed in the place of a perforation and it is not visible.49 If, however, a thorn is lying lengthwise50 in the gullet, we are not concerned about it, for most desert animals eat thorns continuously.51

כא

נִקַּב הַוֵּשֶׁט וְעָלָה בּוֹ קְרוּם וּסְתָמוֹ אֵין הַקְּרוּם כְּלוּם וַהֲרֵי הוּא נָקוּב כְּשֶׁהָיָה. נִמְצָא קוֹץ עוֹמֵד בַּוֵּשֶׁט הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק נְבֵלָה שֶׁמָּא נִקַּב הַוֵּשֶׁט וְעָלָה קְרוּם בִּמְקוֹם הַנֶּקֶב וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה. אֲבָל אִם נִמְצָא הַקּוֹץ לְאָרְכּוֹ בַּוֵּשֶׁט אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לוֹ שֶׁרֹב הַבְּהֵמוֹת הַמִּדְבָּרִיּוֹת אוֹכְלוֹת הַקּוֹצִים תָּמִיד:

22

The gullet cannot be checked from the outside, only from the inside.52 What is implied? One should turn it inside out and check it. If a drop of blood is found upon it, it can be concluded that it was perforated.

כב

וֵשֶׁט אֵין לוֹ בְּדִיקָה מִבַּחוּץ אֶלָּא מִבִּפְנִים. כֵּיצַד. הוֹפְכוֹ וּבוֹדֵק. אִם נִמְצָא עָלָיו טִפַּת דָּם בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהָיָה נָקוּב:

23

When the majority of the cavity of the windpipe53 has been severed in the place fit for slaughtering,54 [the animal] is a nevelah. This also applies if it has a hole the size of an isar.55

[The following rules apply if the windpipe of an animal] was perforated with small holes.56 If the perforations did not detract [from the flesh, they disqualify the animal if,] when they are added together, they constitute the majority [of the windpipe]. If they detract from the flesh, [they disqualify the animal if,] when they are added together, their sum is the size of an isar.57 Similarly, if a strand [of flesh] is removed from [the windpipe], it [disqualifies the animal if its area] is the size of an isar.

With regard to a fowl, [a more stringent rule applies]:58 Whenever the strip [of flesh that was removed] or the holes that detract from the flesh [are large enough so that they] could be folded so that when placed over the opening of the windpipe, it would cover the majority [of its cavity],59 it is a nevelah. If not, it is acceptable.

כג

גַּרְגֶּרֶת שֶׁנִּפְסַק רֹב חֲלָלָה בַּמָּקוֹם הָרָאוּי לִשְׁחִיטָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נְבֵלָה. וְכֵן אִם נִקְּבָה כְּאִיסָר. נִקְּבָה נְקָבִים קְטַנִּים אִם נְקָבִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן חֶסְרוֹן הֵם מִצְטָרְפִין לְרֻבָּהּ וְאִם נְקָבִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם חֶסְרוֹן מִצְטָרְפִין לִכְאִיסָר. וְכֵן אִם נִטְּלָה מִמֶּנָּה רְצוּעָה מִצְטָרֶפֶת לִכְאִיסָר. וּבְעוֹף כָּל שֶׁאִלּוּ מְקַפֵּל הָרְצוּעָה אוֹ הַנְּקָבִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חֶסְרוֹן וּמַנִּיחָן עַל פִּי הַקָּנֶה אִם חוֹפֶה אֶת רֻבּוֹ נְבֵלָה וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁרָה:

24

If the windpipe was perforated on both sides with a hole large enough for the thickness of isar60 to be inserted into it, it is a nevelah. If it is slit lengthwise, even if only the slightest portion of the place fit to slaughter [an animal] remains above and below, it is acceptable.61

כד

נִקְּבָה הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת נֶקֶב מְפֻלָּשׁ מִשְּׁנֵי צְדָדֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס אִיסָר לְרָחְבּוֹ נְבֵלָה. נִסְדְּקָה לְאָרְכָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר מִן הַמָּקוֹם הָרָאוּי בָּהּ לִשְׁחִיטָה אֶלָּא מַשֶּׁהוּ לְמַעְלָה וּמַשֶּׁהוּ לְמַטָּה כְּשֵׁרָה:

25

When a windpipe has been perforated62 and it is not known whether it was perforated before the slaughter or afterwards,63 we perforate it again in another place and compare the two holes. If they resemble each other, it is permitted.64

We compare only [a hole in] a large ring to [a hole in] a large ring or [a hole in] a small [ring] to [a hole in] a small [ring], but not [a hole in] a small [ring] to a [a hole in] a large [ring]. For the entire windpipe is made up of a series of rings. Between each [large] ring is a small, soft ring.

כה

גַּרְגֶּרֶת שֶׁנִּקְּבָה וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה נִקְּבָה אוֹ אַחַר שְׁחִיטָה נִקְּבָה. נוֹקְבִין אוֹתָהּ עַתָּה בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר וּמְדַמִּין הַנֶּקֶב לְנֶקֶב אִם נִדְמֶה לוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. וְאֵין מְדַמִּין אֶלָּא מֵחֻלְיָא גְּדוֹלָה לְחֻלְיָא גְּדוֹלָה אוֹ מִקְּטַנָּה לִקְטַנָּה. אֲבָל לֹא מִקְּטַנָּה לִגְדוֹלָה שֶׁכָּל הַקָּנֶה חֻלְיוֹת חֻלְיוֹת הוּא וּבֵין כָּל חֻלְיָא וְחֻלְיָא חֻלְיָא אַחַת קְטַנָּה מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן וְרַכָּה: