1

On the first day of Tishrei,1 for the additional offering of the day,2 we offer a bull, a ram, seven sheep, all as burnt-offerings and a goat as a sin-offering.3 This is the additional offering of the day aside from the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh that is offered on every Rosh Chodesh.4 Therefore [if that date] fell on the Sabbath, three additional offerings were brought: the additional offering of the Sabbath, the additional offering of Rosh Chodesh, and the additional offering of that date.

א

בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי מַקְרִיבִין מוּסַף הַיּוֹם פַּר וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַכּל עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת. וְזֶה מוּסַף הַיּוֹם יֶתֶר עַל מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הַקָּרֵב בְּכָל רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הָיוּ שָׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה מוּסָפִין מוּסַף שַׁבָּת וּמוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וּמוּסַף הַיּוֹם:

2

What is the order in which they were offered? First they would offer the additional offering of the Sabbath, then the additional offering of the new month, and then the additional offering of the festival.5 [The rationale is that any offering brought] more frequently than another takes precedence over the other one.6 Similarly, if [an offering] is on a higher level of holiness than another one, it takes precedence over it.7 If one has a choice of [an offering that] is brought more frequently and one which is on a higher level of holiness, one may award precedence to whichever one desires.8

ב

וְכֵיצַד סִדּוּר הַקְרָבָתָן. מוּסַף שַׁבָּת תְּחִלָּה וְאַחֲרָיו מוּסַף הַחֹדֶשׁ וְאַחֲרָיו מוּסַף יוֹם טוֹב. שֶׁכָּל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְכֵן כָּל הַמְקֻדָּשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. הָיָה לְפָנָיו תָּדִיר וּמְקֻדָּשׁ יַקְדִּים אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:

3

If one transgressed and slaughtered [an animal for an offering that was] not [brought] more frequently or one which was on a lower level of holiness first, one should offer it [on the altar]9 and then slaughter the one [brought] more frequently or one which was on a higher level of holiness.

ג

עָבַר אוֹ שָׁכַח וְשָׁחַט אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּדִיר אוֹ הַפָּחוּת בִּקְדֻשָּׁה תְּחִלָּה מַקְרִיבוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֵט אֶת הַתָּדִיר אוֹ אֶת הַמְקֻדָּשׁ:

4

If the two [animals]10 were slaughtered at the same time,11 one should stir the blood [of the one that is less frequent or less holy] until the blood of the one that is more frequent or holier is sprinkled [on the altar].

ד

וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאֶחָד יִהְיֶה זֶה מְמָרֵס בַּדָּם עַד שֶׁיִּזְרֹק דַּם הַתָּדִיר אוֹ דַּם הַמְקֻדָּשׁ:

5

The blood of a sin-offering is given precedence12 over the blood of a burnt-offering, because the blood of a sin-offering brings atonement.13 [The offering of] the limbs of a burnt-offering take precedence over offering the fats and organs of a sin-offering, because a burnt-offering is consumed entirely by fire.14

[If one must choose] between the blood of a sin-offering15 or the limbs of a burnt-offering,16 one may give precedence to whichever one desires. Similarly, [if one must choose] between the blood of a burnt-offering and the fat and organs of a sin-offering17 or the blood of a burnt-offering and the blood of a guilt-offering,18 one may give precedence to whichever one desires.

ה

דַּם הַחַטָּאת קוֹדֵם לְדַם הָעוֹלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּם הַחַטָּאת מְכַפֵּר. אֵיבְרֵי עוֹלָה קוֹדְמִין לְאֵימוּרֵי חַטָּאת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹלָה כֻּלָּהּ לָאִשִּׁים. דַּם חַטָּאת וְאֵיבְרֵי עוֹלָה אֵי זֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַקְדִּים. וְכֵן דַּם עוֹלָה וְאֵימוּרֵי חַטָּאת אוֹ דַּם עוֹלָה וְדַם אָשָׁם אֵי זֶה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה יַקְדִּים:

6

A sin-offering takes precedence over a burnt-offering.19 Even a sin-offering of a fowl takes precedence over a burnt-offering of an animal, as [Leviticus 5:8 which] states: "[who shall offer] the sin offering first." This is a general principal teaching that every sin-offering takes precedence over the burnt-offering that accompanies it. Similarly, when setting aside [animals for sacrifices], one should set aside the animal to be offered as a sin-offering and then the one to be offered as a burnt-offering.

ו

חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלָה אֲפִלּוּ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ה ח) "אֶת אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה" בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל חַטָּאת שֶׁהִיא קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלָה הַבָּא עִמָּהּ. וְכֵן בִּשְׁעַת הַפְרָשָׁה מַפְרִישׁ הַחַטָּאת תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָעוֹלָה:

7

This does not apply with regard to the sacrifices of the holiday [of Sukkot].20 They are sacrificed in the order that they are mentioned in the Torah, for [Numbers 29:33] states: "according to their ordinance."

What is implied? At first the bulls [should be offered], after them the rams, after them the sheep and after them, the goats, even though the goats are sin-offerings and those which preceded them are burnt-offerings.

Similarly, with regard to the burnt-offering of a bull and the sin-offering of a goat the community brings to atone for the inadvertent transgression [of the prohibitions] against the worship of false deities,21 the bull is given precedence, because [ibid. 15:24] states: "according to the ordinance."

The bull offered by the anointed priest22 is given precedence over the bull offered [to atone] for an inadvertent transgression by the community.23 The latter sacrifice takes precedence over the bull [offered to atone] for the worship of false deities.24The latter sacrifice takes precedence over the goat offered with it. Even though the bull is a burnt-offering and the goat is a sin-offering,25 [the bull is given precedence], for this is the order of the verses in the Torah.

The goat brought [to atone for] idolatry takes precedence over the goat brought by a king,26 for the king is one individual.27 The goat brought by a king takes precedence over the she-goat brought by an ordinary individual.28 The she-goat brought by a private individual takes precedence over a ewe,29 even though they are both sin-offerings. For a she-goat is fit to be brought [to atone] for [all] sins for which one is liable for karet for which a sin-offering is brought and the ewe may not be brought [to atone] for the inadvertent transgression of the prohibitions of idolatry.

ז

בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הֶחָג אֵינוֹ כֵן אֶלָּא קְרֵבִין עַל סֵדֶר הַכָּתוּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כט ו) (במדבר כט לג) "כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם". כֵּיצַד. בַּתְּחִלָּה פָּרִים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם אֵילִים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם כְּבָשִׂים. וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם שְׂעִירִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשְּׂעִירִים חַטָּאת וְכָל אֵלּוּ שֶׁקָּדְמוּ אוֹתָן עוֹלוֹת. וְכֵן בְּשִׁגְגַת צִבּוּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁהֵן מְבִיאִין פַּר עוֹלָה וְשָׂעִיר חַטָּאת. הַפָּר קוֹדֵם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (במדבר טו כד) "כַּמִּשְׁפָּט". וּפַר כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ קוֹדֵם לְפַר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר. וּפַר הֶעְלֵם קוֹדֵם לְפַר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וּפַר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה קוֹדֵם לְשָׂעִיר שֶׁלָּהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפָּר עוֹלָה וְהַשָּׂעִיר חַטָּאת. שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא סֵדֶר הַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה. שְׂעִיר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה קוֹדֵם לִשְׂעִיר נָשִׂיא שֶׁהַנָּשִׂיא יָחִיד. וּשְׂעִיר נָשִׂיא קוֹדֵם לִשְׂעִירַת יָחִיד. וּשְׂעִירַת יָחִיד קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַבְשָׂה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם חַטָּאת. שֶׁהַשְּׂעִירָה רְאוּיָה לָבוֹא עַל הַכְּרֵתוֹת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין עֲלֵיהֶם חַטָּאת. וְהַכַּבְשָׂה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה עַל שִׁגְגַת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:

8

Even the sin-offering of a fowl brought by a woman after childbirth30 takes precedence over the sheep she brings.31 A sin-offering takes precedence over a guilt-offering, because its blood is applied to the four corners [of the altar] and on its base.32 All of the sin-offerings mentioned in the Torah take precedence over all of the guilt-offerings with the exception of the guilt-offering brought by a person afflicted by tzaraat, because it comes to make a person fit.33

A guilt-offering takes precedence over a thanksgiving-offering and the ram brought by a nazirite, because it is a sacrifice of the most sacred order.34 A thanksgiving-offering and the ram brought by a nazirite take precedence over a peace-offering, because they may be eaten for only one day and require that bread bey brought with them. A thanksgiving-offering takes precedence over the ram of a nazirite, because it must be brought with four types of meal-offerings.35

A peace-offering takes precedence over a firstborn offering, because it requires two presentations of blood which are in fact four,36 leaning on the animal,37 waving the offering,38 and accompanying offerings.39 The firstborn offering takes precedence over the tithe offering, because it is sanctified from the womb and may be eaten only by priests.40

The tithe offering takes precedence over fowl41 because it involves ritual slaughter and it has an element of the most sacred order: its blood and the fats and organs are offered on the altar.42 Sacrifices of fowl take precedence over meal-offerings, for [they involve offering] blood.

If a person has a sin-offering of fowl, a tithe offering, and a burnt-offering of an animal [to sacrifice], since the burnt-offering takes precedence over the tithe offering and the sin-offering of the fowl takes precedence over the burnt-offering,43 he should sacrifice the sin-offering of the fowl first, then the burnt-offering and then the tithe offering.44

ח

אֲפִלּוּ חַטַּאת הָעוֹף שֶׁל יוֹלֶדֶת קוֹדֶמֶת לְכַבְשָׂה. חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לְאָשָׁם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּמָהּ נִתָּן עַל אַרְבַּע קְרָנוֹת וְעַל הַיְסוֹד. וְכָל חַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה קוֹדְמִין לְכָל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת. חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּא עַל יְדֵי הַכָּשֵׁר. הָאָשָׁם קוֹדֵם לְתוֹדָה וּלְאֵיל נָזִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. תּוֹדָה וְאֵיל נָזִיר קוֹדְמִין לִשְׁלָמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נֶאֱכָלִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד וּטְעוּנִין לֶחֶם. וְהַתּוֹדָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְאֵיל נָזִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי מִנְחָה. שְׁלָמִים קוֹדְמִין לִבְכוֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן טְעוּנִין מַתַּן שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן כְּאַרְבַּע וּטְעוּנִין סְמִיכָה וּתְנוּפָה וּנְסָכִים. הַבְּכוֹר קוֹדֵם לְמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּדֻשָּׁתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם וְנֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים בִּלְבַד. הַמַּעֲשֵׂר קוֹדְמִין לְעוֹפוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זֶבַח וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים דָּמוֹ וְאֵימוּרָיו. וְהָעוֹפוֹת קוֹדְמִין לִמְנָחוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִינֵי דָּמִים. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וּמַעֲשֵׂר. הַמַּעֲשֵׂר קוֹדֵם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא זֶבַח. הָיוּ שָׁם חַטַּאת הָעוֹף וּמַעֲשֵׂר וְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה הוֹאִיל וְעוֹלָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמַעֲשֵׂר וְחַטַּאת הָעוֹף קוֹדֶמֶת לְעוֹלַת בְּהֵמָה מַקְרִיב חַטַּאת הָעוֹף תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָעוֹלָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר:

9

When a person has several types of animals from one type of sacrifice,45 in which order should they be offered? Bulls take precedence over rams, for their accompanying offerings are larger.46 Rams take precedence over sheep for the same reason. Sheep take precedence over goats, because they have more fats and organs offered on the altar, because the fat-tail is among the organs of the sheep offered and the goats do not have a fat-tail.47

The omer offering takes precedence over the sheep offered with it. The loaves take precedence to the two sheep [offered with them]. This is the general principle: An entity offered because of the day48 takes precedence over an entity brought because of the bread.49

ט

הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ מִינֵי בְּהֵמָה הַרְבֵּה מִמִּין קָרְבָּן אֶחָד כֵּיצַד הֵן קְרֵבִין. הַפָּרִים קוֹדְמִין לְאֵילִים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בִּנְסָכִים. וְאֵילִים קוֹדְמִין לִכְבָשִׂים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בִּנְסָכִים. וּכְבָשִׂים קוֹדְמִין לִשְׂעִירִים שֶׁכֵּן נִתְרַבּוּ בְּאֵימוּרִים. שֶׁבִּכְלַל אֵימוּרֵי כְּבָשִׂים הָאַלְיָה וְאֵין בִּשְׂעִירִים אַלְיָה. הָעֹמֶר קוֹדֵם לַכֶּבֶשׂ הַבָּא עִמּוֹ. וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם קוֹדְמִין לִשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים. זֶה הַכְּלָל דָּבָר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַיּוֹם קוֹדֵם לְדָבָר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם:

10

A meal-offering brought by a male takes precedence over one brought by a female.50 A meal-offering of wheat51 takes precedence over a meal-offering of barley.52 A meal-offering brought as a sin-offering takes precedence over a meal-offering brought as a free-will offering, because it comes [as atonement] for sin. With regard to a meal-offering brought as a free-will offering and the meal-offering of a sotah, one may give precedence to whichever one desires.53

י

מִנְחַת הָאִישׁ קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת הָאִשָּׁה. מִנְחַת חִטִּים קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת שְׂעוֹרִים. מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִנְחַת נְדָבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה עַל חֵטְא. מִנְחַת נְדָבָה וּמִנְחַת סוֹטָה אֵי זוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מֵהֶם יַקְדִּים:

11

Meal-offerings receive precedence over wine libations.54 Wine libations receive precedence over oil.55 Oil receives precedence over frankincense.56 Frankincense receives precedence over salt57 and salt receives precedence over wood.58

When does the above apply? When they are all brought at the same time. When, however, a sacrifice is brought first, it is offered first and one which is brought last, is offered last.59

יא

מְנָחוֹת קוֹדְמִין לַיַּיִן. וְהַיַּיִן קוֹדֵם לַשֶּׁמֶן. וְהַשֶּׁמֶן קוֹדֵם לַלְּבוֹנָה. וּלְבוֹנָה קוֹדֶמֶת לַמֶּלַח. וּמֶלַח קוֹדֵם לָעֵצִים. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻּלָּן כְּאֶחָד. אֲבָל הַבָּא רִאשׁוֹן קָרֵב רִאשׁוֹן וְהַבָּא אַחֲרוֹן קָרֵב אַחֲרוֹן:

12

All [the sacrifices] that receive precedence with regard to being offered also receive precedence with regard to being eaten.

יב

כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם בְּהַקְרָבָה קוֹדֵם בַּאֲכִילָה:

13

If a person had before him a peace-offering that had been sacrificed on the previous day60 and one that was offered the present day, the one offered on the previous day is given precedence, because the limit [until when it may be eaten] is closer.61 If one has a peace-offering from the previous day and a sin-offering or a guilt-offering from the present day,62 the sin-offering and the guilt-offering take precedence, because they are sacrifices of the most sacred order, as we explained.63

יג

הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ וּשְׁלָמִים שֶׁל יוֹם. שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ קוֹדְמִין שֶׁהֲרֵי קָרַב זְמַנָּן. שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל אֶמֶשׁ וְחַטָּאת אוֹ אָשָׁם שֶׁל יוֹם. חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם קוֹדְמִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ: