Introduction to Hilchot Issurei Mizbeiach

They contain fourteen mitzvot: four positive commandments and ten negative commandments. They are:

1) To offer for all sacrifices only unblemished cattle;
2) Not to set apart a blemished beast for the altar;
3) Not to slaughter (such a beast for the altar);
4) Not to sprinkle its blood;
5) Not to burn its fat (on the altar);
6) Not to offer up a beast with a temporary blemish;
7) Not to offer a beast with a blemish, even when presented by gentiles;
8) Not to inflict a blemish in cattle set apart for the altar;
9) To redeem cattle, set apart for the altar, which have become unfit to be offered up;
10) To offer up a beast, only when at least eight days old; before then, it is immature and is not to be offered up;
11) Not to offer up for sacrifice the hire of a harlot or "the price of a dog";
12) Not to burn on the altar leaven or honey;
13) To salt all sacrifices;
14) Not to omit seasoning all sacrifices with salt.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

הלכות איסורי המזבח - הקדמה יש בכללן ארבע עשרה מצוות: ארבע מצוות עשה, ועשר מצוות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן: (א) להקריב כל הקרבנות תמימים.
(ב) שלא להקדיש בעל מום למזבח.
(ג) שלא יִשחט.
(ד) שלא יזרוק דמו.
(ה) שלא יקטיר חלבו.
(ו) שלא יקריב בעל מום עובר.
(ז) שלא יקריב בעל מום אפילו בקרבנות הגוים.
(ח) שלא יטיל מום בקדשים.
(ט) לפדות פסולי המוקדשין.
(י) להקריב מיום השמיני והלאה, וקודם זמן זה הוא נקרא "מחוסר זמן" ואין מקריבין אותו.
(יא) שלא להקריב אתנן ומחיר.
(יב) שלא להקטיר שאור ודבש.
(יג) למלוח כל הקרבנות.
(יד) שלא להשבית מלח מעל הקרבנות. וביאור מצוות אלו בפרקים אלו:

1

It is a positive commandment for all the sacrifices to be unblemished and of choice quality,1 as [Leviticus 22:21] states: "unblemished to arouse favor."2 This is a positive commandment.3

א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִהְיוֹת כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת תְּמִימִין וּמֻבְחָרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב-כא) "תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן" זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה:

2

[Conversely,] anyone who consecrates a blemished animal for the altar violates a negative commandment4 and is liable for lashes5 for consecrating it, as [ibid.:20] states: "Whatever has a blemish should not be sacrificed." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning against consecrating a blemished animal. Even one who consecrates such an animal for the money to pay for libations6 is liable for lashes, for this represents a disgrace to the sacrifices.7

ב

וְכָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מוּם לְגַבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְלוֹקֶה עַל הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב-כ) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ מוּם לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזּוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְמַקְדִּישׁ בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין אֲפִלּוּ הִקְדִּישׁוֹ לִדְמֵי [נְסָכִים] לוֹקֶה שֶׁבִּזְיוֹן קָדָשִׁים הוּא:

3

[When a person consecrates an animal and] intends to say [that it is consecrated as] a peace offering, but actually says "as a burnt offering," or [intended to consecrate it] as a burnt offering, but said, "a peace offering," his statements are of no consequence unless his mouth and his heart are identical.8 Therefore if one intended to consecrate a blemished animal as a burnt offering, but consecrated it as peace offering or intended to consecrate it as a peace offering, but consecrated it as burnt offering, he is not liable for lashes even though he intended to perform a transgression.

If someone thought that it was permitted to consecrate a blemished animal for the altar and did so, the consecration is effective and he is not liable for lashes.9

ג

הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר שְׁלָמִים וְאָמַר עוֹלָה עוֹלָה וְאָמַר שְׁלָמִים לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ פִּיו וְלִבּוֹ שָׁוִים. לְפִיכָךְ הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לוֹמַר עַל בַּעַל מוּם עוֹלָה וְהִקְדִּישׁוֹ שְׁלָמִים אוֹ שְׁלָמִים וְאָמַר עוֹלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְאִסּוּר אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מִי שֶׁדִּמָּה שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַקְדִּישׁ בַּעַל מוּם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְדִּישׁ הֲרֵי זֶה קָדוֹשׁ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

4

One who slaughters a blemished animal for the sake of a sacrifice10 is liable for lashes,11 for [ibid.:22] states: "Do not offer these12 to God." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning to one who slaughters.

Similarly, one who pours the blood of blemished animals on the altar is liable for lashes,13 for, with regard to them,14 [ibid.:24] states: "Do not offer to God." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning to one who pours the blood of blemished animals on the altar.

And also one who sets afire the selected portions of blemished sacrifices on the altar is liable for lashes,15 for, with regard to them,16 [ibid.:22] states: "Do not place them as a fire offering on the altar." This refers to the fats. Thus we can deduce that one who consecrates a blemished animal, slaughter it, poured its blood [on the altar], and set afire its selected portions is worthy of four sets of lashes.

ד

הַשּׁוֹחֵט בַּעַל מוּם לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּן לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בְּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין (ויקרא כ״ב:כ״ב) "לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֵלֶּה לַה'". וּמִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה אַזְהָרָה לַשּׁוֹחֵט. וְכֵן הַזּוֹרֵק דַּם בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן (ויקרא כב-כד) "לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ (אֵלֶּה) לַה'" מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה אַזְהָרָה לַזּוֹרֵק. וְכֵן הַמַּקְטִיר אֵימוּרֵי בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כ״ב:כ״ב) "וְאִשֶּׁה לֹא תִתְּנוּ מֵהֶם עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ" אֵלּוּ הַחֲלָבִים. נִמְצֵאתָ לָמֵד שֶׁאִם הִקְדִּישׁ בַּעַל מוּם וּשְׁחָטוֹ וְזָרַק דָּמוֹ וְהִקְטִיר אֵימוּרָיו לוֹקֶה אַרְבַּע מַלְקִיּוֹת:

5

One transgresses the above commandments whether the animal has a permanent blemish or a temporary blemish, he violates all of these commandments, as [Deuteronomy 17:1] states: "Do not sacrifice to God your Lord an ox or a sheep that has a blemish." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning [against offering] an animal with a temporary blemish,17 for example, an animal had a moist skin eruption or a boil.18 If he sacrificed, it, he is liable for lashes.

ה

אֶחָד בַּעַל מוּם קָבוּעַ אוֹ בַּעַל מוּם עוֹבֵר אִם הִקְרִיבוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּכָל אֵלּוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יז-א) "לֹא תִזְבַּח לַה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה אַזְהָרָה לְבַעַל מוּם עוֹבֵר. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה בִּבְהֵמָה גָּרָב לַח אוֹ חֲזָזִית אִם הִקְרִיבָהּ לוֹקֶה:

6

[The above applies], not only to sacrifices of the Jewish people, but also to the sacrifices brought by gentiles.19 If [a priest] offered [such sacrifices] and the animals were blemished, he is liable for lashes,20 as [Leviticus 22:25] states: "From the hands of foreigners, you may not offer the food of your God from all of these."21

ו

וְלֹא קָרְבְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא אַף קָרְבְּנוֹת עַכּוּ''ם אִם הִקְרִיבָן וְהֵן בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כב-כה) "וּמִיַּד בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִכָּל אֵלֶּה":

7

One who brings about a blemish in a sacrificial animal, e.g., he blinded its eye or cut off its hand,22 is liable for lashes.23 For with regard to a sacrifice, [Leviticus 22:21] states: "It shall not have any blemish." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that this is a warning not to cause a blemish."

Lashes are given [for the violation of this prohibition] only when the Temple was standing, for then [the animal] was fit to be offered a sacrifice and [the person] disqualified it. In the present age, by contrast, even though one transgressed a negative commandment, he is not liable for lashes.24

ז

הַמַּטִּיל מוּם בְּקָדָשִׁים כְּגוֹן שֶׁסִּמֵּא עֵינוֹ אוֹ קָטַע יָדוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בְּקָרְבָּן (ויקרא כב-כא) "כָּל מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה אַזְהָרָה שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן בּוֹ מוּם. וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה רָאוּי לְקָרְבָּן וּפְסָלוֹ. אֲבָל בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

8

If a person brought about a blemish25 in a sacrificial animal and another person came and brought about a second blemish, the second person is not liable for lashes.26

ח

הֵטִיל מוּם בְּקָדָשִׁים וּבָא אַחֵר וְהֵטִיל בָּהּ מוּם אַחַר הַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

9

[This prohibition applies] both with regard to one who causes a blemish in sacrificial animals themselves or in animals to which their holiness was transferred27with the exception of a firstborn or a tithed animal. In those instances, one who causes a blemish in an animal to which their holiness was transferred is not liable for lashes, for they are not fit to be sacrificed, as will be explained in the appropriate place.28 Similarly, one who causes a blemish in the ninth animal which was mistakenly called the tenth,29 is not liable for lashes.

ט

אֶחָד הַמֵּטִיל מוּם בַּקָּדָשִׁים עַצְמָן אוֹ בִּתְמוּרָתָן חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהַמֵּטִיל מוּם בִּתְמוּרָתָן אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְקָרְבָּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וְכֵן הַמֵּטִיל מוּם בַּתְּשִׁיעִי שֶׁל טָעוּת עֲשִׂירִי אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה:

10

Although one who consecrates a blemished animal30 [for the sacrifices of] the altar is liable for lashes,31 [the animal] becomes consecrated. It must be redeemed [after] evaluation by a priest.32 It then reverts to the status of an ordinary [animal]33 and its money should be used to purchase [an animal for the same type of] sacrifice. This law also applies when a consecrated animal contracts a disqualifying blemish.34

It is a positive commandment to redeem sacrificial animals that contracted disqualifying blemishes and cause them to revert to the status of an ordinary animals so that one may partake of them,35 as [Deuteronomy 12:15] states: "Nevertheless, whenever your heart desires, you may slaughter and partake of meat." According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that the verse is speaking about consecrated animals that must be redeemed.36We already explained in [Hilchot] Arachin37 that [Leviticus 27:11]: "With regard to any impure animal38 of which a sacrifice should not be brought as an offering to God, [you shall have the animal stand before the priest...]",39 is speaking about blemished animals that have been redeemed.

י

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּעֲלַת מוּם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלּוֹקֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה וְתִפָּדֶה בְּעֵרֶךְ הַכֹּהֵן וְתֵצֵא לְחֻלִּין וְיָבִיא בְּדָמֶיהָ קָרְבָּן. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּבֶהֱמַת קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ מוּם. וּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה הִיא לִפְדּוֹת קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנּוֹלַד בָּהֶן מוּם וְיֵצְאוּ לְחֻלִּין וְיֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב-טו) "רַק בְּכָל אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר". מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁהַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר בִּפְסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין שֶׁיִּפָּדוּ. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בַּעֲרָכִין שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז-יא) "וְאִם כָּל בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַקְרִיבוּ מִמֶּנּוּ קָרְבָּן לַה'" שֶׁהוּא מְדַבֵּר בְּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ:

11

What are the differences between [the laws pertaining to an animal] with a permanent blemish and one with a temporary blemish? If an animal with a permanent blemish40 gives birth while it is consecrated,41 the offspring must be redeemed; it then receives the status of an ordinary animal even if it is unblemished.42[The rationale is that] a secondary entity should not be treated with greater severity than the primary entity.43 If it became pregnant before it was redeemed and it gave birth after it was redeemed, the offspring has the status of an ordinary animal.44If [the consecrated animal that was blemished] died before it was redeemed, it should be redeemed after it died.45 [The rationale is that] holiness never encompassed its actual body only on its worth, because it had a permanent blemish.46

If, by contrast, one consecrates an animal that possesses a temporary blemish or he consecrates an unblemished animal and after he consecrated it, it contracted a permanent blemish [different laws apply]. If it died before it was redeemed, it should be buried like other unblemished consecrated animals,47 because it must be stood before the court and evaluated,48 as we explained in [Hilchot] Arachin.49 If it was slaughtered before it was redeemed, it may be redeemed as long as it is making convulsive motions.50 Afterwards, one may partake of it. If it gave birth, its offspring may be sacrificed.51 If it became pregnant before it was redeemed52and it gave birth before it was redeemed, the offspring is forbidden.53 It may not be redeemed. What should be done? Before the mother is redeemed, the offspring should be dedicated to the same [type of] sacrifice as its mother,54 because it may not be offered because of [the sanctification of] its mother, because its [holiness] comes from sanctification that was suspended.55

יא

מַה בֵּין בַּעֲלַת מוּם קָבוּעַ לְבַעֲלַת מוּם עוֹבֵר. שֶׁבַּעֲלַת מוּם קָבוּעַ אִם יָלְדָה וְהִיא קֹדֶשׁ יִפָּדֶה הַוָּלָד וְיֵצֵא לְחֻלִּין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא תָּמִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה טָפֵל חָמוּר מִן הָעִקָּר. וְאִם נִתְעַבְּרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפָּדֶה וְיָלְדָה אַחַר פִּדְיוֹן הַוָּלָד חֻלִּין. וְאִם מֵתָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפָּדֶה נִפְדֵּית אַחַר שֶׁתָּמוּת. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא חָלָה קְדֻשָּׁה גְּמוּרָה עַל גּוּפָהּ אֶלָּא עַל דָּמֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּעֲלַת מוּם קָבוּעַ. אֲבָל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ בַּעֲלַת מוּם עוֹבֵר אוֹ תְּמִימָה וְאַחַר שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁהּ נוֹלַד לָהּ מוּם קָבוּעַ. אִם מֵתָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפָּדֶה תִּקָּבֵר כִּשְׁאָר הַקָּדָשִׁים הַתְּמִימִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה הַעֲמָדָה וְהַעֲרָכָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בַּעֲרָכִין. וְאִם נִשְׁחֲטָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפָּדֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ נִפְדֵּית כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ תֵּאָכֵל. וְאִם יָלְדָה יִקָּרֵב וְלָדָהּ. נִתְעַבְּרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּפָּדֶה וְיָלְדָה אַחַר שֶׁנִּפְדֵּית הַוָּלָד אָסוּר וְאֵינוֹ נִפְדֶּה. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. סָמוּךְ לְפִדְיוֹן אִמּוֹ מַתְפִּיס זֶה הַוָּלָד לְשֵׁם אוֹתוֹ הַזֶּבַח. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַקְרִיבוֹ [מִכֹּחַ אִמּוֹ] מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּא מִכֹּחַ קְדֻשָּׁה דְּחוּיָה:

12

Whenever a consecrated animal that was disqualified56 is redeemed, it may be slaughtered in a butchers' market and sold there, [after] being weighed with a scale like ordinary meat.57 [The only] exceptions are the firstborn animals and the tithes.58

[The rationale for the distinction is that] selling the animal in the market causes its price to rise. Therefore other sacrifices whose value remains consecrated - for they are sold and the proceeds of the sale are used to bring another animal as a sacrifice - it should be sold in the market like an ordinary animal.59 In contrast, with regard to a first born animal and a tithed animal - since the proceeds of their sale do not remain consecrated, instead, the animals may be eaten [as ordinary meat,] because of the blemish, as will be explained60 - they may not be slaughtered in a butchers' market or sold there.61 Even if [the value of] the firstborn animal was consecrated,62 it should not be weighed in a scale and sold in a market.63 [The rationale is that] one may consecrate only an article that he has acquired in a complete and total manner.64

יב

כָּל פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין כְּשֶׁיִּפָּדוּ מֻתָּר לְשָׁחֳטָן בְּשׁוּק שֶׁל טַבָּחִים וּלְמָכְרָן שָׁם וְלִשְׁקל בְּשָׂרָם בְּלִיטְרָא כִּשְׁאָר הַחֻלִּין חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּכִירָתָם בַּשּׁוּק מוֹסִיף בִּדְמֵיהֶן. שְׁאָר הַקָּדָשִׁים שֶׁדְּמֵיהֶן חוֹזְרִין לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵבִיא בִּדְמֵיהֶם בְּהֵמָה אַחֶרֶת מוֹכְרִין אוֹתָן בַּשּׁוּק כְּחֻלִּין. אֲבָל הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁאֵין דְּמֵיהֶם לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא נֶאֱכָלִין בְּמוּמָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָם בְּשׁוּק שֶׁל טַבָּחִים. וְאֵין מוֹכְרִין אוֹתָם שָׁם. אֲפִלּוּ הִתְפִּיס בְּכוֹר לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת אֵינוֹ נִשְׁקַל בְּלִיטְרָא וְלֹא יִמָּכֵר בַּשּׁוּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַתְפִּיס אֶלָּא דָּבָר הַקָּנוּי לוֹ קִנְיָן גָּמוּר: