1

On Rosh Chodesh, the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh is offered after the continuous offering of the morning.1 What does the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh comprise? Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering.2

א

בְרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ אַחַר תָּמִיד שֶׁל שַׁחַר. וְכַמָּה הוּא מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים חַטָּאת:

2

The procedure through which all the burnt-offerings are offered is the same as that of continuous offering.3 The procedure through which the sin-offerings of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals are offered is the same as that employed for the sin-offering which is eaten that we described.4

ב

מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת אֶחָד הוּא כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַתָּמִיד. וּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וְשֶׁל מוֹעֲדוֹת כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַחַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

3

On Pesach, an additional offering is brought every day,5 from the first day to the seventh day, like that of the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh: two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep; all are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering which is eaten.6

On the second day of Pesach, the sixteenth of Nisan,7 besides the additional offering brought each day [of the holiday],8 a lamb is offered as a burnt-offering together with the omer of barley that is waved.9 This is a communal meal-offering, as we explained.10

ג

בְּפֶסַח מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבַּן מוּסָף בְּכָל יוֹם. מִיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּמוּסַף רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים. פָּרִים שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא יוֹם שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן מַקְרִיבִין יֶתֶר עַל מוּסָף שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם כֶּבֶשׂ לְעוֹלָה עִם עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה. וְהִיא מִנְחָה שֶׁל צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

There is a fixed time [when this offering is brought]. Hence it supersedes [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the Sabbath and the restrictions of ritual impurity.11

ד

וּזְמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וּלְפִיכָךְ דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה:

5

This meal offering may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael,12 as [Leviticus 23:10] states: "And you shall bring the omer, the first of your harvest,13 to the priest." It is a mitzvah to bring the omer from [fields that are] close [to Jerusalem].14 If it was not brought from a close place,15 it may be brought from any place in Eretz Yisrael.

ה

אֵין מְבִיאִין מִנְחָה זוֹ אֶלָּא מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל הַכֹּהֵן". מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּרוֹב. לֹא בָּא מִן הַקָּרוֹב מְבִיאִין אוֹתָהּ מִכָּל מָקוֹם מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל:

6

It is a mitzvah that it be reaped at night, on the night of the sixteenth [Nisan].16 [This applies] whether [that day falls] during the week or on the Sabbath.17

ו

מִצְוָתוֹ לְהִקָּצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה בְּלֵיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר. בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת:

7

The entire night is acceptable for reaping [the barley for] the omer. If it was reaped during the day, it is acceptable.18

ז

וְכָל הַלַּיְלָה כָּשֵׁר לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם קְצָרוּהוּ בַּיּוֹם כָּשֵׁר:

8

The mitzvah is to bring it from standing grain.19 If [appropriate standing grain] was not found, it should be brought from the sheaves.

ח

מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַקָּמָה. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֳמָרִים:

9

The mitzvah is [to harvest grain] that is fresh.20 If [such grain] was not found, it may be brought from dried grain.

ט

מִצְוָתוֹ לָבוֹא מִן הַלַּח. לֹא מָצְאוּ יָבִיאוּ מִן הַיָּבֵשׁ:

10

Their practice was to bring [the omer] from fields to the south [of Jerusalem].21 They would leave one half of the field fallow22 and sow the other half one year. And the following year, they would leave fallow the half of the field that was previously sown and sow the other half and bring [the omer] from it.23

י

דַּרְכָּן הָיָה לְהָבִיא מִשָּׂדוֹת שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם. הָיָה נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה וְזוֹרֵעַ חֶצְיָהּ בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ וּבְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת נָר חֲצִי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁזָּרַע וְזוֹרֵעַ הַחֵצִי שֶׁנָּר וּמֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ:

11

This omer would come from barley.24 This is a halachah communicated by Moses our teacher.25

How was [the offering] brought? On the day before the festival of Pesach, the agents of the court would go out [to the field] and tie [the barley] into bundles26 while it was still attached to the ground so that it would be easy to reap. [On the evening after Pesach,] all [of the inhabitants] of all the neighboring villages would gather so that it would be reaped with much flourish.27 They would have three men reap three se'ah of barley in three baskets with three sickles.

When it became dark, the reapers would ask those standing [in attendance]: "Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Has the sun set?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a sickle?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is this a basket?" They would answer: "Yes."

If it was the Sabbath, they would ask: "Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."28

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Is it the Sabbath?" They would answer: "Yes."

Afterwards, they would ask: "Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

"Should I reap?" They would answer: "Yes."

Three [questions and answers] were given regarding each matter. Why was all this necessary? Because of those who erred who departed from the community of Israel in the Second Temple [era].29 They maintained that the Torah's expression [Leviticus 23:11]: "From the day following the Sabbath" [should be understood literally, as referring to] the Sabbath of the week. Nevertheless, according to the Oral Tradition, [our Sages] derived that the intent is not the Sabbath, but the festival.30 And so, was understood at all times by the prophets and the Sanhedrin31 in every generation. They would have the omer waved on the sixteenth of Nisan whether it fell during the week or on the Sabbath.

[This interpretation is also reflected in the Written Torah itself,]32 for it is written in the Torah [ibid.:14]: "You shall not eat bread, roasted grain, or kernels of grain until this self-same day." And [Joshua 4:11] states: "And they ate from the produce of the land on the day after Pesach, matzot and roasted grain."33 And if one would presume that in that year Pesach fell on the Sabbath34 as these fools have supposed,35 why would Scripture make the license for them to eat new grain dependent on a factor that is not fundamental, nor the true cause, but mere coincendence.36 Instead, since [Scripture] made the matter dependent on "the day after Pesach," it is clear that the day after Pesach is the cause that permits new grain [to be eaten] and no attention is paid to the day of the week [on which it falls].

יא

עֹמֶר זֶה מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים הָיָה בָּא. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִמּשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ. וְכֵיצַד הָיָה נַעֲשֶׂה. מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב יוֹצְאִין שְׁלוּחֵי בֵּית דִּין וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ כְּרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נֹחַ לִקְצֹר. כָּל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִקְצַר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. וְקוֹצְרִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין שְׂעוֹרִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים. וּבְשָׁלֹשׁ קֻפּוֹת. וּבִשְׁלֹשָׁה מַגָּלוֹת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָשְׁכָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם הַקּוֹצֵר לְכָל הָעוֹמְדִים שָׁם. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. בָּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. מַגָּל זֶה אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. קֻפָּה זוֹ אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאִם הָיָה שַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶן שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם אוֹמְרִין לוֹ הִין. וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר לָהֶן אֶקְצֹר וְהֵן אוֹמְרִין לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ הַטּוֹעִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִכְּלַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבַיִת שֵׁנִי. שֶׁהֵן אוֹמְרִין שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יא) (ויקרא כג טו טז) "מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" הוּא שַׁבָּת בְּרֵאשִׁית. וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא יוֹם טוֹב וְכֵן רָאוּ תָּמִיד הַנְּבִיאִים וְהַסַּנְהֶדְרִין בְּכָל דּוֹר וְדוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ מְנִיפִין אֶת הָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן בֵּין בְּחל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת. וַהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כג יד) "וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה". וְנֶאֱמַר (יהושע ה יא) "וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח מַצּוֹת וְקָלוּי". וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאוֹתוֹ הַפֶּסַח בְּשַׁבָּת אֵרַע כְּמוֹ שֶׁדִּמּוּ הַטִּפְּשִׁים. הֵיאַךְ תָּלָה הַכָּתוּב הֶתֵּר אֲכִילָתָם לֶחָדָשׁ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ הָעִקָּר וְלֹא הַסִּבָּה אֶלָּא נִקְרָה נִקְרֶה. אֶלָּא מֵאַחַר שֶׁתָּלָה הַדָּבָר בְּמָחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הַדָּבָר בָּרוּר שֶׁמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח הִיא הָעִלָּה הַמַּתֶּרֶת אֶת הֶחָדָשׁ וְאֵין מַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל אֵי זֶה יוֹם הוּא מִימֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ:

12

They reaped [the barley]; [then] they placed it in the baskets, and brought it to the Temple Courtyard. [There] they beat it, winnowed it, and selected [the kernels]. The barley [kernels] were taken and roasted over the fire in a cylinder with holes so that the fire would reach it in its entirety, as [Leviticus 2:14] states: "From ripe ears, roasted over fire, ground from fresh kernels." According to the Oral Tradition,37 we learned that the verse is speaking only about the omer meal-offering. After it is roasted, it is spread out in the Temple Courtyard and the wind wafts through it. It is then taken to a mill for kernels and ground [to produce] three se'ah.38 From that quantity, an isaron39 is taken out after it has been sifted with thirteen sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.40

This isaron of fine barley flour is taken and mixed with a log of oil41 on the sixteenth of Nisan and a handful of frankincense is placed upon it like on the other meal offerings.42 It is waved in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard, being passed to [all four directions], lifted up and brought down.43 It is then brought close to the tip of the southwest corner of the altar like the other meal-offerings.44 A handful of the meal is taken and offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder is eaten by the priests like the remainder of all other meal-offerings.45

When is this handful taken? After the additional offering of the day is offered.46 The lamb brought as a burnt-offering47 is offered before the continuous offering of the afternoon.

יב

קְצָרוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּקֻפּוֹת וֶהֱבִיאוּהוּ לָעֲזָרָה וַחֲבָטוּהוּ. וְזוֹרִין וּבוֹרְרִין. וְלוֹקְחִין אֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִין וּמְהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתוֹ בָּאוּר. בְּאַבּוּב מְנֻקָּב. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט בְּכֻלָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב יד) "אָבִיב קָלוּי בָּאֵשׁ גֶּרֶשׂ כַּרְמֶל". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר בִּלְבַד. וְאַחַר שֶׁקּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ שׁוֹטְחִין אוֹתוֹ בָּעֲזָרָה וְהָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתוֹ לְרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אֶת הַשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּמוֹצִיאִין מִן הַכּל עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְלוֹקְחִין זֶה הָעִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁל סלֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִים וּבוֹלְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּלוֹג שֶׁמֶן בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן וְנוֹתְנִין עָלָיו קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וּמְנִיפוֹ בַּמִּזְרָח מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד וּמַגִּישׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד חֻדָּהּ שֶׁל קֶרֶן מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית כִּשְׁאָר הַמְּנָחוֹת. וְקוֹמֵץ וּמַקְטִיר. וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים כִּשְׁיָרֵי כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת. ואֵימָתַי קוֹמְצִין אוֹתוֹ. לְאַחַר שֶׁמַּקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְכֶבֶשׂ הָעוֹלָה קֹדֶם תָּמִיד שֶׁל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם:

13

It is forbidden to reap any of the species of grain48 in Eretz Yisrael49 before the reaping50 of the omer, [because Leviticus 23:10] refers [to it as]: "the first of your harvest," [implying that] it should be the first [grain] that is reaped.51

To what does the above apply? To a harvest from which the omer offering could be brought. [A field located] in parched land in a valley, by contrast, may be reaped before [the reaping of] the omer, because it is not fit to bring [the omer offering] from it.52 [Even such grain] should not, however, be collected in a grain heap.

יג

אָסוּר לִקְצֹר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִין מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה קֹדֶם לִקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם" שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תְּחִלָּה לְכָל הַנִּקְצָרִים. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָצִיר שֶׁרָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ עֹמֶר. אֲבָל בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ קוֹצְרִין אוֹתוֹ מִלִּפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר. אֲבָל לֹא יִגְדּשׁ:

14

When grain grew its roots53 before [the reaping of] the omer, [reaping] the omer causes it to be permitted. If not, it is forbidden to harvest it, just as it is forbidden to partake of it until the omer is harvested next [year].

יד

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהִשְׁרִישָׁה קֹדֶם הָעֹמֶר הָעֹמֶר מַתִּירָהּ. וְאִם לָאו אָסוּר לְקָצְרָהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא הָעֹמֶר הַבָּא:

15

When grain has not completed the final third of its growth,54 it may be reaped [even if it had not grown roots before the reaping of the omer] to feed it to an animal. [Grain] may be reaped so it does not ruin trees. [Similarly,] it may be reaped to clear a place for an assembly of mourning or an assembly of study. For [the prooftext] states "your harvest." [Implied is that the restrictions] do not [apply] to harvest associated with a mitzvah.

טו

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ מֻתָּר לִקְצֹר מִמֶּנָּה לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמָה. וְקוֹצְרִין מִפְּנֵי הַנְּטִיעוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִפָּסְדוּ. וְקוֹצְרִין לְפַנּוֹת מָקוֹם לְבֵית הָאָבֵל אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג י) "קְצִירְכֶם" וְלֹא קְצִיר מִצְוָה:

16

Even though it is permitted to reap, one should not bind [the stalks of barley] as sheaves55 as the reapers do. Instead, he should leave them as small bundles.56

טז

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִקְצֹר לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָן כְּרִיכוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ הַקּוֹצְרִין. אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֵם צְבָתִים צְבָתִים:

17

We already explained57 that meal-offerings, the meal-offerings for the additional offerings58 and first fruits59 may not be brought from new grain before the bringing of the omer.60 If one brought them, the offering is invalid. [Similarly, these offerings] should not be brought before bringing the two loaves [on Shavuot], but if one brought them, the offering is acceptable.61

יז

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין מְנָחוֹת וְלֹא מִנְחַת נְסָכִים וְלֹא בִּכּוּרִים מִן הֶחָדָשׁ קֹדֶם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר. וְאִם הֵבִיא פָּסוּל. וְלֹא יָבִיא קֹדֶם לַהֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר:

18

Anyone who offers a meal-offering from new grain should recite the blessing Shehechiyanu.62

יח

וְכָל הַמַּקְרִיב מִנְחָה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ תְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ שֶׁהֶחֱיָינוּ:

19

When grain was sown after the offering of the omer and harvested after the omer was offered the following year, there is an unresolved doubt:63 May meal-offerings be brought from it as an initial preference before the two loaves are brought [on Shavuot] because the two loaves and the omer had been brought while this grain [was growing]64 or perhaps [meal-offerings] should not be brought from it until after bringing the two loaves after the omer of the same year were brought.65

יט

תְּבוּאָה שֶׁזְּרָעָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר וּקְצָרָהּ אַחַר שֶׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה הַבָּאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סָפֵק אִם מְבִיאִין מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה טֶרֶם הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הוֹאִיל וּתְבוּאָה זוֹ עָבַר עָלֶיהָ הֲבָאַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּקְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר. אוֹ אֵין מְבִיאִין עַד שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אַחַר הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁל שָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת:

20

Similarly, if grain was growing in the ground and its leaves began to form or they began to blossom at the time of the bringing of the two loaves,66 there is an unresolved question if the blossoming or the formation of leaves is considered equivalent to [the grain] taking root and it is permitted to bring meal-offerings from it or it is not considered as equivalent to it having taken root. Therefore one should not bring [such offerings]. If one did, [we assume that] they were accepted.

כ

וְכֵן תְּבוּאָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּקַּרְקַע וְחָנְטוּ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ הֵנֵצּוּ עָלִים שֶׁלָּהּ כְּשֶׁהֵבִיאוּ שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הֲנָצַת הֶעָלִין אוֹ חֲנָטָתָן כְּמוֹ הֻשְׁרְשָׁה וְהֻתְּרָה לְהָבִיא מִמֶּנָּה מְנָחוֹת אוֹ אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הַשְׁרָשָׁה. לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא הֻרְצָה:

21

One who reaps grain before the harvest of the omer is not liable for lashes67 and [the grain] he reaps is fit to be used.68

כא

וְהַקּוֹצֵר קֹדֶם קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה וְהַקָּצִיר כָּשֵׁר:

22

It is a positive commandment to count69 seven complete weeks70 from the day the omer is brought, as [Leviticus 23:15] states: "And from the day after the Sabbath, you shall count... seven weeks." It is a mitzvah to count the days together with the weeks, as [ibid.:15] states: "You shall count 50 days."71

One should count at the inception of the [new] day. Therefore one counts at night,72 [beginning] from the night of the sixteenth of Nisan.

כב

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִסְפֹּר שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימוֹת מִיּוֹם הֲבָאַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טו) "וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת" "שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת". וּמִצְוָה לִמְנוֹת הַיָּמִים עִם הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג טז) "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם". וּמִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹם מוֹנִין לְפִיכָךְ מוֹנֶה בַּלַּיְלָה מִלֵּיל שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן:

23

When one forgot and did not count at night, he should count during the day.73 One should count only when standing.74 If one counted while sitting, he fulfilled his obligation.

כג

שָׁכַח וְלֹא מָנָה בַּלַּיְלָה מוֹנֶה בַּיּוֹם וְאֵין מוֹנִין אֶלָּא מְעֻמָּד. וְאִם מָנָה מְיֻשָּׁב יָצָא:

24

This mitzvah is incumbent on every Jewish male75 in every place76 and at all times.77 Women and servants are absolved from it.78

כד

מִצְוָה זוֹ עַל כָּל אִישׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּבְכָל מָקוֹם וּבְכָל זְמַן. וְנָשִׁים וַעֲבָדִים פְּטוּרִין מִמֶּנָּה:

25

Each night, the [following] blessing should be recited before counting:79 "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the counting of the omer." If one counted without reciting the blessing, he fulfills his obligation80 and should not recite the blessing afterwards.81

כה

וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ בְּכָל לַיְלָה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל סְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּסְפֹּר. מָנָה וְלֹא בֵּרֵךְ יָצָא וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְבָרֵךְ: