Man's essential character is rational. This is the cardinal difference between humans and animals, and is also what makes man superior to animals.

All of man's deeds, speech and thoughts are in accordance with his understanding.

His emotions as well, to love and to hate; to extol, to give thanks and to vanquish; to choose the good and the beautiful, and to despise the bad and the repugnant - are all dictated by his rational judgment.

Nevertheless, [the power of intellect notwith standing,] the strength, power and force of man’s will controls everything [within man].

Man's soul-powers are divided into four groups.

These are:

1) delight and will,

2) wisdom, understanding and knowledge,

3) emotive attributes: love, hate, pride, gratitude, tenaciousness, etc.,

4) thought, speech, and action.

This is in addition to the vital soul that animates the limbs of the body, enabling them to carry out their respective functions of providing man with sight, hearing, ambulation, touch, and so on.

These four groups are [further] divisible into two general classifications:

1) pervasive, and

2) encompassing.

The differ ences between these two classifications are in four matters:

1) The pervasive powers are particular, whereas the encompassing powers are general.

2) The pervasive soul-powers have specific limbs upon and through which they act, whereas the encompassing powers do not, for they affect all limbs.

3) Although both the pervasive and encompassing [faculties] are soul-powers, the depth of their respective roots in the soul itself differs. Encompassing powers are rooted deeper [in the soul].

4) The influence and effects of the pervasive powers, by and large, come about in a pleasant and intimate way.

The encompassing powers, on the other hand - especially the power of will - influence and affect in a forceful and dictatorial manner.

Delight and will, though both encompassing powers, and hence different from the pervasive powers in the four ways outlined above, are themselves different from one another.

It is beyond the scope of this work, however, to explain in detail matters relating to the soul-powers, their influence and their divisions, only to the extent necessary to sufficiently clarify the subject of education.

As such, suffice it to present two general maxims which convey the particular nature of delight and will.

1) Nothing [i.e. no soul-power] ranks higher than delight.

2) Nothing is as forceful as will. (A variant text: Nothing stands in the way of will.)

These two succinct sayings express clearly the differences between delight and will, notwithstanding their similarity in that they are both encompassing powers.

Namely, delight principally precedes all. It is the first manifestation of the soul, even though it too is but a faculty of the soul.

The outstanding feature of will is that it is forceful, and nothing - not a faculty of the soul, or a limb of the body - can oppose it.


The powers of the soul are divisible into two classes:

1) pervasive,

2) encompassing.

The advantage of delight is in its rank; the advantage of will is its forcefulness.