1

The fiftieth day of the counting of the omer is the holiday of Shavuot.1 It is also called Atzeret. On this day, an additional offering is brought like the one brought on Rosh Chodesh:2 Two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering. These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Numbers.3 They are the additional offering associated with the day.

Also, besides the additional offering of this day, a meal-offering is brought from new grain: two loaves. Together with the loaves are offered a bull, two rams, and seven sheep. All are burnt-offerings. A goat is brought as a sin-offering and two sheep are brought as peace-offerings.4 These are the addition offerings that are mentioned in the Book of Leviticus.5

Thus on this day, besides [the two lambs brought as] continuous offerings, there are offered three bulls, three rams, and fourteen sheep - a total of 20 animals - as burnt offerings and two goats as sin-offerings which are eaten and two sheep as peace-offerings which are eaten.

א

בְּיוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים מִסְּפִירַת הָעֹמֶר. הוּא חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת. וְהוּא עֲצֶרֶת. וּבַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מַקְרִיבִין מוּסָף כְּמוֹ מוּסַף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵי פָּרִים וְאַיִל וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים כֻּלָּם עוֹלוֹת וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים וְהֵם מוּסַף הַיּוֹם. וְעוֹד מְבִיאִין יֶתֶר עַל הַמּוּסָף בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמַקְרִיבִין עִם הַלֶּחֶם פַּר וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּחֻמַּשׁ וַיִּקְרָא. נִמְצָא הַקָּרֵב בְּיוֹם זֶה יֶתֶר עַל שְׁנֵי הַתְּמִידִין שְׁלֹשָׁה פָּרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵילִים וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים. הַכּל עֶשְׂרִים בְּהֵמָה עוֹלוֹת. וּשְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי חַטָּאוֹת נֶאֱכָלִים. וּשְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים שְׁלָמִים נֶאֱכָלִים:

2

These two loaves may be brought only from Eretz Yisrael and from freshly-harvested grain,6 as [indicated by Leviticus 23:17]: "From your dwelling places,7 bring bread that will be waved...." If freshly-harvested grain cannot be found, one may bring from that which had been stored away.8

ב

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה" וְגוֹ'. לֹא מָצְאוּ חָדָשׁ יָבִיאוּ מִן הָעֲלִיָּה:

3

If wheat kernels descended from the clouds,9 there is an unresolved doubt whether they are considered as coming from "your dwelling places."10 Hence, [as an initial preference, the two loaves] should not be brought [from such grain]. After the fact, [the offering] is acceptable.

How are [the two loaves] brought? Three se'ah of wheat from new grain are brought. [The kernels] are struck and tread upon as [is done] for all the meal offerings.11 They should be ground into fine flour [to produce] two esronim12 that are sifted with twelve sifters. The remainder is redeemed and [afterwards] may be eaten by any person. Challah must be separated from [that grain], but it is exempt from the tithes, as we explained.13

ג

חִטִּים שֶׁיָּרְדוּ בְּעָבְיָם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם סָפֵק אִם אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בָּהֶם (ויקרא כג יז) "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם" אוֹ אֵינָם מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יָבִיא וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין. מְבִיאִין שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין חִטִּין חֲדָשׁוֹת וְשָׁפִין אוֹתָן וּבוֹעֲטִין בָּהֶם כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְטוֹחֲנִין אוֹתָן סלֶת וּמְנַפִּין מֵהֶן שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת מְנֻפֶּה בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בְּחַלָּה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

4

The two loaves that come from new grain must each come from an isaron produced from a se'ah and a half [of kernels]. They are sifted with twelve sifters. For the showbread that comes from grain that grown for a full season, it is sufficient to use eleven sifters and an isaron is produced from every se'ah.14 The omer which, however, comes from fresh barley does not come from choice grain.15 [Hence it requires] three se'ah and thirteen sifters.

ד

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁהֵן מִן הֶחָדָשׁ צְרִיכִין לָבוֹא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה וּמֶחֱצָה וּמְנַפִּין אוֹתָן בִּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה. וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַיָּשָׁן דַּי לוֹ בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה וְהוּא בָּא עִשָּׂרוֹן מִכָּל סְאָה. אֲבָל הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִן הַשְּׂעוֹרִים חֲדָשׁוֹת אֵינוֹ בָּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר אֶלָּא מִשָּׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ עֲשָׂרָה נָפָה:

5

In all these instances, if one added the number of se'ah used or subtracted from them,16 [the offering] is acceptable.17

ה

וְכֻלָּם אִם רִבָּה בְּמִדַּת הַסְּאִין שֶׁבָּאִין מֵהֶן אוֹ מִעֵט כָּשֵׁר:

6

The two esronim are taken and each one is kneaded into dough individually and baked individually.18

ו

וְלוֹקְחִין שְׁנֵי הָעֶשְׂרוֹנוֹת וְלָשִׁין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת וְאוֹפִין אוֹתָן אַחַת אַחַת:

7

The dough for them is made and they are shaped outside [the Temple Courtyard].19 They are, however, baked inside [the Courtyard] like all the meal-offerings.20

ז

וְלִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן בַּחוּץ וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים כְּכָל הַמְּנָחוֹת:

8

Preparing these loaves does not supersede [the prohibitions against forbidden labor on] the festivals and needless to say, not [those of] Sabbath. Instead, they are baked on the day preceding the festival. For [Exodus 12:16 which permits cooking and baking on the festivals states]: "It alone may be done for yourselves." [Implied is an exclusion:] "For yourselves and not for the Most High.21

ח

וְאֵין עֲשִׂיָּתָן דּוֹחָה יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב טז) "הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם" לָכֶם וְלֹא לְגָבוֹהַּ:

9

If the day before the festival is the Sabbath, they should be baked on Friday and eaten on the third day after they were baked which is the festival.

It is explicitly stated in the Torah that they should be leavened bread.22 How were they prepared? One would bring yeast from another place and place it into the isaron measure. He would then fill that measure with fine flour and let it leaven with that yeast.23

ט

הָיָה עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שַׁבָּת אוֹפִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנֶאֱכָלוֹת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי לַאֲפִיָּתָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב. וַהֲרֵי מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁהֵם חָמֵץ. וְכֵיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. מֵבִיא שְׂאוֹר מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הָעִשָּׂרוֹן וּמְמַלֵּא הָעִשָּׂרוֹן סלֶת וּמְחַמְּצוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַשְּׂאוֹר:

10

They were rectangular.24 The length of each loaf is seven handbreadths and their width was four handbreadths. Their height was four fingerbreadths.

י

וּמְרֻבָּעוֹת הֵן. אֹרֶךְ כָּל חַלָּה שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים וְרָחְבָּהּ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וְגָבְהָהּ אַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת:

11

How is the bread waved together with the two sheep brought as peace offerings?25 Two sheep are brought and they should be waved while they are still alive, as [Leviticus 23:20] states: "And [the priest] shall wave them...." If one waved each of them individually, the obligation is fulfilled. Afterwards, they are slaughtered and skinned.

The breast and the thigh from both of them are taken and placed aside the two loaves. [A priest] should place both of his hands below them and wave them all as a single entity26 in the eastern portion of the Temple Courtyard in the place where all the waving [of offerings] is performed.27 One should bring them back and forth [to each of the four directions] and up and down. If he waved each of the loaves [together with one breast and one thigh] individually, the obligation is fulfilled.

Afterwards, the eimorim28 of the sheep are offered on the altar's pyre. The remainder of the meat is eaten by the priests.29 With regard to the two loaves: the High Priest receives one of them30 and the other is divided among all the priestly watches.31 They both may be eaten for the entire day and half the night like the meat of the sacrifices of the most sacred order.32

יא

כֵּיצַד הֲנָפַת הַלֶּחֶם עִם שְׁנֵי כִּבְשֵׂי הַשְּׁלָמִים. מֵבִיא שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמְנִיפָם בְּעוֹדָן חַיִּים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד יב) "וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה". וְאִם הֵנִיף זֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְזֶה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָן וּמַפְשִׁיט. וְלוֹקֵחַ חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק מִכָּל אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם וּמַנִּיחָן בְּצַד שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּמֵנִיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִלְּמַטָּן וּמֵנִיף הַכּל כְּאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח בִּמְקוֹם כָּל הַתְּנוּפוֹת. מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא. מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד. וְאִם הֱנִיפָן אֶחָד אֶחָד יָצָא. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי שְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים וּשְׁאָר הַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים. וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת נוֹטֵל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחַת מֵהֶן. וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה מִתְחַלֶּקֶת לְכָל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת. וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן נֶאֱכָלוֹת אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וַחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה כִּבְשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים:

12

[The following laws apply if] one slaughtered the two sheep for four loaves: If [the priest performing the service] said:33 "Let two of the four become sanctified," he should remove two of the four, and wave them.34 The remainder should be redeemed inside the Temple Courtyard35 and eaten outside like other ordinary [bread]. If he did not make such a stipulation, the bread does not become sanctified.

יב

שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים עַל אַרְבַּע חַלּוֹת. אִם אָמַר יִקָּדְשׁוּ שְׁתַּיִם מִתּוֹךְ אַרְבַּע מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁתַּיִם מֵהֶן וּמְנִיפָן. וְהַשְּׁאָר פּוֹדִין אוֹתָן בִּפְנִים וְנֶאֱכָלִין בַּחוּץ כִּשְׁאָר הַחֻלִּין. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנָה לֹא קָדַשׁ הַלֶּחֶם:

13

If he slaughtered four sheep for two loaves, they should take away two of them and dash their blood on the altar with the intent that they not be for this offering.36 He should then wave the remaining two together with the two loaves.37

יג

שָׁחַט אַרְבָּעָה כְּבָשִׂים עַל שְׁתֵּי חַלּוֹת. מוֹשֵׁךְ שְׁנַיִם מֵהֶם וְזוֹרֵק דָּמָן שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן. וּמֵנִיף הַשְּׁנַיִם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים הַכְּשֵׁרִים עִם שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם:

14

The two breads are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other38 and the two sheep are each indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.39 If one of them died, fled, or became treifah, a partner should be taken for the second. If one was slaughtered with the proper intent [and then the other died or the like], a partner should be taken for [the first].40

יד

שְׁתֵּי הַחַלּוֹת מְעַכְּבוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. מֵת אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אוֹ בָּרַח אוֹ נַעֲשָׂה טְרֵפָה. יִקַּח זוּג לְשֵׁנִי. שָׁחַט אֶחָד לִשְׁמוֹ. יִקַּח לוֹ זוּג:

15

The two loaves are indispensable requirements for the offering of the sheep,41 but the two sheep are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves.42 [Nevertheless,] if [the loaves] were waved together with the sheep, they are indispensable requirements for their being offered.43 Thus if the loaves were lost, the sheep should be destroyed and if the sheep were lost, the loaves should be destroyed and other loaves and other sheep should be brought.

טו

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַכְּבָשִׂים. וּשְׁנֵי הַכְּבָשִׂים אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הַלֶּחֶם. וְאִם הוּנְפוּ עִם הַכְּבָשִׂים מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם אָבַד הַלֶּחֶם יֹאבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים וְאִם אָבְדוּ הַכְּבָשִׂים יֹאבְדוּ הַלֶּחֶם וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם אַחֵר וּכְבָשִׂים אֲחֵרִים:

16

How should the two loaves be brought when they are brought without the sheep? They should be waved and then [left] until their form spoils44 and then taken out to the place where [sacrifices] are burnt.45 This is a decree, [enacted] lest sheep be available in the coming year and the loaves be offered without them.

The two rams, seven sheep46 and the goat47 brought on this day because of the loaves are not indispensable requirements for the offering of the loaves, nor are the loaves indispensable requirements for their being offered.

טז

שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם הַבָּאוֹת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים כֵּיצַד עוֹשִׂין בָּהֶן. יוּנְפוּ וּתְעֵבַּר צוּרָתָן וְיֵצְאוּ לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִמְצְאוּ כְּבָשִׂים לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה וְיָבִיאוּ לֶחֶם בְּלֹא כְּבָשִׂים. הַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִים וְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים וְהַשָּׂעִיר הַבָּאִים בְּיוֹם זֶה בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא הַלֶּחֶם מְעַכְּבָן:

17

The two bulls of the additional offering of the day and the bull brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.48

יז

שְׁנֵי פָּרִים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּפַר הַבָּא בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

18

The ram of the additional offering of the day and the two rams brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.49

יח

אַיִל שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וּשְׁנֵי אֵילִים הַבָּאִין בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין (זֶה אֶת זֶה):

19

The seven sheep of the additional offering of the day and the seven sheep brought because of the bread are not indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.50 If they were slaughtered, they are indispensable requirements for the offering of each other.51

יט

שִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים שֶׁל מוּסַף הַיּוֹם וְשִׁבְעָה כְּבָשִׂים הַבָּאִים בִּגְלַל הַלֶּחֶם אֵינָן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטוּ כֻּלָּן מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

20

The continuous offerings are not indispensable requirements for the additional offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for the continuous offerings, nor are the additional offerings indispensable requirements for each other, nor is the entire amount of burnt offerings an indispensable requirement.

What is implied? If only six sheep were found, the six should be offered. Even if one found only one sheep, it should be offered.52 [This applies] whether on Rosh Chodesh or on the festivals or Sabbaths. There is no obligation to offer the other animals on the following day or at any other time. Instead, whenever the date for a communal sacrifice passes without it being offered, [the obligation to offer] the sacrifice is nullified.53

If there were only two sheep to be found and thus if they would be offered for the additional offering of the day, there would not be any for the continuous offering on the next day, the options are of equal weight.54 If they were offered for the additional offering of that day, the offering [is acceptable]. If it was desired that they be left to be offered on the following day, they should be left.

כ

הַתְּמִידִין אֵינָם מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַמּוּסָפִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתְּמִידִין וְלֹא הַמּוּסָפִין מְעַכְּבִין זֶה אֶת זֶה וְלֹא מִנְיַן הָעוֹלוֹת כֻּלָּן מְעַכֵּב. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁלֹּא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שִׁשָּׁה כְּבָשִׂים מַקְרִיבִין שִׁשָּׁה אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא אֶחָד מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים בֵּין בִּימֵי הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת וְהַשַּׁבָּתוֹת. וְאֵינָן חַיָּבִין לְהַקְרִיב הַשְּׁאָר לְמָחָר אוֹ לְמוֹעֵד אַחֵר אֶלָּא כָּל קָרְבַּן צִבּוּר שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנּוֹ בָּטֵל קָרְבָּנוֹ. לֹא מָצְאוּ אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי כְּבָשִׂים אִם יַקְרִיבוּ אוֹתָן לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם אֵין לָהֶן תְּמִידִין לְמָחָר. הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר שָׁקוּל אִם הִקְרִיבוּם לְמוּסַף הַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ וְאִם רָצוּ לְהַנִּיחָם לְמָחָר לִתְמִידִין יַנִּיחוּ: