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Wednesday, 23 Nissan 5774 / April 23, 2014
Today

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Kedoshim, 4th Portion (Leviticus 19:33-19:37)

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Chapter 19

33. When a stranger sojourns with you in your land, you shall not taunt him.   לג. וְכִי יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ:
you shall not taunt him: Heb. לֹא תוֹנוּ. [This refers to] tormenting with words [as opposed to torment through other means, e.g., financially (see Rashi Lev. 25:14)]. [For instance,] do not say to him, “Only yesterday you were an idol worshipper, and now you come to learn Torah, which was given over by the Almighty God Himself! ”. — [Torath Kohanim 19:82]   לא תונו: אונאת דברים. לא תאמר לו אמש היית עובד עבודה זרה ועכשיו אתה בא ללמוד תורה שנתנה מפי הגבורה:
34. The stranger who sojourns with you shall be as a native from among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   לד. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר | הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
for you were strangers: Do not accuse your fellow man with your own defect. - [B.M. 59b]   כי גרים הייתם: מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך:
I am the Lord, your God: [Here, the word for “your,” אלֹהֵיכֶם, is in the plural; thus, regarding the stranger, Scripture reminds you:] I am Your God and his God!   אני ה' אלהיכם: אלהיך ואלהיו אני:
35. You shall not commit a perversion of justice with measures, weights, or liquid measures.   לה. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה:
You shall not commit a perversion of justice: If we are dealing [here] with litigation, Scripture has already stated (verse above), “You shall commit no injustice in judgment.” So what is the “judgment” that is taught here? It refers to [“just” behavior regarding one’s dealing with] measures, weights or liquid measures: this teaches us that one who measures [out something in business,] is called a “judge,” for if he falsifies the measure, he is considered to be as one who perverts justice. He is [accordingly] called perverse, hated, disgusting, fit for destruction, and an abomination (see Rashi on verse 15 above). [Moreover,] he brings about the five things stated regarding a [corrupt] judge, namely, that he (a) defiles the Land, (b) desecrates the Name of God, (c) drives away the Divine Presence, (d) causes Israel to fall by the sword, and (e) exiles Israel from their Land. — [Torath Kohanim 19:84]   לא תעשו עול במשפט: אם לדין, הרי כבר נאמר לא תעשו עול במשפט (פסוק טו), ומהו משפט השנוי כאן, הוא המדה והמשקל והמשורה. מלמד שהמודד נקרא דיין, שאם שיקר במדה הרי הוא כמקלקל את הדין וקרוי עול, שנאוי, ומשוקץ, חרם ותועבה. וגורם לחמשה דברים האמורים בדיין מטמא את הארץ, ומחלל את השם, ומסלק את השכינה, ומפיל את ישראל בחרב, ומגלה אותם מארצם:
with measures: This refers to a land measure [i.e., measures of length or area of land]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:85; B.M. 61b];   במדה: זו מדת הארץ:
weights: [This is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning.   במשקל: כמשמעו:
liquid measures: Heb. וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה. This refers to liquid measures. — [see Torath Kohanim 19:85 and B.M. 61b]   ובמשורה: היא מדת הלח והיבש:
36. You shall have true scales, true weights, a true ephah, and a true hin. I am the Lord, your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt.   לו. מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי צֶדֶק אֵיפַת צֶדֶק וְהִין צֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם:
true weights: Heb. אַבְנֵי צֶדֶק, lit. stones of righteousness. These are the weights [people use] to weigh against [i.e., as a standard weight on the scales].   אבני צדק: הם המשקולות ששוקלין כנגדן:
a true ephah: This is a [unit of] dry measure.   איפת: היא מדת היבש:
and a true hin: This is a [unit of] liquid measure.   הין: זו היא מדת הלח:
Who brought you out: on this condition [i.e., to observe these commandments]. — [Torath Kohanim 19:87] Another explanation: God says,] In Egypt, I discerned between the drop [of sperm that led to the conception] of a firstborn and the drop [of sperm that did] not [lead to the conception] of a firstborn. [Likewise,] I am the One faithful to exact punishment upon someone who secretly stores his weights in salt [thus altering their weight] in order to defraud people who do not recognize them [as weights that have been tampered with]. — [B.M. 61b]   אשר הוצאתי אתכם: על מנת כן. דבר אחר אני הבחנתי במצרים בין טפה של בכור לטפה שאינה של בכור, ואני הנאמן להפרע ממי שטומן משקלותיו במלח להונות את הבריות שאין מכירים בהם:
37. You shall observe all My statutes and all My ordinances, and fulfill them. I am the Lord.   לז. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת כָּל חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת כָּל מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָֹה:
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