1

When a person immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water or three lugim of drawn water fall on his head and the majority of his body, he is a secondary derivative of impurity until he immerses himself in a mikveh. If he touches foods, he causes them to be considered as a tertiary derivative. If he touches liquids, he imparts impurity to them, causing them to be considered as a primary derivative and they impart impurity to other foods and liquids. They do not, however, impart impurity to keilim.

Why did the Sages decree that such a person should be impure? Because people would immerse in caves where the water was foul and then they would wash with fresh drawn water for the sake of cleanliness. This became such a widespread practice that the majority of people got the impression that the drawn water in which the people would ultimately wash was the agent that conveyed ritual purity and not the immersion in the waters of the mikveh. Therefore, they would immerse themselves carelessly, without attention to details. Accordingly, our Sages decreed that when a person immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water or three lugim of drawn water fall on his head and the majority of his body, he becomes a secondary derivative of impurity. Even when three lugim of drawn water falls on the head and the majority of the body of a person who was pure or he immerses his head and the majority of his body in drawn water, he becomes a secondary derivative of impurity until he immerses himself.

After a person who contracted impurity in such a manner immerses himself, he need not wait until nightfall to regain purity, for the impurity contracted by this person is fundamentally a Rabbinic decree. Similarly, a person who contracted impurity because he ate impure foods or drank impure liquids and then immersed himself need not wait until nightfall to regain purity. Similarly, when keilim become impure due to contact with impure liquids, once they were immersed, they become pure. There is no need to wait until nightfall, because these impurities are fundamentally Rabbinic decrees.

א

הַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וְאִם נָגַע בָּאֳכָלִין עֲשָׂאָן שְׁלִישִׁי. וְאִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִים עֲשָׂאָן תְּחִלָּה לְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין אֲחֵרִים אֲבָל לֹא לְטַמֵּא כֵּלִים. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה גָּזְרוּ טֻמְאָה עַל אָדָם זֶה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיוּ טְבוּלֵי יוֹם טוֹבְלִין בִּמְעָרוֹת שֶׁמֵּימֵיהֶן רָעִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָיוּ רוֹחֲצִין בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים יָפִים דֶּרֶךְ נְקִיּוּת וּפָשַׁט הַמִּנְהָג כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהָיוּ רֹב הָעָם מְדַמִּים שֶׁמַּיִם שְׁאוּבִים שֶׁרוֹחֲצִין בָּהֶן בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה הֵן שֶׁמְּטַהֲרִין לֹא הַטְּבִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵי מִקְוֶה וְהָיוּ טוֹבְלִין בְּזִלְזוּל בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה. וּלְפִיכָךְ גָּזְרוּ שֶׁכָּל שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ נִטְמָא וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה. אֲפִלּוּ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ טְבוּל יוֹם אִם נָפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הֲרֵי זֶה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. טָבַל אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִקַּר טֻמְאָה זוֹ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן. וְכֵן הָאוֹכֵל אֳכָלִין טְמֵאִים וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְטָבַל אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. וְכֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְּמַשְׁקִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּטְבִּילָן טִהֲרוּ וְאֵין צְרִיכִין הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטֻּמְאוֹת אֵלּוּ עִקָּרָן מִדִּבְרֵיהֶן:

2

The following laws apply when three lugim of drawn water fall on a person from two or three different containers. If water began to flow from the second before it concluded flowing from the first, they can be combined to reach the sum of three lugim. If water falls from four containers, it is not combined. Even if one began to flow before the other ceased flowing, the person is pure.

If the water fell on his head, but not on the majority of his body or fell on the majority of his body, but not on his head, or fell on his head from above and on the majority of his body from the side or from below, he is pure. To impart impurity, the water must fall on his head and the majority of his body that is close to his head in an ordinary manner. Similarly, if his head entered drawn water, but not his body or his body entered, but not his head, or his head was inserted in drawn water and then other drawn water engulfed his body from the side or from below, he is pure. To contract impurity, his head and the majority of his body close to his head must enter the water in an ordinary manner.

ב

מִי שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין מִשְּׁנֵי כֵּלִים אוֹ מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה אִם הִתְחִיל הַשֵּׁנִי עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק הָרִאשׁוֹן מִצְטָרְפִין וְאִם לָאו אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין. נָפְלוּ מֵאַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים אֵין מִצְטָרְפִים וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְחִיל זֶה עַד שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק זֶה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. נָפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ אֲבָל לֹא עַל רֻבּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֻבּוֹ וְלֹא עַל רֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ בִּלְבַד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְעַל רֻבּוֹ נָפְלוּ מִן הַצַּד אוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. וְכֵן אִם בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין וְלֹא בָּא רֻבּוֹ אוֹ בָּא רֻבּוֹ וְלֹא בָּא רֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ שֶׁבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ בִּלְבַד וּבָא מִשְּׁאָר גּוּפוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין מִלְּמַטָּה אוֹ מִן הַצַּד הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְרֹאשׁוֹ כְּדַרְכּוֹ:

3

When a portion of a person's head and half the majority of his body were inserted in drawn water and drawn water falls on the other half of his head and the majority of his body, since water fell on half and half was inserted in water, he is pure.

ג

הַבָּא מֵרֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ הַחֵצִי בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין וְנָפְלוּ עַל הַחֵצִי הָאַחֵר מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין הוֹאִיל וְחֶצְיוֹ בִּנְפִילָה וְחֶצְיוֹ בְּבִיאָה טָהוֹר:

4

When the three lugim of water which fell upon a person or into which he inserted his head and body were a combination of drawn water and natural water or they were mixed with wine, honey, or milk, he is pure. The three lugim must be entirely drawn water.

The status of these three lugim of water which fell on a pure person or in which he inserted his head and body and from which he contracted impurity also changes. Since the person became a secondary derivative of impurity, the water is also impure for it touched a secondary derivative. It is as if the water tells the pure person: "I made you impure and you made me impure."

ד

הָיוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת הַלּוֹגִין שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו אוֹ שֶׁבָּא בָּהֶן מִקְצָתָן שְׁאוּבִין וּמִקְצָתָן אֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶן יַיִן דְּבַשׁ וְחָלָב הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה כֻּלָּן מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין. שְׁלֹשֶׁת לוֹגִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל הַטָּהוֹר אוֹ שֶׁבָּא בָּהֶן וְטִמְּאוּהוּ כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּשֵׁנִי לְטֻמְאָה הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם הָאֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי נָגְעוּ בְּשֵׁנִי וַהֲרֵי אֵלּוּ הַמַּיִם אוֹמְרִין לָזֶה הַטָּהוֹר טִמֵּאנוּ אוֹתוֹ וְטִמְּאָנוּ:

5

Initially, they would place loaves of terumah next to sacred scrolls, saying: "These are holy and these are holy." Mice would come and tear the sacred scrolls. Therefore, the Sages decreed that any terumah that touches the Holy Scriptures would become impure. It is considered as a tertiary derivate of impurity, as if it touched a secondary derivative. Thus all the Holy Scriptures disqualify terumah like a secondary derivative.

Moreover, when anyone whose hands were pure touched one of the Holy Scriptures, his hands become secondary derivatives of impurity and impart impurity to terumah and to liquids. Although generally, hands only contract impurity from a primary derivative of impurity, as we explained, they contract impurity from a scroll.

ה

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה בְּצַד הַסְּפָרִים וְאוֹמְרִים זֶה קֹדֶשׁ וְזֶה קֹדֶשׁ וּבָאִין הָעַכְבָּרִים וְקוֹרְעִין אֶת הַסְּפָרִים לְפִיכָךְ גָּזְרוּ שֶׁכָּל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁתִּגַּע בְּאֶחָד מִכִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ נִטְמֵאת וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁלִישִׁי לְטֻמְאָה כְּאִלּוּ נָגְעוּ בְּשֵׁנִי וְנִמְצְאוּ כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה כְּשֵׁנִי. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁהָיוּ יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת וְנָגַע בְּאֶחָד מִכִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ נַעֲשׂוּ יָדָיו שְׁנִיּוֹת וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה וְאֶת הַמַּשְׁקִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַיָּדַיִם מִתְטַמְּאוֹת אֶלָּא מֵרִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ הֵן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת מִן הַסֵּפֶר:

6

Tefillin straps when connected to the tefillin, the blank parchment of the margins above or below the scroll and at its beginning or end when connected to the scroll, a scroll that was erased, but at least 85 letters remained, and a scroll on which at least 85 letters from the Torah are written, as in the passage Numbers 10:35-36: "And when the ark set forth...," all impart impurity to hands. Not only the words of the Torah, but the words of all the Holy Scriptures, including the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes which are words of wisdom, impart impurity to hands.

ו

רְצוּעוֹת תְּפִלִּין עִם הַתְּפִלִּין וְגִלָּיוֹן שֶׁבַּסֵּפֶר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה וְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה וְשֶׁבַּסּוֹף כְּשֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין לְסֵפֶר. וְסֵפֶר שֶׁנִּמְחַק וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת. וּמְגִלָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת כְּפָרָשַׁת (במדבר י לה) "וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן". הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. וְלֹא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲפִלּוּ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת שֶׁהֵן דִּבְרֵי חָכְמָה מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

7

The Aramaic portions in the Books of Ezra and Daniel are considered as part of the Holy Scriptures. If, by contrast, one translated an Aramaic portion into Hebrew or a Hebrew portion into Aramaic, or wrote the Holy Scriptures in the Hebrew script, they do not impart impurity to hands. That applies only when Scripture is written in the Ashuri script, on parchment, with ink.

ז

תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁבְּעֶזְרָא וְשֶׁבְּדָנִיֵּאל הֲרֵי הוּא מִכְּלַל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אֲבָל תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעִבְרִית שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ תַּרְגּוּם אוֹ שֶׁכָּתַב כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּכְתָב עִבְרִי אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כְּתוּבִים אַשּׁוּרִית עַל הָעוֹר וּבִדְיוֹ:

8

Although it is forbidden to do so, if one writes Hallel or the Shema for a child to study, they impart impurity to hands.

ח

הַכּוֹתֵב הַלֵּל וּשְׁמַע לְתִינוֹק לְהִתְלַמֵּד בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

9

Although it is forbidden to maintain them, as long as the strings and the straps sewed within a Torah scroll are attached to the scroll, they impart impurity to hands.

ט

הַמְּשִׁיחוֹת וְהָרְצוּעוֹת שֶׁתְּפָרָן לְסֵפֶר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמָן כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן מְחֻבָּרִין לַסֵּפֶר מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

10

When the case of a scroll, an ark, or the mantle of a scroll are sewn to the scroll itself, they impart impurity to hands. By contrast, although passages of blessings, contain the letters of God's name and many Torah concepts, they do not impart impurity to hands.

י

תִּיק שֶׁל סֵפֶר וּמִטְפָּחוֹת סְפָרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן תְּפוּרוֹת מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אֲבָל הַבְּרָכוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מֵאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל שֵׁם וּמֵעִנְיָנִים הַרְבֵּה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם:

11

Scrolls written by heretics do not impart impurity to hands. Since the passage of a sotah is intended to be blotted out, it does not impart impurity to hands.

יא

סִפְרֵי הַמִּינִים אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. פָּרָשַׁת סוֹטָה הוֹאִיל וְלִמְחִיקָה עוֹמֶדֶת אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה אֶת הַיָּדַיִם: