1

It is a positive commandment to burn all the sacrifices that have become impure,1 as [Leviticus 7:19] states: "And the meat that will touch anything that [imparts] impurity may not be eaten. It must be burnt with fire."

Similarly, it is a mitzvah to burn notar,2 as [ibid.:17] states: "What remains from the meat of the sacrifice on the third day3 shall be burnt with fire." Included in [the category of] notar is piggul and all other sacrifices that were disqualified. They must all be burnt.

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִשְׂרֹף כָּל הקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יט) "וְהַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל טָמֵא לֹא יֵאָכֵל בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף". וְכֵן הַנּוֹתָר מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְשָׂרְפוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יז) "וְהַנּוֹתָר מִבְּשַׂר הַזָּבַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף". וּבִכְלַל הַנּוֹתָר הַפִּגּוּל וְכָל פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין הַכּל נִשְׂרָפִין:

2

When a sacrifice becomes piggul or is [otherwise] disqualified, it should be burnt in the Temple4 immediately. Whenever there is a doubt whether a sacrifice has been disqualified, it should be left until the next day5 and then burnt in the Temple.

ב

קָרְבָּן שֶׁנִּתְפַּגֵּל אוֹ נִפְסַל יִשָּׂרֵף בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מִיָּד. וְכָל שֶׁפִּסּוּלוֹ מִסָּפֵק תְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשָּׂרֵף בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ:

3

There is an unresolved doubt with regard to the bulls and the goats which are to be burnt6 whether leaving them overnight or taking them outside [the Temple Courtyard] before the time to take them out7 disqualifies their meat as it would their fats and organs or not.8 Therefore, as a stringency, it is considered as if they were disqualified and they should be burnt in the Temple Courtyard.9

Similarly, there is an unresolved doubt if half [such] an animal was taken out [including] the majority of one limb.10 Therefore, as a stringency, it is considered as if it was disqualified and it should be burnt in the Temple Courtyard.

Similarly, if five people carried [such] an animal to take it outside the Temple Courtyard and three departed from [the Courtyard] and two remained, but the three removed half of the animal, [such animals] are disqualified because of the doubt and they should be burnt in the Temple Courtyard.11 It appears to me that in such instances,12 it is not necessary to wait until the following day. [The rationale is that] regardless [such animals] will be burnt,13 even if they are not disqualified.

ג

פָּרִים וּשְׂעִירִים הַנִּשְׂרָפִים יֵשׁ בָּהֶם סָפֵק אִם הַלִּינָה וְהַיְצִיאָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַנָּם לָצֵאת פּוֹסֶלֶת בְּשָׂרָם כְּאֵימוּרֵיהֶן אוֹ אֵינָהּ פּוֹסֶלֶת בְּשָׂרָן. לְפִיכָךְ פּוֹסְלִין אוֹתָן לְהַחְמִיר וְיִשָּׂרְפוּ בָּעֲזָרָה. וְכֵן אִם יָצָא חֲצִי הַבְּהֵמָה בְּרֹב הָאֵיבָר אִם מַחֲזִיקִין אוֹתָן כַּיּוֹצֵא הוֹאִיל וְיָצָא רֹב הָאֵיבָר אוֹ עֲדַיִן אֵינָן יוֹצְאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יָצָא רֹב הַבְּהֵמָה. לְפִיכָךְ נִפְסְלוּ מִסָּפֵק וְיִשָּׂרְפוּ בָּעֲזָרָה. וְכֵן אִם נְשָׂאוּם חֲמִשָּׁה לְהוֹצִיאָן וְיָצְאוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שְׁנַיִם. וְהוֹצִיאוּ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה חֲצִי הַבְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִפְסְלוּ מִסָּפֵק וְיִשָּׂרְפוּ בַּעֲזָרָה. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ צְרִיכִין לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁתְּעֵבַּר צוּרָתָן הוֹאִיל וְהֵן עוֹמְדִין לִשְׂרֵפָה לְעוֹלָם אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִפְסְלוּ:

4

[The following laws apply when] meat is found in the Temple Courtyard: [Whole] limbs are [considered as parts of] burnt-offerings. Pieces [of meat] are considered as parts of sin-offerings.14 Pieces which are found in Jerusalem are considered as parts of peace-offerings.15 Everything should be left until the following day and then taken out to the place where sacrifices are burnt lest it be notar.16

[One might ask: If so,] of what benefit will it be that it be considered as [part of] a burnt-offering, a sin-offering, or a peace-offering? [To define the law for one] who transgressed and partook of it.17

Notar is burnt only during the day, as stated: "On the third day,18 [it] shall be burnt with fire."

ד

בָּשָׂר הַנִּמְצָא בָּעֲזָרָה. אֵיבָרִים עוֹלוֹת וַחֲתִיכוֹת חַטָּאוֹת. וְהַנִּמְצָא בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שְׁלָמִים. הַכּל תְּעֵבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיֵצְאוּ לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה שֶׁמָּא נוֹתָר הוּא. אִם כֵּן מַה הוֹעִיל שֶׁתִּהְיֶה חֶזְקָתוֹ עוֹלָה אוֹ חַטָּאת אוֹ שְׁלָמִים. לְמִי שֶׁעָבַר וְאָכַל. אֵין שׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַנּוֹתָר אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יז) "בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף":

5

Although peace-offerings are forbidden to be eating from the beginning of the night of the third day,19 [the remainder] is only burnt during the day, whether [it is burnt] at the appropriate time or not at the appropriate time.20 Similarly, piggul is burnt only during the day.21

Burning [sacrificial meat] that is impure, notar, or piggul does not supersede [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] festivals.22 Needless to say, it does not supersede [the prohibition against work on] the Sabbath.

It is permitted to burn [sacrificial meat] that is impure, notar, and piggul together.23

ה

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׁלָמִים אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה מִתְּחִלַּת לֵיל שְׁלִישִׁי. אֵין שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם. בֵּין בִּזְמַנּוֹ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַנּוֹ. וְכֵן הַפִּגּוּל אֵינוֹ נִשְׂרָף אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם. וְאֵין שְׂרֵפַת טָמֵא וְנוֹתָר וּפִגּוּל דּוֹחָה אֶת יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. וּמֻתָּר לִשְׂרֹף טָמֵא וְנוֹתָר וּפִגּוּל כְּאֶחָד:

6

When the meat of a sacrifice of the most sacred order became impure in [the Temple Courtyard], it should be burnt in [the Temple Courtyard]. When it became impure outside [the Temple Courtyard], it should be burnt outside [the Temple Courtyard].24 [This applies] whether it became impure because of a primary source of ritual impurity or a derivative of ritual impurity.25

The priests never refrained from burning meat that contracted impurity from a primary source of impurity - and thus it is defined as impure to the first degree - with meat that contracted impurity from a derivative of impurity,26 even though this would increase the level of its impurity.27 For [an entity that is] of third degree impurity that touches an entity of first degree impurity is considered as of secondary impurity, as explained in [the appropriate] place.28 Moreover, even oil that became impure because it touched a person who immersed on that day,29 which is of third degree impurity is permitted to be burnt in a metal lamp30 that was touched by a person who is impure because of contact with a human corpse, in which instance, the lamp is a primary source of impurity.31 Although the oil becomes impure to the first degree when it touches the lamp, since it was already deemed impure, we are not concerned with the increase of the impurity. We are only careful that an entity that is pure will not become disqualified.

ו

בְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּפְנִים. שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ בִּפְנִים. וְאִם נִטְמָא בַּחוּץ שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ בַּחוּץ. בֵּין שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה בֵּין שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה. וּמִימֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים לֹא נִמְנְעוּ מִלִּשְׂרֹף אֶת הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא רִאשׁוֹן לְטֻמְאָה עִם הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא שְׁלִישִׁי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין לוֹ טֻמְאָה עַל טֻמְאָתוֹ. שֶׁהַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנָּגַע בְּרִאשׁוֹן יַחְזֹר שֵׁנִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁמֶן שֶׁנִּפְסַל בִּטְבוּל יוֹם שֶׁהוּא שְׁלִישִׁי מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיקוֹ בְּנֵר שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהּ טְמֵא מֵת שֶׁהַנֵּר אַב הַטֻּמְאָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הַשֶּׁמֶן נַעֲשֶׂה רִאשׁוֹן כְּשֶׁיִּגַּע בְּנֵר הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ שָׁם שׁוּם טֻמְאָה אֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל תּוֹסֶפְתָּה וְאֵין נִזְהָרִין אֶלָּא מִן הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסֵל:

7

Notar left over from sacrifices of a lesser degree of holiness32 should be burnt by the persons bringing the sacrifice in their homes.33

ז

נוֹתָר שֶׁל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ בְּעָלָיו בְּבָתֵּיהֶן:

8

[The following rules apply when a person] left Jerusalem and remembered that he had sacrificial meat34 in his possession. If he already passed Mt. Scopus,35 he should burn it where he is. If not36 and it is the size of an olive-sized portion, he should return and burn it in Jerusalem.37 If he is a guest who does not have a home, he should burn it before the Temple38 with wood designated for the arrangement of wood [of the altar].39

ח

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ. אִם עָבַר הַצּוֹפִין שׂוֹרְפוֹ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וְאִם לָאו אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת אוֹ יֶתֶר חוֹזֵר וְשׂוֹרְפוֹ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. וְאִם הוּא אוֹרֵחַ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בַּיִת שׂוֹרְפוֹ לִפְנֵי הַבִּירָה מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה:

9

All of the bones of the sacrifices that do not have marrow need not be burnt40 with the exception of the bones of the Paschal sacrifice.41 We already explained42 that when a sacrifice was disqualified after it was skinned, its hide should be given to the priests43 or to the owners, in the instance of sacrifices of a lesser degree of holiness. If, however, [a sacrifice] was disqualified before it was skinned, the hide is considered as the meat and it should be burnt in its entirety.44

Similarly, if a sacrifice was skinned and then it was discovered to be tereifah or it was disqualified because of an improper thought concerning time or place, since the sacrifice was not accepted, the hide should be burnt. [This applies] both to sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity and to sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity. If, however, a sacrifice was offered for the sake of a different intent, even though the obligation of the owners was not fulfilled, since it is acceptable,45 the hide is given to the priests or the owners, as explained [above]. When a sacrifice was skinned before the blood was cast [on the altar46 and the sacrifice was disqualified afterwards, the hide] is not disqualified.

ט

כָּל עַצְמוֹת הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן מוֹחַ אֵינָן טְעוּנִין שְׂרֵפָה חוּץ מֵעַצְמוֹת הַפֶּסַח. כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁהַקָּרְבָּן שֶׁנִּפְסַל אַחַר שֶׁהֻפְשַׁט הָעוֹר לַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹ לִבְעָלָיו כְּקָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. אֲבָל אִם נִפְסַל קֹדֶם הֶפְשֵׁט. הֲרֵי הָעוֹר כְּבָשָׂר וְיִשָּׂרֵף הַכּל. וְכֵן זֶבַח שֶׁהֻפְשַׁט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּפְסַל בְּמַחְשֶׁבֶת הַזְּמַן אוֹ בְּמַחְשֶׁבֶת הַמָּקוֹם. הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִרְצָה הַזֶּבַח יִשָּׂרֵף הָעוֹר בֵּין בְּקָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים בֵּין בְּקָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשָׂה בְּמַחְשֶׁבֶת שִׁנּוּי הַשֵּׁם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָלָה לַבְּעָלִים הוֹאִיל וְנִרְצָה הֲרֵי הָעוֹר לַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹ לִבְעָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְזֶבַח שֶׁהֻפְשַׁט קֹדֶם זְרִיקָה אֵינוֹ פּוֹסֵל:

10

These are the entities that should be burnt:47 sacrificial meat that became impure, notar, or was disqualified, and also a meal-offering that became impure, notar, or was disqualified, a conditional guilt-offering in an instance when it became known to the transgressor that he definitely did not sin before its blood was cast [on the altar],48 a sin-offering of fowl that is brought because of a doubt,49 the hair of a nazirite who is ritually pure,50 and [produce that is] orlah51 or kilei hakerem.52 Entities that are not fit to be burnt - e.g., liquids that are orlah or kilei hakerem - should be buried.

י

אֵלּוּ הֵן הַנִּשְׂרָפִים. בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנִּטְמָא אוֹ נוֹתַר אוֹ נִפְסַל. וְכֵן הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁנִּטְמְאָה אוֹ נִפְסְלָה אוֹ נוֹתְרָה. וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי שֶׁנּוֹדַע לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָטָא קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּזְרַק דָּמוֹ וְחַטַּאת הָעוֹף הַבָּאָה עַל הַסָּפֵק. וּשְׂעַר נָזִיר טָהוֹר. וְהָעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם. וְדָבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהִשָּׂרֵף כְּגוֹן מַשְׁקִין שֶׁל עָרְלָה וְשֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִקָּבֵרוּ:

11

These are the entities that should be buried: sacred animals that died, whether they were consecrated to [be offered on] the altar or for the sake of the Temple treasury - when sacred animals miscarry and discharge a fetus or a placenta, it should be buried - an ox that is stoned to death,53 a calf whose neck is broken,54 the fowl [used for the purification of] a person afflicted with tzara'at,55 the hair of a nazirite who became impure,56 a firstborn donkey [which was not redeemed],57 a mixture of milk and meat,58 and ordinary animals that were slaughtered in the Temple Courtyard.59

יא

וְאֵלּוּ הֵם הַנִּקְבָּרִים. קָדָשִׁים שֶׁמֵּתוּ בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת. וְקָדָשִׁים שֶׁהִפִּילוּ נֵפֶל. הִפִּילוּ שִׁלְיָא תִּקָּבֵר. וְשׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל. וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה. וְצִפֳּרֵי מְצֹרָע. וּשְׂעַר נָזִיר טָמֵא. וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר. וּבָשָׂר בְּחָלָב. וְחֻלִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁחֲטוּ בָּעֲזָרָה:

12

When a person weaves the full length of a sit60 from the hair of a nazirite or a firstborn donkey with a weave of goatshair,61 it should be consigned to flames.62

יב

הָאוֹרֵג מְלֹא הַסִּיט מִשְּׂעַר נָזִיר וּמִפֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר בְּשַׂק יִדָּלֵק:

13

[If] any of the entities that must be buried [are burnt], it is forbidden to benefit from their ashes. It is permitted to benefit from the ashes of all of the entities that must be burnt, [even if] they are sacred, with the exception of the ashes of the outer and inner altars and the ashes of the Menorah.63

יג

כָּל הַנִּקְבָּרִין אֶפְרָן אָסוּר. וְכָל הַנִּשְׂרָפִין שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶפְרָם מֻתָּר חוּץ מִדֶּשֶׁן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַחִיצוֹן וְהַפְּנִימִי וְדִשׁוּן הַמְּנוֹרָה:

14

None of the entities to be burnt should be buried64 and none of the entities to be buried should be burnt. [The rationale for the latter point is that] even though he is stringent by burning it, he is being lenient with regard to its ash, for the ashes of the entities that are buried are forbidden.65

יד

כָּל הַנִּשְׂרָפִין לֹא יִקָּבְרוּ. וְכֵן כָּל הַנִּקְבָּרִים לֹא יִשָּׂרְפוּ. שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַחְמִיר בִּשְׂרֵפָתוֹ הֲרֵי הֵקֵל בְּאֶפְרָן. שֶׁאֵפֶר הַנִּקְבָּרִים אָסוּר:

15

If a person was offering sacrifices together with [a priest] and he told him: "[The sacrifices became] piggul," or if he was involved with entities that are ritually pure with a person and he told him, "They became impure," his word is accepted.66 A Jew is not suspected of lying in such an instance.67 If, by contrast, he told him: "The sacrifices which I offered for you on this and this day became piggul" or "those pure objects became impure," [different rules apply]. If [the person is one] whom he trusts, he should rely on his word. If not, according to the letter of the law, his word [need] not be relied upon. One who wishes to be stringent68 is praiseworthy.69

טו

הָיָה מַקְרִיב עִמּוֹ בִּזְבָחִים וְאָמַר לוֹ נִתְפַּגְּלוּ. עוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ בְּטָהֳרוֹת וְאָמַר לוֹ נִטְמְאוּ. נֶאֱמָן. לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל כָּךְ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ זְבָחִים שֶׁהִקְרַבְתִּי לְךָ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם נִתְפַּגְּלוּ. וְאוֹתָן הַטָּהֳרוֹת נִטְמְאוּ. אִם הָיָה נֶאֱמָן לוֹ סוֹמֵךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו. וְאִם לָאו שׁוּרַת הַדִּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. וְהָרוֹצֶה לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות פסולי המוקדשין בס"ד: