1

It is permitted to slaughter an animal in any place except the Temple courtyard. For only animals consecrated for [sacrifice on the altar] may be sacrificed in the Temple courtyard. Ordinary animals, by contrast, whether domesticated animals, beasts, or fowl, are forbidden to be sacrificed in the Temple courtyard. Similarly, [Deuteronomy 12:21] states with regard to meat [which man] desires [to eat]:1 "When the place that God will choose will be distant from you... and you shall slaughter from your cattle and your sheep... and you shall eat in your gates." One may infer that meat [which man] desires [to eat] may be slaughtered only outside "the place that God will choose."

א

בְכָל מָקוֹם מֻתָּר לִשְׁחֹט חוּץ מִן הָעֲזָרָה. שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין בָּעֲזָרָה אֶלָּא קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל הַחֻלִּין אָסוּר לְשָׁחֳטָן בָּעֲזָרָה בֵּין בְּהֵמָה בֵּין חַיָּה בֵּין עוֹף. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בִּבְשַׂר תַּאֲוָה (דברים יב כא) "כִּי יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר ה'" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב כא) "וְזָבַחְתָּ מִבְּקָרְךָ וּמִצֹּאנְךָ" וְגוֹ' (דברים יב כא) "וְאָכַלְתָּ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ". הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין בְּשַׂר תַּאֲוָה אֶלָּא חוּץ לַמָּקוֹם (דברים יב כא) "אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר ה'":

2

[Meat from animals] slaughtered outside this [holy] place is permitted to be eaten everywhere. If, however, one slaughters an ordinary animal in the Temple courtyard, that meat is ritually pure,2 but it is forbidden to benefit from it like meat mixed with milk and the like. It must be buried; [if it is burnt,] its ashes are forbidden [to be used].3

[The above applies] even if one slaughters for healing purposes,4 to feed a gentile, or to feed dogs. If, however, one cuts off an animal's head in the Temple courtyard, one rips the signs from their place, a gentile slaughters, [a Jew] slaughters, but the animal was discovered to be trefe, or one slaughters a non-kosher domesticated animal, beast, or fowl in the Temple courtyard, it is permitted to benefit from all of the above.5

ב

וְזֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט חוּץ לַמָּקוֹם הוּא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּכָל הַשְּׁעָרִים. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹחֵט חֻלִּין בָּעֲזָרָה אוֹתוֹ הַבָּשָׂר טָהוֹר וְאָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה כְּבָשָׂר בְּחָלָב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. וְקוֹבְרִים אוֹתוֹ וְאֶפְרוֹ אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ שָׁחַט לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לַאֲכִילַת עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ לְהַאֲכִיל לִכְלָבִים. אֲבָל הַנּוֹחֵר בָּעֲזָרָה. וְהַמְעַקֵּר. וְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁחַט. וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה. וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף הַטְּמֵאִים בָּעֲזָרָה. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כֻּלָּן מֻתָּרִין בַּהֲנָיָה:

3

This does not apply only to domesticated animals or beasts. Instead, it is forbidden to bring all ordinary food into the Temple courtyard. [This includes] even meat from a slaughtered [animal], fruit, or bread.6 If one transgresses and brings in such food, it is permitted to partake of this food as it was beforehand.

All of the above concepts are part of the Oral Tradition. Whenever anyone slaughters in the Temple courtyard or eats an olive-sized portion of the meat of ordinary [animals that were] slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, he is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.7

ג

וְלֹא בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא כָּל הַחֻלִּין אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָן לַעֲזָרָה. אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂר שְׁחוּטָה אוֹ פֵּרוֹת וּפַת. אִם עָבַר וְהִכְנִיסָן מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ כֻּלָּן דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה הֵן. וְכָל הַשּׁוֹחֵט חֻלִּין בָּעֲזָרָה אוֹ הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִבְּשַׂר חֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בָּעֲזָרָה מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

4

[The following rule applies when] a person says: "This animal is [consecrated as] a peace offering, but [the fetus it is carrying] remains of ordinary status." If it is slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, it is permitted to partake of its offspring, because it is forbidden to slaughter [the mother] outside [the Temple courtyard].8

ד

הָאוֹמֵר בְּהֵמָה זוֹ שְׁלָמִים וּוְלָדָהּ חֻלִּין. אִם נִשְׁחֲטָה בָּעֲזָרָה וְלָדָהּ מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִשְׁחֹט אוֹתוֹ בְּרִחוּק מָקוֹם:

5

One should not slaughter into9 seas or rivers, lest [an onlooker] say: "He is worshipping the water,"10 and it would appear as if he is offering a sacrifice to the water. Nor should one slaughter into a utensil filled with water, lest one say: "He is slaughtering into the form that appears in the water."11 Nor should he slaughter into utensils12 or into a pit for this is the way of idolaters. If one slaughters in the above manner, his slaughter is acceptable.

ה

אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין לְתוֹךְ יַמִּים וּנְהָרוֹת שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ עוֹבֵד מַיִם הוּא זֶה וְנִרְאֶה כְּמַקְרִיב לַמַּיִם. וְלֹא יִשְׁחֹט לִכְלִי מָלֵא מַיִם שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ לַצּוּרָה שֶׁתֵּרָאֶה בַּמַּיִם שָׁחַט. וְלֹא יִשְׁחֹט בְּתוֹךְ כֵּלִים וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ הַגֻּמָּא שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ עוֹבְדֵי עַכּוּ''ם. וְאִם שָׁחַט שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

6

One may slaughter into murky water in which an image may not be seen. Similarly, one may slaughter outside a pit and allow the blood to flow and descend into a pit. One should not do this in the marketplace so as not to mimic the gentiles. [Indeed,] if one slaughters into a pit in the marketplace, it is forbidden to eat from his slaughter until his [character] is examined, lest he be a heretic.13

It is permitted to slaughter on the wall of a ship, [although] the blood will flow down the wall and descend into the water.14 [Similarly,] it is permitted to slaughter above [the outer surface of] utensils.

ו

שׁוֹחֲטִין לִכְלִי מַיִם עֲכוּרִין שֶׁאֵין הַצּוּרָה נִרְאֵית בָּהֶן. וְכֵן שׁוֹחֵט חוּץ לְגֻמָּא וְהַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת וְיוֹרֵד לַגֻּמָּא. וּבַשּׁוּק לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן שֶׁמָּא יְחַקֶּה אֶת הַמִּינִים. וְאִם שָׁחַט לְגֻמָּא בַּשּׁוּק אָסוּר לֶאֱכל מִשְּׁחִיטָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּבְדְּקוּ אַחֲרָיו שֶׁמָּא מִין הוּא. וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁחֹט עַל דֹּפֶן הַסְּפִינָה וְהַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת עַל הַדֹּפֶן וְיוֹרֵד לַמַּיִם. וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁחֹט עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֵּלִים:

7

How does one slaughter? One extends the neck and passes the knife back and forth until [the animal] is slaughtered. Whether the animal was lying down15or it was standing and one held the back of its neck, held the knife in his hand below, and slaughtered, the slaughter is acceptable.

ז

כֵּיצַד שׁוֹחֲטִין. מוֹתֵחַ אֶת הַצַּוָּאר וּמוֹלִיךְ הַסַּכִּין וּמְבִיאָהּ עַד שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט. בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה רְבוּצָה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה עוֹמֶדֶת וְאָחַז בְּעָרְפָּהּ וְהַסַּכִּין בְּיָדוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה וְשָׁחַט הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

8

If one implanted a knife in the wall and brought the neck [of an animal back and forth] over it until it was slaughtered, the slaughter is acceptable, provided the neck of the animal is below and the knife is above.16 For if the neck of the animal will be above the knife, it is possible that the animal will descend with the weight of its body [on the knife] and cut [its throat] without [it being brought back and forth].17 This is not ritual slaughter, as will be explained.18 Therefore, if we are speaking about a fowl, whether its neck is above the knife that is implanted or below it, the slaughter is acceptable.19

ח

נָעַץ אֶת הַסַּכִּין בַּכֹּתֶל וְהֶעֱבִיר הַצַּוָּאר עָלֶיהָ עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה צַוָּאר הַבְּהֵמָה לְמַטָּה וְסַכִּין לְמַעְלָה. שֶׁאִם הָיָה צַוַּאר בְּהֵמָה לְמַעְלָה מִן הַסַּכִּין שֶׁמָּא תֵּרֵד הַבְּהֵמָה בְּכֹבֶד גּוּפָהּ וְתֵחָתֵךְ בְּלֹא הוֹלָכָה וַהֲבָאָה וְאֵין זוֹ שְׁחִיטָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה עוֹף בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה צַוָּארוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִן הַסַּכִּין הַנְּעוּצָה אוֹ לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

9

When a person slaughters and draws the knife forward, but does not draw it back, draws it back, but does not draw it forward, his slaughter is acceptable.20

If he drew the knife back and forth until he cut off the head entirely, his slaughter is acceptable. [The following rules apply if] he drew the knife forward, but did not draw it back, drew it back, but did not draw it forward, and cut off the head while drawing it forward alone or drawing it back alone. If the knife is twice as long21 as the width of the neck of the animal being slaughtered, his slaughter is acceptable. If not, his slaughter is not acceptable.22

If one slaughters the heads [of two animals] together, his slaughter is acceptable.

ט

הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַסַּכִּין וְלֹא הֱבִיאָהּ אוֹ הֱבִיאָהּ וְלֹא הוֹלִיכָהּ וְשָׁחַט שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. הוֹלִיךְ וְהֵבִיא עַד שֶׁחָתַךְ הָרֹאשׁ וְהִתִּיזוֹ שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. הוֹלִיךְ וְלֹא הֵבִיא אוֹ הֵבִיא וְלֹא הוֹלִיךְ וְהִתִּיז אֶת הָרֹאשׁ בְּהוֹלָכָה בִּלְבַד אוֹ בַּהֲבָאָה בִּלְבַד. אִם יֵשׁ בַּסַּכִּין כִּמְלֹא שְׁנֵי צַוָּארִים מִצַּוְּארֵי הַנִּשְׁחָט שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה וְאִם לָאו שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי רָאשִׁים כְּאֶחָד שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

10

When two people hold unto a knife together - even when one is holding from one side and the other from the other side - and they slaughter together, the slaughter is acceptable. Similarly, if two people hold two knives and both slaughter simultaneously in two places in the neck, their slaughter is acceptable. This applies even if one slit the gullet alone or its majority and the other cut the windpipe or its majority in another place, this slaughter is acceptable even though the slaughter was not entirely in the same place.

Similarly, slaughter in the form of a reed23 and slaughter in the form of a comb24 are acceptable.

י

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָחֲזוּ בְּסַכִּין אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד מִצַּד זֶה וְשֵׁנִי מִצַּד אַחֵר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ וְשָׁחֲטוּ שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. וְכֵן שְׁנַיִם שֶׁאָחֲזוּ שְׁנֵי סַכִּינִין וְשָׁחֲטוּ כְּאֶחָד בִּשְׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת בַּצַּוָּאר שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁחַט זֶה הַוֵּשֶׁט בִּלְבַד אוֹ רֻבּוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי שָׁחַט בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר הַקָּנֶה אוֹ רֻבּוֹ הֲרֵי שְׁחִיטָה זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַשְּׁחִיטָה כֻּלָּהּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד. וְכֵן שְׁחִיטָה הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּקֻלְמוֹס וּשְׁחִיטָה הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּמַסְרֵק כְּשֵׁרָה:

11

The slaughter of ordinary animals25 does not require focused attention.26 Even if one slaughtered when [wielding a knife] aimlessly, in jest, or [even] if he threw a knife to implant it in the wall and it slaughtered an animal as it was passing, since it slaughtered properly in the appropriate place and with the appropriate measure, it is acceptable.

יא

אֵין שְׁחִיטַת הַחֻלִּין צְרִיכָה כַּוָּנָה אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ שָׁחַט כְּמִתְעַסֵּק אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק אוֹ שֶׁזָּרַק סַכִּין לְנָעֳצָהּ בַּכֹּתֶל וְשָׁחֲטָה בַּהֲלִיכָתָהּ הוֹאִיל וְהַשְּׁחִיטָה כָּרָאוּי בִּמְקוֹמָהּ וְשִׁעוּרָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

12

Accordingly,27 when a deafmute, an emotional or an intellectual unstable individual, a minor, a drunk whose mind is befuddled,28 a person who became overtaken by an evil spirit slaughters and others observe that he slaughters in the correct manner,29 [the slaughter] is acceptable.30

If, by contrast, a knife falls31 and slaughters [an animal] on its way, it is not acceptable even if it slaughtered it in [the appropriate] manner. For [Deuteronomy, loc. cit.] states: "You shall slaughter," implying that a man must slaughter. [His actions are acceptable,] even if he does not intend to slaughter.

יב

לְפִיכָךְ חֵרֵשׁ אוֹ שׁוֹטֶה אוֹ קָטָן אוֹ שִׁכּוֹר שֶׁנִּתְבַּלְבְּלָה דַּעְתּוֹ וּמִי שֶׁאֲחָזַתּוּ רוּחַ רָעָה שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָם שֶׁהַשְּׁחִיטָה כְּתִקְנָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. אֲבָל סַכִּין שֶׁנָּפְלָה וְשָׁחֲטָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁחֲטָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב כא) "וְזָבַחְתָּ" עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַזּוֹבֵחַ אָדָם וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁחִיטָה:

13

[The following laws apply if there is] a stone or wooden wheel with a knife affixed to it. If a person turned the wheel and placed the neck of a fowl or an animal opposite it and slaughtered by turning the wheel, [the slaughter] is acceptable. If water is turning the wheel and he placed the neck of [the animal] opposite it while it was turning causing it to be slaughtered, it is unacceptable.32 If a person caused the water to flow until they turned the wheel and caused it to slaughter by turning it, [the slaughter] is acceptable.33 For [the activity] came as a result of man's actions.

When does the above apply? With regard to the first turn, for that comes from man's power. The second and subsequent turns, however, do not come from man's power, but from the power of the flowing water.

יג

גַּלְגַּל שֶׁל אֶבֶן אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁהָיְתָה הַסַּכִּין קְבוּעָה בּוֹ וְסִבֵּב אָדָם אֶת הַגַּלְגַּל וְשָׂם צַוַּאר הָעוֹף אוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁחַט בִּסְבִיבַת הַגַּלְגַּל הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאִם הַמַּיִם הֵן הַמְסַבְּבִין אֶת הַגַּלְגַּל וְשָׂם אֶת הַצַּוָּאר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁסִּבֵּב וְנִשְׁחַט הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְאִם פָּטַר אָדָם אֶת הַמַּיִם עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ וְסִבְּבוּ אֶת הַגַּלְגַּל וְשָׁחַט בִּסְבִיבָתוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי מִכֹּחַ אָדָם בָּא. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּסְבִיבָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא מִכֹּחַ הָאָדָם אֲבָל מִסְּבִיבָה שְׁנִיָּה וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ אֵינָהּ מִכֹּחַ הָאָדָם אֶלָּא מִכֹּחַ הַמַּיִם בְּהִלּוּכָן:

14

When a person slaughters for the sake of mountains, hills, seas, rivers, or deserts, his slaughter is unacceptable even when he does not intend to worship these entities, but merely for curative purposes or the like according to the empty words related by the gentiles, the slaughter is unacceptable.34 If, however, one slaughtered for the sake of the spiritual source35 of the sea, the mountain, the stars, the constellations, or the like, it is forbidden to benefit from the animal36 like all offerings brought to false deities.37

יד

הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם הָרִים לְשֵׁם גְּבָעוֹת לְשֵׁם יַמִּים לְשֵׁם נְהָרוֹת לְשֵׁם מִדְבָּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוִּן לְעָבְדָן אֶלָּא לִרְפוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מִדִּבְרֵי הֲבַאי שֶׁאוֹמְרִין הָעַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. אֲבָל אִם שָׁחַט לְשֵׁם מַזַּל הַיָּם אוֹ מַזַּל הָהָר אוֹ לְכוֹכָבִים וּמַזָּלוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָיָה כְּכָל תִּקְרֹבֶת עַכּוּ''ם:

15

When a person slaughters an animal [with the intent of] sprinkling its blood for the sake of false deities or burning its fats for the sake of false deities,38 it is forbidden. For we derive [the laws governing] one's intent outside [the Temple] with regard to [slaughtering] ordinary animals from those pertaining to the intent with regard to [slaughtering] consecrated animals within [the Temple]. For such an intent disqualifies them, as will be explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim.39

טו

הַשּׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה לִזְרֹק דָּמָהּ לְעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ לְהַקְטִיר חֶלְבָּהּ לְעַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה. שֶׁלְּמֵדִין מַחֲשָׁבָה בַּחוּץ בְּחֻלִּין מִמַּחְשֶׁבֶת הַקָּדָשִׁים בִּפְנִים. שֶׁמַּחֲשָׁבָה כָּזוֹ פּוֹסֶלֶת בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין:

16

When a person slaughtered [an animal] and afterwards, thought to sprinkle its blood for the sake of false deities or to burn its fats for the sake of false deities, it is forbidden because of the doubt involved.40 Perhaps the ultimate result showed what his initial intent was and it was with this intent that he slaughtered.

טז

שְׁחָטָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָשַׁב לִזְרֹק דָּמָהּ לְעַכּוּ''ם אוֹ לְהַקְטִיר חֶלְבָּהּ לְעַכּוּ''ם הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה מִסָּפֵק. שֶׁמָּא סוֹפוֹ הוֹכִיחַ עַל תְּחִלָּתוֹ וּבְמַחֲשָׁבָה כָּזוֹ שָׁחַט:

17

When a person slaughters [an animal] for the sake of [a type of] sacrifice for which one could consecrate an animal through a vow or through a pledge,41the slaughter is unacceptable.42 For this is comparable to slaughtering consecrated animals outside [the Temple courtyard]. If he slaughters [an animal] for the sake of [a type of] sacrifice for which one could not designate an animal through a vow or through a pledge,43 the slaughter is acceptable.44

יז

הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם קָדָשִׁים שֶׁמִּתְנַדְּבִין וְנִדָּרִים כְּמוֹתָן שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁזֶּה כְּשׁוֹחֵט קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ. שָׁחַט לְשֵׁם קָדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

18

What is implied? When one slaughters [an animal] for the sake of a burnt offering, for the sake of a peace offering, for the sake of a thanksgiving offering, or for the sake of a Paschal offering, the slaughter is unacceptable.45 Since a Paschal offering may be designated every year at any time one desires, it resembles a sacrifice that can be consecrated through a vow or through a pledge.46

If one slaughters [an animal] for the sake of a sin offering, for the sake of a certain guilt offering, for the sake of a doubtful guilt offering,47 for the sake of a firstborn offering,48 for the sake of a tithe offering,49 or for the sake of a substitute [for any offering],50 the slaughter is acceptable.51

יח

כֵּיצַד. הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה לְשֵׁם שְׁלָמִים לְשֵׁם תּוֹדָה לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. הוֹאִיל וְהַפֶּסַח מַפְרִישׁ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הֲרֵי הוּא דּוֹמֶה לְדָבָר הַנִּדָּר וְהַנִּדָּב. שָׁחַט לְשֵׁם חַטָּאת לְשֵׁם אָשָׁם וַדַּאי לְשֵׁם אָשָׁם תָּלוּי לְשֵׁם בְּכוֹר לְשֵׁם מַעֲשֵׂר לְשֵׁם תְּמוּרָה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

19

When a person is liable for a sin offering and he slaughters, saying: "For the sake of my sin offering," his slaughter is unacceptable.52 If he had a sacrificial animal in his home and he slaughters, saying: "For the sake of a substitution for my sacrifice," his slaughter is unacceptable, for he substituted the animal [for the consecrated one].53

יט

הָיָה מְחֻיָּב חַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט וְאָמַר לְחַטָּאתִי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה. הָיָה לוֹ קָרְבָּן בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְשָׁחַט וְאָמַר לְשֵׁם תְּמוּרַת זִבְחִי שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵמִיר בּוֹ:

20

When a woman slaughters54 for the sake of the burnt offering brought by a woman who gave birth, saying: "This is for the sake of my burnt offering," her slaughter is acceptable.55 [The rationale is that the obligation to bring] the burnt offering of a woman who gave birth cannot be initiated through a vow or through a pledge and this woman has not given birth and thus is not obligated to bring a burnt offering. We do not suspect that she had a miscarriage.56 For it will become public knowledge if a woman miscarries.57

When, by contrast, a person slaughters for the sake of a burnt offering brought by a Nazarite, his slaughter is unacceptable even if he is not a Nazarite. [The rationale is that] the fundamental dimension of being a Nazarite is a vow like other vows.58

כ

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁחֲטָה לְשֵׁם עוֹלַת יוֹלֶדֶת וְאָמְרָה זוֹ לְעוֹלָתִי שְׁחִיטָתָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁאֵין עוֹלַת יוֹלֶדֶת בָּאָה בְּנֵדֶר וּנְדָבָה וַהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ יוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁנִּתְחַיְּבָה בְּעוֹלָה. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לָהּ שֶׁמָּא הִפִּילָה. שֶׁכָּל הַמַּפֶּלֶת קוֹל יֵשׁ לָהּ. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם עוֹלַת נָזִיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָזִיר שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה שֶׁעִקַּר הַנְּזִירוּת נֵדֶר מִן הַנְּדָרִים:

21

When two people hold a knife and slaughter, one has in mind an intent that would disqualify the slaughter and the other has nothing at all in mind - or even if he had in mind an intent that is permitted - the slaughter is unacceptable.59Similarly, if they slaughtered one after the other60 and one had an intent that disqualifies the slaughter, it is disqualified.

When does the above apply? When [the person with the undesirable intent] has a share in the animal. If, however, he does not have a share in the animal, it does not become forbidden. For a Jewish person does not cause something that does not belong to him to become forbidden. He is acting only to cause his colleague anguish.61

כא

שְׁנַיִם אוֹחֲזִין בְּסַכִּין וְשׁוֹחֲטִין. אֶחָד מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם דָּבָר שֶׁהַשּׁוֹחֵט לוֹ שְׁחִיטָתוֹ אֲסוּרָה. וְהַשֵּׁנִי לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ כַּוָּנָה כְּלָל וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם דָּבָר הַמֻּתָּר לְהִתְכַּוֵּן לוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה. וְכֵן אִם שָׁחַט זֶה אַחַר זֶה וְהִתְכַּוֵּן הָאֶחָד מֵהֶן לְשֵׁם דָּבָר הַפָּסוּל פּוֹסֵל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בָּהּ שֻׁתָּפוּת אֲבָל אִם אֵין לוֹ בָּהּ שֻׁתָּפוּת אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה. שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹסֵר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ אֶלָּא לְצַעֲרוֹ:

22

When a Jew slaughters for a gentile, the slaughter is acceptable regardless of the thoughts the gentile has in mind.62 For we are concerned only with the thoughts of the person slaughtering and not the thoughts of the owner of the animal.63 Therefore when a gentile - even a minor64 - slaughters for the sake of a Jew, the animal he slaughters is a nevelah, as will be explained.65

כב

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁשָּׁחַט לְעַכּוּ''ם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם מִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין אֶלָּא לְמַחְשֶׁבֶת הַזּוֹבֵחַ לֹא לְמַחְשֶׁבֶת בַּעַל הַבְּהֵמָה. לְפִיכָךְ עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁחַט לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה קָטָן שְׁחִיטָתוֹ נְבֵלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר: