1

Even the slightest amount1 of a leavening agent and sweet entity2 is forbidden [as an offering] for the altar, as [Leviticus 2:11] states: "For no leavening agent or honey shall be kindled... [as a fire-offering]."3 One is liable only if he set them afire together with a sacrifice or for the sake of a sacrifice.4

Whether one sets afire these entities themselves or a mixture of them, he is liable for lashes for each one individually. If he set afire both of them at the same time, he is liable for only one set of lashes, because both of them are mentioned in the same prohibition.5

א

שְׂאוֹר וּדְבַשׁ אֲסוּרִין לְגַבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאִסּוּרָן בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב-יא) "כִּי כָל שְׂאֹר וְכָל דְּבַשׁ לֹא תַקְטִירוּ" וְגוֹ'. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אִם הִקְטִירָן עִם הַקָּרְבָּן אוֹ לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּן. וְאֶחָד הַמַּקְטִיר עַצְמָן אוֹ הַמַּקְטִיר תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן לוֹקֶה עַל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְאִם הִקְטִיר שְׁנֵיהֶן כְּאֶחָד אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא אַחַת לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּלָאו אֶחָד:

2

If even the slightest amount of these substances fell into the incense offering, it is disqualified.6 If one set [the mixture] afire in the Sanctuary,7 he is worthy of lashes. Setting an entity afire is significant only if one sets afire an olive-sized portion.

ב

נָפַל מֵהֶם כָּל שֶׁהוּא בַּקְּטֹרֶת נִפְסְלָה. וְאִם הִקְטִיר מִמֶּנָּה בַּהֵיכָל לוֹקֶה. וְאֵין הַקְטָרָה פְּחוּתָה מִכְּזַיִת:

3

If one brought a leavening agent or a sweetener on the altar alone8 as kindling fuel, he is exempt, as [ibid:12] states: "They should not be brought to the altar as a pleasant fragrance." [Implied is that] they should not be brought as "a pleasant fragrance," i.e., as a sacrifice, but they may be brought as kindling fuel. Even if one set afire an entity that is not ordained to be set afire9 together with a leavening agent or with a sweetener, he is liable since it is part of a sacrifice.

ג

הֶעֱלָה שְׂאוֹר אוֹ דְּבַשׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן לַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשֵׁם עֵצִים פָּטוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב-יב) "וְאֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יַעֲלוּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ". לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ אִי אַתָּה מַעֲלֶה אֲבָל אַתָּה מַעֲלֶה לְשֵׁם עֵצִים. אֲפִלּוּ הִקְטִיר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהַקְטָרָה בִּדְבַשׁ אוֹ בִּשְׂאוֹר הוֹאִיל וְהוּא מִן הַקָּרְבָּן לוֹקֶה:

4

What is implied? When one causes [the following entities] to be consumed [by fire on the altar]:10the meat of a sin-offering or a guilt-offering,11 the meat of sacrifices of a lesser order of sanctity,12 the remains of the meal offering,13 what is left-over from the omer14 or from a sin-offering from fowl,15 the showbread,16 the two loaves [offered on Shavuot],17 the log of oil brought by a leper18 - if one were to cause an olive-sized portion of any one of these entities to be consumed on the altar or on its ramp with a leavening agent or a sweetener,19 he is liable for lashes. Even though none of these entities are fit to be consumed by fire on the altar, since they are called sacrifices, one is liable for them, as [indicated by the initial clause of the verse cited above]: "You shall offer them as a first-fruit offering to God."20

ד

כֵּיצַד. הַמַּעֲלֶה מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאת וְאָשָׁם אוֹ מִבְּשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים אוֹ מִשְּׁיָרֵי הַמְּנָחוֹת אוֹ מִמּוֹתַר הָעֹמֶר אוֹ מֵחַטַּאת הָעוֹף אוֹ מִלֶּחֶם הַפָּנִים וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אוֹ מִלּוֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מְצֹרָע הַמַּעֲלֶה כְּזַיִת מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלּוּ בְּחָמֵץ אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ בֵּין לַמִּזְבֵּחַ בֵּין לַכֶּבֶשׁ לוֹקֶה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כָּל אֵלּוּ רְאוּיִין לְהַקְטָרָה הוֹאִיל וְהֵן קְרוּיִין קָרְבָּן חַיָּב עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב-יב) "קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם לַה'" וְגוֹ':

5

Similarly, it is forbidden21 to offer on the altar22 any entity from all those listed that is not fit to be consumed by fire, e.g., the meat of a sin-offering or a guilt-offering, the remains of the meal offering, or the like. According to the Oral Tradition, we learned that when there is an entity from which a portion is designated to be consumed by fire, it is forbidden to have the remainder [of that entity]23 consumed by fire.

ה

וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַקְטִיר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּבָר מִכָּל דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְהַקְטָרָה. כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת וּשְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁמִּקְצָתוֹ לָאִשִּׁים הֲרֵי שְׁאֵרִיתוֹ בְּבַל תַּקְטִירוּ:

6

A person who has the limbs of an impure24 animal consumed by fire on the altar is liable for lashes despite the fact that the prohibition against offering it is [merely] derived from a positive commandment.25 [This is derived as follows:] The Torah teaches us to partake of pure animals26 and to offer pure animals as sacrifices.27 One may conclude that an impure animal should not be eaten and should not be offered. Just as one is liable for lashes for partaking of an impure animal [although it is a prohibition] derived from a positive commandment as explained in the appropriate place,28 so too, he is liable for lashes for offering it.29 When, by contrast, one offers the limbs of a kosher wild beast,30 he violates a positive commandment, but he is not liable for lashes. What is the source that teaches that he violates a positive commandment? [Leviticus 1:2] states: "You shall offer your sacrifices from the domesticated animals: from cattle and flocks."31 From this, one can derive that one should not offer wild beasts as sacrifices. A prohibition derived from a positive commandment has the status of a positive commandment.32

ו

הַמַּקְטִיר אֵיבְרֵי בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לוֹקֶה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַקְרָבָתָהּ מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר מִן הַטְּהוֹרָה אֱכל וּמִן הַטְּהוֹרָה הַקְרֵב הָא טְמֵאָה לֹא תֹּאכַל וְלֹא תַּקְרִיב. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁלּוֹקֶה עַל אֲכִילַת הַטְּמֵאָה הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ כָּךְ לוֹקֶה עַל הַקְרָבָתָהּ. אֲבָל הַמַּקְרִיב אֵיבְרֵי חַיָּה טְהוֹרָה עוֹבֵר בַּעֲשֵׂה וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהוּא בַּעֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא א-ב) "מִן הַבְּהֵמָה מִן הַבָּקָר וּמִן הַצֹּאן תַּקְרִיבוּ אֶת קָרְבַּנְכֶם" הָא מִן הַחַיָּה לֹא תַּקְרִיבוּ וְלָאו הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה עֲשֵׂה:

7

When one steals or obtains an object through robbery and offers it as a sacrifice, it is invalid33 and the Holy One, blessed be He, hates it, as [Isaiah 61:8] states: "[I am God Who...] hates a burnt offering [obtained] through robbery." Needless to say, it is not accepted. If the owner despairs of its return, the sacrifice is acceptable.34[This applies] even35 if it is a sin-offering and thus the priests partake of its meat.

For the sake of the enhancement of the altar's [honor], it was decreed that if it became public knowledge that a sin-offering was obtained through robbery, it does not bring about atonement even if the owner despaired of its return, so that it will not be said that the altar consumes stolen property.36 Similar laws apply with regard to a burnt offering.

ז

הַגּוֹנֵב אוֹ הַגּוֹזֵל וְהִקְרִיב הַקָּרְבָּן פָּסוּל וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׂוֹנְאוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סא-ח) "שֹׂנֵא גָזֵל בְּעוֹלָה" וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַבֵּל. וְאִם נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים הַקָּרְבָּן כָּשֵׁר. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חַטָּאת שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹכְלִין אֶת בְּשָׂרָהּ. וּמִפְּנֵי תַּקָּנַת מִזְבֵּחַ אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַחַטָּאת הַגְּזוּלָה אִם נוֹדְעָה לָרַבִּים אֵינָהּ מְכַפֶּרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ מִזְבֵּחַ אוֹכֵל גְּזֵלוֹת וְכֵן הָעוֹלָה:

8

When a person steals an animal consecrated to be offered as a burnt- offering37 by a colleague and has it offered without any further explanation,38 the original owner receives atonement.39

ח

הַגּוֹנֵב עוֹלַת חֲבֵרוֹ וְהִקְרִיבָהּ סְתָם נִתְכַּפְּרוּ בָּהּ הַבְּעָלִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים:

9

Meal offerings and wine libations may not be brought from tevel,40from chadash before the omer was offered,41 or from miduma.42 Needless to say,43 they may not be brought from orlah44or from mixed species in a vineyard,45 for that would be a mitzvah that comes as a result of a sin which God despises.46 If one brings such [an entity as a sacrifice], it is not sanctified to become fit to be offered as a sacrifice, but it is sanctified to be disqualified as are other consecrated entities that are disqualified.47

ט

אֵין מְבִיאִין מְנָחוֹת וּנְסָכִים לֹא מִן הַטֶּבֶל וְלֹא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ קֹדֶם לָעֹמֶר וְלֹא מִן הַמְדֻמָּע וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מֵעָרְלָה וְכִלְאֵי הַכָּרֶם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה הַבָּאָה בַּעֲבֵרָה שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׂוֹנְאָהּ. וְאִם הֵבִיא לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לִהְיוֹתָן רְאוּיִין לְקָרְבָּן אֲבָל נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לְהִפָּסֵל וְיִהְיוּ כְּקָדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּפְסְלוּ:

10

As an initial preference, none of the meal offerings should be brought from chadash before the two breads [are brought on Shavuot], for [Leviticus 23:17]48 refers to them as "the first fruits unto God."49 If, however, [such a meal offering] was brought, it is acceptable.50 Wine libations may be brought from wine that was set aside51 on a festival.52

י

כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת אֵין מְבִיאִין אוֹתָן מִן הֶחָדָשׁ קֹדֶם שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן (ויקרא ב-יד) (ויקרא כג-יז) "בִּכּוּרִים לַה'". וְאִם הֵבִיא כָּשֵׁר. וּמְבִיאִים נְסָכִים מִן הַמֻּקְצֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

11

It is a positive commandment to salt all the sacrifices before they are brought up to the altar,53 as [Leviticus 2:13] states: "On all of your sacrifices you shall offer salt."54 There are no entities that are offered on the altar without salt except the wine libations, the blood, and the wood. This matter was conveyed by the Oral Tradition, but there is no explicit verse to rely on.55

It is a mitzvah to salt the meat very thoroughly like one salts meat before roasting it, in which instance one turns over the limbs and salts it.56 If, however, one applies even the slightest amount of salt, even one grain, it is acceptable.

יא

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִמְלֹחַ כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ לַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב-יג) "עַל כָּל קָרְבָּנְךָ תַּקְרִיב מֶלַח". וְאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁקָּרֵב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּלֹא מֶלַח חוּץ מִיֵּין הַנְּסָכִים וְהַדָּם וְהָעֵצִים. וְדָבָר זֶה קַבָּלָה וְאֵין לוֹ מִקְרָא לִסְמֹךְ עָלָיו. וּמִצְוָה לִמְלֹחַ הַבָּשָׂר יָפֶה יָפֶה כְּמוֹלֵחַ בָּשָׂר לְצָלִי שֶׁמְּהַפֵּךְ אֶת הָאֵיבָר וּמוֹלֵחַ. וְאִם מָלַח כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֲפִלּוּ בְּגַרְגִּיר מֶלַח אֶחָד כָּשֵׁר:

12

If one offered a sacrifice without any salt at all, he is liable for lashes,57as [the above verse] states: "You shall not withhold salt, the covenant of your God."

Even though he receives lashes, the sacrifice is valid and is accepted [Above] with the exception of the meal offering. For salt is an absolute necessity when taking a fistful of the meal offering,58 as [the above verse] states: "You shall not withhold salt, the covenant of your God from your meal offering."

יב

הִקְרִיב בְּלֹא מֶלַח כְּלָל לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב-יג) "וְלֹא תַשְׁבִּית מֶלַח בְּרִית אֱלֹהֶיךָ". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלּוֹקֶה הַקָּרְבָּן כָּשֵׁר וְהֻרְצָה. חוּץ מִן הַמִּנְחָה שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מְעַכֵּב בַּקְּמִיצָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְלֹא תַשְׁבִּית מֶלַח בְּרִית אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵעַל מִנְחָתֶךָ":

13

The salt which is used to salt all of the sacrifices should be communal property like the wood. A private individual should not bring salt or wood for his sacrifice from his home.59

There are three places where salt is stored for the sacrificial service:60 in the Chamber of Salt,61 on the ramp [ascending to the altar], and on the top of the altar itself. In the Chamber of Salt, the hides of the sacrificial animals would be salted. On the ramp, the limbs would be salted and on the top of the altar, the fistful of meal [taken from the meal offering], the frankincense [from the Showbread], the meal offerings which are burnt, and a fowl brought as a burnt offering are salted.

יג

הַמֶּלַח שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין בּוֹ כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר כְּמוֹ הָעֵצִים. וְאֵין הַיָּחִיד מֵבִיא מֶלַח אוֹ עֵצִים לְקָרְבָּנוֹ מִבֵּיתוֹ. וּבִשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין הַמֶּלַח. בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַמֶּלַח. וְעַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ. וּבְרֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ. בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַמֶּלַח הָיוּ מוֹלְחִין עוֹרוֹת הַקָּדָשִׁים. וְעַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ מוֹלְחִין הָאֵיבָרִים. וּבְרֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ מוֹלְחִין הַקֹּמֶץ וְהַלְּבוֹנָה וּמְנָחוֹת הַנִּשְׂרָפוֹת וְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף: