Our Sages established eleven stringencies applying to consecrated foods that do not apply to terumah. They are the following:

A person may immerse keilim inside other keilim to use for terumah, but not those to be used for consecrated foods. This is a decree lest the opening of the container be narrow and not be as wide as the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch. Thus the keilim inside of it would be considered as if they were immersed in the waters of the k'li and not in the waters of the mikveh. When does the above apply? When the large container in which the small impure keilim were placed was pure. If, however, it was impure, since the immersion is valid for it, it is also valid for the keilim inside of it, even though they were to be used for consecrated foods.


אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת עָשׂוּ חֲכָמִים לַקֹּדֶשׁ עַל הַתְּרוּמָה וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. יֵשׁ לְאָדָם לְהַטְבִּיל כֵּלִים בְּתוֹךְ כֵּלִים לִתְרוּמָה אֲבָל לֹא לְקֹדֶשׁ. גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה פִּי הַכְּלִי צַר וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד וְנִמְצְאוּ הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ כְּאִלּוּ טָבְלוּ בְּמַיִם שֶׁבַּכְּלִי לֹא בַּמִּקְוֶה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ הַכֵּלִים הַטְּמֵאִין טָהוֹר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה טָמֵא מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁעָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה עָלְתָה טְבִילָה לַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בַּקֹּדֶשׁ:


When the outer surface of a container contracted impurity because it touched liquids, its inner space does not become impure, nor does the fingerhold on its rim. Any liquids in its inner space or on its fingerhold are pure. One may drink from it. There is no need to worry that the liquids in his mouth will touch the outer surface of the container and then flow back in, causing its inner space to become impure.

With regard to what does the above apply? To containers used for terumah. If, by contrast, they are used for consecrated foods, when the outer surface becomes impure, the k'li becomes impure in its totality.


כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרָיו בְּמַשְׁקִין לֹא נִטְמָא תּוֹכוֹ וְלֹא בֵּית אֶצְבַּע שֶׁבָּעֳבִי שְׂפָתוֹ. וְהַמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ שֶׁבְּבֵית צְבִיעָתוֹ טְהוֹרִין. וְשׁוֹתֶה בּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִגְּעוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּפִיו בַּאֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי וְיַחְזְרוּ וִיטַמְּאוּ תּוֹכוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים לִתְרוּמָה. אֲבָל לְקֹדֶשׁ נִטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרָיו נִטְמָא כֻּלּוֹ:


When a person carries an article on which a zav had been supported, he is permitted to carry terumah together with it. Since the person carrying the support is not touching the terumah and the terumah is not touching the support, the terumah is pure. This leniency does not apply to consecrated foods.

An incident occurred with a person who was carrying a jug of consecrated wine and he caused it to contract impurity because of an impure support he was carrying with it. At that time, the Sages decreed that one who carries such a support should not carry consecrated food. The decree was only instituted with regard to carrying such a support with consecrated food, as in the incident that occurred. If the person transgressed and carried the two together, since the support did not touch the consecrated food, the consecrated food is pure.


הַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הַמִּדְרָס מֻתָּר לוֹ לִשָּׂא עִמּוֹ תְּרוּמָה כְּאֶחָד וְהוֹאִיל וְאֵין הַנּוֹשֵׂא נוֹגֵעַ בַּתְּרוּמָה וְלֹא תְּרוּמָה נוֹגַעַת בְּמִדְרָס הֲרֵי הִיא טְהוֹרָה אֲבָל לֹא הַקֹּדֶשׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע בּוֹ. מַעֲשֵׂה הָיָה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁנָּשָׂא חָבִית שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ טִמְּאָהּ (נ"א וטימאה) בְּמִדְרָס שֶׁנָּשָׂא עִמָּהּ בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה גָּזְרוּ שֶׁהַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הַמִּדְרָס לֹא יִשָּׂא אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ. וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ אֶלָּא בְּמִדְרָס עִם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כְּמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה. וְאִם עָבַר וְנָשָׂא הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נָגַע בְּקֹדֶשׁ הֲרֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ טָהוֹר:


The clothes of people who partake of terumah, even though they are pure and they are careful not to contract impurity, are considered as the support of a zav with regard to consecrated foods.


בִּגְדֵי אוֹכְלֵי תְּרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין וְנִזְהָרִין מִן הַטֻּמְאוֹת הֲרֵי בִּגְדֵיהֶן מִדְרָס לְקֹדֶשׁ:


When a k'li is made up of several component parts and its surfaces and beams are tied together, e.g., a bed or the like, if it contracts impurity and must be immersed for terumah, it may be immersed in its entirety, as one entity, while tied together. If it must be immersed for consecrated foods, he must untie all the component parts, wipe each of them down, lest there be an intervening substance upon them and immerse them one by one. Afterwards, he may retie them.


כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא מְפֻצָּל וְלוּחוֹתָיו וְקוֹרוֹתָיו מְקֻשָּׁרוֹת כְּגוֹן מִטָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. אִם נִטְמָא וְצָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּילוֹ לִתְרוּמָה יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַטְבִּילוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָד כְּשֶׁהוּא מְקֻשָּׁר. אֲבָל לְקֹדֶשׁ מַתִּיר וּמְנַגֵּב שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם דָּבָר הַחוֹצֵץ וּמַטְבִּיל וְאַחַר כָּךְ קוֹשֵׁר:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When the fashioning of utensils is completed in a state of purity, even if the one fashioning them is a Torah scholar who was scrupulous in keeping them pure, they must be immersed before they are used for consecrated food. It is not, however, necessary to wait until nightfall. For terumah, however, they may be used without being immersed, because they were fashioned in a state of purity.

Why did the Sages require that such a k'li be immersed before being used for consecrated food? This is a decree, lest the spittle of an unlearned person have touched it while it was being fashioned and was still moist when it was completed.


כֵּלִים הַנִּגְמָרִין בְּטָהֳרָה אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הָעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן תַּלְמִיד חָכָם וְנִזְהָר בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה לְקֹדֶשׁ וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִין הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ. אֲבָל לִתְרוּמָה מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּלֹא טְבִילָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ בְּטָהֳרָה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הִצְרִיכוּם טְבִילָה לְקֹדֶשׁ גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם רֹק עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁיִּגַּע בָּהֶן בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה וַעֲדַיִן הוּא לַח:


Everything inside of a container is considered as joined with regard to consecrated food, but not with regard to terumah.

What is implied? When there is a container filled with fruits that are separate from each other, e.g., raisins and dried figs, if a source of impurity touches one of them, everything that is in the container is impure with regard to consecrated foods, but not with regard to terumah.

All of these stringencies are Rabbinic in origin. There is, however, an allusion to this stringency in the Torah. Numbers 7:14 states: "One golden ladle, weighing ten shekalim, filled with incense." Our Sages said: Everything that is in the ladle is considered as one entity. Even if a k'li does not have a hollow space, everything that is upon it is considered as joined together with regard to consecrated foods. For example, figs were collected on a board or on a hide; even though they are not touching each other, they are considered as a single entity.


אַחַר שֶׁנִּגְמַר הַכְּלִי מְצָרֵף מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ לְקֹדֶשׁ אֲבָל לֹא לִתְרוּמָה. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא פֵּרוֹת פְּרוּדִין זֶה מִזֶּה כְּגוֹן צִמּוּקִין וּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וְנָגְעָה טֻמְאָה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן. נִטְמָא כָּל מַה שֶּׁבַּכְּלִי לְקֹדֶשׁ אֲבָל לֹא לִתְרוּמָה. וְכָל הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם הֵם. וְרֶמֶז יֵשׁ לְמַעֲלָה זוֹ בַּתּוֹרָה (במדבר ז יד) "כַּף אַחַת עֲשָׂרָה זָהָב מְלֵאָה קְטֹרֶת" אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים כָּל מַה שֶּׁבַּכַּף הֲרֵי הוּא כְּגוּף אֶחָד. אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ תּוֹךְ מְצָרֵף מַה שֶּׁעָלָיו לְקֹדֶשׁ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ צְבוּרִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַלּוּחַ אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָעוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַפֵּרוֹת נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה:


The following rules apply when there were two masses within a container, another entity separating them from each other, and one of the masses becomes impure. If the entity between them is required by the container, everything is joined together and it all becomes impure. If it is not required by the container, only the mass that was touched by the impurity contracts impurity.


הָיוּ שְׁנֵי הַצִּבּוּרִין בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי וְדָבָר אַחַר בֵּינֵיהֶן וְנִטְמָא אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן. אִם הָיָה הַדָּבָר שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן צָרִיךְ לַכְּלִי הַכְּלִי מְצָרְפָן וְנִטְמָא הַכּל. וְאִם אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַכְּלִי לֹא נִטְמָא אֶלָּא זֶה שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ הַטֻּמְאָה בִּלְבַד:


If there were two masses in a container and one mass was connected to water that was behind the container, should an impure person touch the second mass, they both contract impurity, because they are joined by the container. Moreover, even though it is behind the container, the water that is behind the container becomes impure, because of the food that is connected to it.

If an impure person touched the water that is behind the container, the food that is connected to it contracts impurity. There is an unresolved question whether the other mass of food becomes impure because it is considered joined by the container or it is not considered as impure although it is joined.


הָיוּ שְׁנֵי צִבּוּרִין בִּכְלִי וְהַצִּבּוּר הָאֶחָד מְחֻבָּר לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי וְנָגַע טָמֵא בַּצִּבּוּר הַשֵּׁנִי נִטְמְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן בְּצֵרוּף הַכְּלִי וְנִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי מֵחֲמַת זֶה הָאֹכֶל הַמְחֻבָּר לָהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן אֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי. נָגַע הַטָּמֵא בְּמַיִם שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַכְּלִי נִטְמָא הָאֹכֶל הַמְחֻבָּר לָהֶן. וְהַדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם נִטְמָא הָאֹכֶל הַשֵּׁנִי בְּצֵרוּף הַכְּלִי אוֹ לֹא נִטְמָא מֵחֲמַת הַצֵּרוּף:


When consecrated food that became impure was placed in a container which also held other consecrated food that was pure, as long as they do not touch each other, the one that is pure remains pure and the one that is impure remains impure. If a person who immersed that day comes and touches the impure food, an unresolved doubt arises: Does the principle that a container joins the masses it holds cause the pure food to become disqualified because the impure food was touched by the person who immersed or is it not disqualified, because the person who immersed only touched food that had already been saturated with impurity and he did not add anything else to it.


אֹכֶל קדֶשׁ שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְהִנִּיחוֹ בִּכְלִי וּבְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי אֹכֶל קֹדֶשׁ אַחֵר טָהוֹר וְאֵין נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה. הַטָּהוֹר בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ וְהַטָּמֵא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ. בָּא טְבוּל יוֹם וְנָגַע בָּאֹכֶל הַטָּמֵא יֵשׁ בְּדָבָר זֶה סָפֵק אִם נִפְסַל הַטָּהוֹר מֵחֲמַת מַגַּע טְבוּל יוֹם מִפְּנֵי צֵרוּף הַכְּלִי אוֹ לֹא נִפְסַל. שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע טְבוּל יוֹם אֶלָּא בָּאֹכֶל שֶׁשָּׂבַע מִן הַטֻּמְאָה וְלֹא הוֹסִיף לוֹ כְּלוּם:


Consecrated food that is a fourth degree derivative of impurity is disqualified, but if it were terumah it would be pure. Similarly, if terumah that was a tertiary derivative touched a consecrated liquid, it contracts impurity, as we explained. When, by contrast, terumah or consecrated food that is a tertiary derivative touched a liquid that is terumah, it is not disqualified.


הָרְבִיעִי בְּקֹדֶשׁ פָּסוּל אֲבָל בִּתְרוּמָה טָהוֹר. וְכֵן שְׁלִישִׁי בִּתְרוּמָה אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה קֹדֶשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה נִטְמָא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבִּתְרוּמָה אוֹ שֶׁבְּקֹדֶשׁ אִם נָגַע בְּמַשְׁקֵה תְּרוּמָה לֹא פְּסָלוֹ:


When one of a person's hands contracted impurity and he then touched his other hand or the hand of another person, he disqualified the other hand and it is considered as a tertiary derivative. If his hand was moist with liquid, the other hand contracts impurity even if it was not touched. He must immerse both of them in a mikveh. Only afterwards may he touch consecrated food.

With regard to terumah, by contrast, if one of his hands contracts impurity, the other does not, even if he touched it, provided the first was dry. He need not immerse the hand that contracted impurity. It is sufficient to wash it in the ritual manner. He may then touch terumah.


מִי שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת יָדוֹ אַחַת וְנָגַע בָּהּ בְּיָדוֹ שְׁנִיָּה אוֹ בְּיַד חֲבֵרוֹ פָּסַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁלִישִׁי. וְאִם הָיְתָה יָדוֹ בְּלוּלָה בַּמַּשְׁקֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע נִטְמֵאת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ וְצָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּיל אֶת שְׁתֵּיהֶן וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִגַּע בְּקֹדֶשׁ. אֲבָל בִּתְרוּמָה אִם נִטְמֵאת יָדוֹ הָאַחַת לֹא נִטְמֵאת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָגַע בָּהּ כְּשֶׁהִיא נְגוּבָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּיל יָדוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת אֶלָּא נוֹטְלָהּ וְנוֹגֵעַ בִּתְרוּמָה:


Dry foods that have not become susceptible to contract impurity may be eaten with impure hands. With regard to what does the above apply? To terumah. With regard to consecrated food, by contrast, the cherished quality of consecrated food causes it to be considered as susceptible to impurity and it is forbidden for someone whose hands are impure to eat consecrated food even if it was not made susceptible to impurity by contact with liquids.

Even if the person with impure hands did not actually touch the consecrated food with his hands, only with a weaving needle or his friend inserted it into his mouth, this is forbidden. Needless to say, if a source of impurity touched consecrated food that was not made susceptible to impurity by contact with liquids, it becomes impure, because the cherished quality of consecrated food causes it to be considered as susceptible to impurity.


אֳכָלִין נְגוּבִין שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשְׁרוּ אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָם בְּיָדַיִם מְסֹאָבוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּתְרוּמָה. אֲבָל בְּקֹדֶשׁ חִבַּת הַקֹּדֶשׁ מַכְשַׁרְתָּן וְאָסוּר לְמִי שֶׁיָּדָיו טְמֵאוֹת לֶאֱכל קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשַׁר. וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָגַע בּוֹ אֶלָּא בְּכוּשׁ אוֹ שֶׁתָּחַב לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאִם נָגְעָה טֻמְאָה בָּאֳכָלִין שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשְׁרוּ שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחִבַּת הַקֹּדֶשׁ מַכְשַׁרְתָּן:


In which instances does the above principle apply? With regard to disqualifying the food itself and to cause it to become forbidden to be eaten. There is, however, an unresolved question with regard to counting primary or secondary derivatives if other entities come in contact with such consecrated food.

What is implied? If consecrated food contracted impurity without being made susceptible to impurity by contact with liquids with other food that was made susceptible to impurity by contact with liquids, there is an unresolved doubt, because the first food had not become susceptible to impurity because of contact with liquids.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים לִפְסוֹל הָאוֹכֶל עַצְמוֹ וּלְאָסְרוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה. אֲבָל לִמְנוֹת בּוֹ רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. כֵּיצַד. נָגַע אֹכֶל שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּלֹא הֶכְשֵׁר בְּאֹכֶל שֵׁנִי שֶׁהֻכְשַׁר הֲרֵי זֶה הַשֵּׁנִי סָפֵק מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הֻכְשַׁר:


Even after a mourner's period of acute mourning ends or after a person who was lacking atonement brings the sacrifices that bring him atonement, he must immerse in a mikveh before partaking of consecrated food, but not before partaking of terumah. For a person in a state of acute mourning and one who is lacking atonement may partake of terumah.

Why did the Sages require immersion before partaking of consecrated food? Because until this time, such individuals were forbidden to partake of consecrated food. Hence it is possible that they diverted their attention from their bodies and contracted impurity without knowing of it. This stringency was imposed only with regard to eating, but not with regard to touching. Such individuals may touch consecrated foods before immersion.


הָאוֹנֵן אַחַר שֶׁתָּם זְמַן אֲנִינוּתוֹ וּמְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים אַחַר שֶׁהֵבִיא כַּפָּרָתוֹ צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה לַאֲכִילַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲבָל לֹא לִתְרוּמָה שֶׁהָאוֹנֵן וּמְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים מֻתָּרִין לֶאֱכל אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הִצְרִיכוּם טְבִילָה לַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי עַד עַתָּה הָיוּ אֲסוּרִין לֶאֱכל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְהִסִּיחוּ דַּעְתָּן וְשֶׁמָּא נִטְמְאוּ וְהֵם לֹא יָדְעוּ. וְלֹא עָשׂוּ מַעֲלָה זוֹ אֶלָּא לַאֲכִילָה אֲבָל לִנְגִיעָה נוֹגְעִים בְּקָדָשִׁים קֹדֶם טְבִילָה:


The first six stringencies were imposed both with regard to consecrated foods and with regard to ordinary foods prepared with the stringencies of consecrated foods. The last five stringencies, beginning with "everything inside a utensil is considered as joined" applies only to consecrated food, but not to ordinary foods prepared with the stringencies of consecrated foods. With regard to these five matters, such food is considered as ordinary food. Therefore, with regard to ordinary foods prepared with the stringencies of consecrated foods, a primary derivative is impure, a secondary derivative disqualified, and a tertiary derivative is pure with regard to ordinary foods, as we explained.


שֵׁשׁ מַעֲלוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת עֲשָׂאוּם בֵּין לְקֹדֶשׁ בֵּין לְחֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ. וַחֲמֵשׁ אַחֲרוֹנוֹת שֶׁהֵן מִן הַכְּלִי מְצָרֵף מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וָהָלְאָה עֲשָׂאוּם בְּקֹדֶשׁ בִּלְבַד אֲבָל לֹא בְּחֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחָמֵשׁ אֵלּוּ כְּחֻלִּין לְפִיכָךְ חֻלִּין שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן טָמֵא בָּהֶן וְהַשֵּׁנִי פָּסוּל. וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי טָהוֹר בְּחֻלִּין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ: