Two adages describing will were mentioned above:

"Nothing is as forceful as will," and "Nothing stands in the way of will."

They give us detailed insight into the main aspect of will, i.e., an appreciation of its widespread forceful influence, both on delight - which is higher than will - as well as on the faculties below it.

They are all equally affected by will, which acts upon them as if by means of decree and edict.

All faculties, without exception, can be intrinsic or figurative.

This is as equally true of the highest of powers, the power of delight, which because of its pre-eminence is termed a "revelation of the soul" - though it too is still just a power of the soul - as it is true of the lowest of the soul-powers, the power of propulsion, a power possessed also by animals.

The difference between an intrinsic characteristic and a figurative one is that an intrinsic one is all-pervasive, both inwardly and externally, while a figurative term is ascribed - for the sake of comparison - to an external and adjunctive attribute.

For example, the cleverness of the fox as likened to the intelligence of man and his understanding.

This is the case with regard to will as well.

Intrinsic-will extends into all the powers and limbs in a forceful way, compelling them to act even contrary to their nature.

Figurative-will, on the other hand, pertains only to the simple aspect of wanting, and it is influenced by that which is outside of it, by the dictates of the power of delight, or the power of the intellect.

As such, it is the oppo site of intrinsic-will.

Notwithstanding this fundamental distinction - the intrinsic- will's great inherent forcefulness and strength, and its comparable vigorousness when extending itself, in contrast to figurative-will which, in addition to lacking this inherent forceful ness, is [actually] influenced and affected by external stimuli - figurative-will also extends itself broadly and most forcefully.

Hence, an educator or counsellor must not only proceed slowly with a pupil, as one who teaches an infant to walk, one step at a time, but he must also apply discernment and keen understanding in selecting what to correct first in a pupil.

An educator or counsellor must be cautious not to attempt to rectify two things at the same time - be it the removal of a deficiency or the fortification of a virtue.

For example, a pupil has two deficiencies:

[a)] he exaggerates and lies;

b) he is irascible and hot tempered.

And in consonance with the nature of all men who do not perceive their personal blemishes, the pupil's will extends very force fully into both of these areas.

In such a situation, an educator or counsellor must choose which imperfection to rectify first, giving priority to the more dangerous failing.

Given a choice between lying and a hot temper, for example, one should select the hot temper as the shortcoming to focus on initially; for it contains within it the germs of sins and transgressions, such as the wasteful emission of semen, and the like, which precipitate many maladies, leading to, Heaven forfend, the ruination of body and soul, and mental imbalance, may the Merciful One protect us.

The educator or counsellor who is mindful of the importance of prioritization in behavioral modification methodology - in the reinforcement of virtues and surely in the elimination of deficiencies - possesses a firm basis upon which to anticipate positive results, the achievement of the benefits of educational objectives.


An educator or counsellor should involve himself initially in the removal of the [pupil's] most dangerous and repugnant deficiency.