These laws are very complex and when, how and where must be factored in to every situation. Please note only a brief introduction to these concepts is being provided. No halachic opinion can be formed from this introduction.

Lishma means "for the sake of x". Prior to beginning to write a Torah the sofer must pronounce "L'shem kedushas sefer Torah", "[I am writing this Torah] for the sake of the sanctification of the Torah scroll." The same is true for tefillin, mezuzah, megillah and the prophets. There is discussion as to the most precise and preferred pronouncement. If this was not done the Torah scroll, for example is invalid. In addition, upon writing each of the unerasable names of G‑d, the sofer must express, "L'shem kedushas Hashem." "for the sake of the sanctification of G‑d's name." Once again, if this was neglected, the Torah is invalid. It becomes crystal clear that the integrity of the sofer plays a major role. The beauty of the writing and its halachic precision are very important; however, to make certain that the sofer's integrity is above reproach is as important and even of greater importance. To know the sofer or to acquire from a source that knows the sofer and is an impeccable source is thus of utmost importance.

Chok Tochos translates as "scratching within." A letter must be formed only by writing. Scratching away ink from a blob to form a letter is invalid. Similarly, a letter that never had its form or has lost its form and is therefore invalid, such as two letters that become connected and now appear as one different letter, cannot be repaired by simply severing the connection to return them to their original forms. The letters must be erased and rewritten.

Shelo Kesidran means "not in sequence." Each letter in tefillin and mezuzah must be written in their chronological sequence. One must start and complete each letter, one by one. Therefore, if a letter was found missing or not written correctly or even became invalid at a later date there would not be any way for it to be repaired. This halachah does not apply in a Torah scroll, megillah or the prophets, so in those cases, later sections can be written first. The letters of G‑d's Holy names also must be written in order but can be repaired out of sequence when necessary.

Mukaf Gvil translates to "surrounded by parchment." Halachah requires that each letter's integrity is not violated by another letter touching it, the letter touching a hole in the parchment nor touching the edges of the parchment. The laws are complex and each situation and the manner of repair cannot be presented in detail. Suffice to say that in general two touching letters are invalid however, they can be separated if their forms have not been altered or lost due to the connection. Similarly, a letter that has touched a hole or the edge can generally be repaired.

Shailos chacham is a query for an halachic authority. Often there will be letters whose form comes into question or the sofer may have done something in which he is in doubt as to its halachic acceptability etc., in which case a halachic authority is consulted to render a binding decision.

Shailos tinok is a query presented to a child. Occasionally a halachic authority will be in doubt how to render a decision about a certain letter, feeling that there are positions in halachah to consider it both valid and invalid. He will suggest that a child, who knows the letters of the Aleph-Bais but has not yet learned to read, be asked. Such a child sees nothing other than the form before him and can judge without any influences. Of course, one must know how to ask a child so that he remains impartial. A child should not be asked without first consulting an authoraity. It is a common misconception that whenever someone is doubtful as to the kashrus of a letter that a child may be asked. Only if one who is expert in the scribal arts feels that a letter falls into the realm of halachic doubt can a child be asked, but not doubt due to lack of knowledge. If a child reads the letter properly it does not necessarily mean that it is kosher lechatchilah.