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Shabbat, 14 Elul 5775 / August 29, 2015

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Ki Teitzei, 7th Portion (Deuteronomy 24:14-25:19)

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Chapter 24

14You shall not withhold the wages of a poor or destitute hired worker, of your brothers or of your strangers who are in your land within your cities.   ידלֹא תַעֲשֹׁק שָׂכִיר עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחֶיךָ אוֹ מִגֵּרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצְךָ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ:
You shall not withhold the wages of a [poor or destitute] hired worker: But has this not already been written [in the verse, “You shall not withhold what is due your fellow [Jew]” (Lev. 19:13)]? However, this [negative commandment] is [repeated here] to [make one] transgress two negative commandments for [withholding the pay due] a destitute person: [First, here,] not to withhold the wages of a worker who is poor or destitute, and [secondly,] concerning [even] the well-to-do worker, one was already admonished (Lev. 19:13)],“You shall not [unjustly] withhold what is due your fellow [Jew, which includes the destitute as well].” - [B.M. 61a] [See Chavel and Yosef Hallel, who quote the Reggio edition, which is more correct.]   לא תעשק שכיר: והלא כבר כתוב, אלא לעבור על האביון בשני לאוין לא תעשוק שכר שכיר שהוא עני ואביון, ועל העשיר כבר הוזהר (ויקרא יט יג) לא תעשוק את רעך:
destitute: Heb. אֶבְיוֹן, one who longs for everything [because he has nothing. The word for longing (תאב) resembles the word for destitute (אֶבְיוֹן)]. - [See Midrash Prov. 22:22]   אביון: התאב לכל דבר:
of your strangers: This [refers to] a righteous proselyte [who converts to Judaism out of genuine conviction and pure motives]. — [Sifrei 24:145]   מגרך: זה גר צדק:
within your cities: This [expression refers to] a convert who [has undertaken not to practice idolatry, but] eats animals that have not been ritually slaughtered. — [Sifrei 24:145]   בשעריך: זה גר תושב האוכל נבלות:
who are in your land: This [expression] comes to include the hire of animals or utensils. — [Sifrei 24:145, B.M. 111b]   אשר בארצך: לרבות שכר בהמה וכלים:
15You shall give him his wage on his day and not let the sun set over it, for he is poor, and he risks his life for it, so that he should not cry out to the Lord against you, so that there should be sin upon you.   טובְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כִּי עָנִי הוּא וְאֵלָיו הוּא נֹשֵׂא אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְלֹא יִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל יְהֹוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא:
and he risks his life for it: For this wage he risks his life. [For instance,] he climbed up a ramp or suspended himself from a tree. — [B.M. 112a]   ואליו הוא נושא את נפשו: אל השכר הזה הוא נושא את נפשו למות, עלה בכבש ונתלה באילן:
so that there should be sin upon you: in any case, [even if he does not cry out to the Lord against you]. However, punishment is meted out faster by virtue of one who cries out. — [Sifrei 24:146]   והיה בך חטא: מכל מקום, אלא שממהרין להפרע על ידי הקורא:
16Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons, nor shall sons be put to death because of fathers; each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.   טזלֹא יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא יוּמְתוּ עַל אָבוֹת אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יוּמָתוּ:
Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons: [I.e.,] by the testimony of [their] sons. But, if you say [that it means that fathers shall not be put to death] because of the sins of their sons, it has already been stated, “each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.” However, one who is not yet a man may die on account of his father’s transgressions. [Therefore,] minors may die at the hands of Heaven on account of their parents’ sins. — [Sifrei 24:147, Shab. 32b]   לא יומתו אבות על בנים: בעדות בנים. ואם תאמר בעון בנים, כבר נאמר איש בחטאו יומתו, אבל מי שאינו איש מת בעון אביו, הקטנים מתים בעון אבותם בידי שמים:
17You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan, and you shall not take a widow's garment as security [for a loan] .   יזלֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל בֶּגֶד אַלְמָנָה:
You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan: And concerning a wealthy person, [meaning anyone, not necessarily poor], one has already been warned, “You shall not pervert justice” (Deut. 16:19). However, [Scripture] repeats this prohibition here in reference to the poor man to [make one] transgress two negative commandments [for perverting the justice due a poor man]. Since it is easier to pervert the judgment of a poor man than that of a rich man, [Scripture] admonishes and then repeats [the admonition].   לא תטה משפט גר יתום: ועל העשיר כבר הוזהר (דברים טז יט) לא תטה משפט, ושנה בעני לעבור עליו בשני לאוין, לפי שנקל להטות משפט עני יותר משל עשיר, לכך הזהיר ושנה עליו:
and you shall not take a widow’s garment as security [for a loan]: not at the time of the loan, [but when the debtor has defaulted].   ולא תחבול: שלא בשעת הלואה:
18You shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there; therefore, I command you to do this thing.   יחוְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם עַל כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה:
You shall remember [that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there]: [God says:] On that condition I redeemed you, [namely, on the condition] that you observe My statutes, even if you incur monetary loss in the matter.   וזכרת: על מנת כן פדיתיך לשמור חקותי אפילו יש חסרון כיס בדבר:
19When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to take it; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow, so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all that you do.   יטכִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ:
and forget a sheaf: but not a stack. [That is, if someone forgot a stack of grain, he may go back to retrieve it.] (Sifrei 24:149). Hence, [our Rabbis] said: (Pe’ah 6:6) A sheaf containing two se’ah, which someone forgot, is not considered שִׁכְחָה [that is, the harvester is permitted to go back and retrieve it].   ושכחת עומר: ולא גדיש. מכאן אמרו עומר שיש בו סאתים ושכחו אינו שכחה:
[When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf] in the field: [Why the repetition of the word“field”? This comes] to include שִׁכְחָה of standing grain, part of which the harvester had forgotten to reap, [not only bound up sheaves standing in the field]. - [Sifrei 24:149]   בשדה: לרבות שכחת קמה ששכח מקצתה מלקצור:
you shall not go back to take it: From here, [our Rabbis] said: Whatever is behind him is considered שִׁכְחָה, “forgotten” [and may not be retrieved]. Whatever is in front of him, is not considered “forgotten” [and may still be retrieved], since it does not come under the law of “you shall not go back to take.” - [Pe’ah 6:4]   לא תשוב לקחתו: מכאן אמרו, שלאחריו שכחה, שלפניו אינו שכחה, שאינו בבל תשוב:
so that [the Lord, your God,] will bless you: Although [the forgotten sheaf came into his hand without intention [of the owner]. How how much more so [will one be blessed] if he did it liberately! Hence, you must say that if someone dropped a sela, and a poor man found it and was sustained by it, then he [who lost the coin] will be blessed on its account. — [Sifrei 24:149]   למען יברכך: ואף על פי שבאת לידו שלא במתכוין, קל וחומר לעושה במתכוין. אמור מעתה, נפלה סלע מידו ומצאה עני ונתפרנס בה הרי הוא מתברך עליה:
20When you beat your olive tree, you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   ככִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפַאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה:
you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you: Heb. לֹא-תְפַאֵר, [This word is derived from פְּאֵר or תִּפְאֶרֶת, “glory.” The “glory” of an olive-tree is its fruit. Thus, the meaning is:“You shall not take its glory” (תִּפְאֶרֶת) from it. [I.e., do not remove all its fruit.] Hence, [our Rabbis derive that [in addition to the harvest of grain and produce, in fruit-bearing trees also], one must leave behind פֵּאָה, [fruits at the end of the olive harvest]. — [Chul. 131b]   לא תפאר: לא תטול תפארתו ממנו. מכאן שמניחין פאה לאילן:
after you: This refers to שִׁכְחָה, forgotten fruit [in the case of a fruit-bearing tree, that one must leave the forgotten fruit for the poor to collect]. — [Chul. 131b]   אחריך: זו שכחה:
21When you pick the grapes of your vineyard, you shall not glean after you: it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   כאכִּי תִבְצֹר כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה:
[When you pick the grapes of your vineyard,] you shall not glean: i.e., if you find עוֹלְלוֹת, small clusters therein, you shall not take them. Now what constitutes עוֹלְלוֹת [thus necessitating them to be left for the poor]? Any cluster of grapes which has neither a כָּתֵף,“shoulder” or a נָטֵף, “drippings.” But if it has either one of them, it belongs to the householder. — [Pe’ah 7:4] I saw in the Talmud Yerushalmi (Pe’ah 7:3):“What is a כָּתֵף, shoulder?” It is [a cluster of grapes] in which the sprigs of grapes pile one on top of the other [at the top of the cluster, together taking on the shape of a shoulder. And what is] a נָטֵף,“drippings?” These are the grapes suspended from the central stalk [of the cluster, as though dripping down].   לא תעולל: אם מצאת בו עוללות לא תקחנה. ואיזו היא עוללות כל שאין לה לא כתף ולא נטף. יש לה אחד מהם הרי היא לבעל הבית. וראיתי בתלמוד ירושלמי איזו היא כתף, פסיגין זה על גב זה. נטף, אלו התלויות בשדרה ויורדות:
22You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt: therefore, I command you to do this thing.   כבוְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה:

Chapter 25

1If there is a quarrel between men, and they approach the tribunal, and they [the judges] judge them, and they acquit the innocent one and condemn the guilty one   אכִּי יִהְיֶה רִיב בֵּין אֲנָשִׁים וְנִגְּשׁוּ אֶל הַמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׁפָטוּם וְהִצְדִּיקוּ אֶת הַצַּדִּיק וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ אֶת הָרָשָׁע:
If there is a quarrel: they will eventually go to court. We learn from this, that peace cannot result from quarrel. [Just think,] what caused Lot to leave the righteous man [Abraham] (Gen. 13:7-12)? Clearly, it was quarrel. — [Sifrei 25:152]   כי יהיה ריב: סופם להיות נגשים אל המשפט. אמור מעתה אין שלום יוצא מתוך מריבה, מי גרם ללוט לפרוש מן הצדיק הוי אומר זו מריבה:
and condemn the guilty one: [Since the next verse continues, “the judge shall… flog him,”] one might think that all those convicted by the court must be flogged. Therefore, Scripture teaches us, “and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty] of lashes…” (verse 2). [From here, we see that] sometimes [a convicted party] is given lashes, and sometimes he is not. Who receives lashes is derived from the context, as follows: [Some negative commandments are mitigated by positive commandments which relate to the same matter, for example, the law of sending away the mother bird (Deut. 22:6-7). Scripture (22:6) states the negative commandment: “you shall not take the mother upon the young,” and immediately, Scripture (22:7) continues to state the positive commandment of: “You shall send away the mother.” Here, the negative commandment is mitigated by the positive commandment. How so? If someone transgressed the negative commandment and took the mother bird from upon her young, he may clear himself of the punishment he has just incurred, by fulfilling the positive commandment of sending the mother bird away from the nest. This is an example of “a negative commandment mitigated by a positive commandment.” (see Mishnah Mak. 17a) Now, in our context, immediately after describing the procedure of flogging in court, the next verse (4) continues with the negative commandment of:] “You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain],” a negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive one. [Therefore, from the very context of these verses, we learn that only for transgressing a “negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive commandment,” is one punished by lashes.]- [see Mak. 13b]   והרשיעו את הרשע: יכול כל המתחייבין בדין לוקין, תלמוד לומר והיה אם בן הכות הרשע, פעמים לוקה ופעמים אינו לוקה. ומי הוא הלוקה, למוד מן הענין (פסוק ד), לא תחסום שור בדישו, לאו שלא נתק לעשה:
2and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty of] lashes, that the judge shall make him lean over and flog him in front of him, commensurate with his crime, in number.   בוְהָיָה אִם בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר:
the judge shall make him lean over: This teaches [us] that they [the judges] do not flog [the guilty party while [the latter is] standing or sitting, but, [when he is] leaning over. — [Mak. 22b]   והפילו השופט: מלמד שאין מלקין אותו לא עומד ולא יושב אלא מוטה:
[The judge shall… flog him] in front of him, commensurate with his crime: Heb., כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ [singular-meaning one punishment before him -] and behind him twice that number. From here they [the Rabbis] said:“They must give him two thirds [of his lashes] behind him [i.e., on his back], and one third in front of him [i.e., on his chest]” (Mak. 22b)   לפניו כדי רשעתו: ולאחריו כדי שתים. מכאן אמרו, מלקין אותו שתי ידות מלאחריו ושליש מלפניו:
in number: Heb. בְּמִסְפָּר, but it is not vowelized בַּמִּסְפָּר, in the number. This teaches us that the word בְּמִסְפָּר is in the construct state, [qualifying the word following it which is the first word of the next verse, namely, אַרְבָּעִים], to read: בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, that is, “[and flog him…] the number of forty,” but not quite a full quota of forty, but the number that leads up to the full total of forty, i. e.,“forty-minus-one.” - [Mak. 22b]   במספר: ואינו נקוד במספר, למד שהוא דבוק, לומר במספר ארבעים ולא ארבעים שלמים, אלא מנין שהוא סוכם ומשלים לארבעים, והן ארבעים חסר אחת:
3He shall flog him with forty [lashes]; he shall not exceed, lest he give him a much more severe flogging than these [forty lashes], and your brother will be degraded before your eyes.   גאַרְבָּעִים יַכֶּנּוּ לֹא יֹסִיף פֶּן יֹסִיף לְהַכֹּתוֹ עַל אֵלֶּה מַכָּה רַבָּה וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ:
He… shall not exceed: From here, we derive the admonition that one may not strike his fellow man. - [Keth. 33a, San. 85a]   לא יוסיף: מכאן אזהרה למכה את חברו:
and your brother will be degraded: All day [that is, throughout the entire procedure], Scripture calls him רָשָׁע, “wicked,” but, once he has been flogged, behold, he is “your brother.” - [Sifrei 25:153]   ונקלה אחיך: כל היום קוראו רשע ומשלקה קראו אחיך:
4You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain].   דלֹא תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ:
You shall not muzzle an ox: Scripture is speaking here in terms of what usually occurs [i.e., one usually uses an ox for threshing grain]. However, the law applies equally to any species of domestic animal, non-domesticated animal, or bird, and in any area of work in the process of preparing food. If so, why does Scripture specify an ox? To exclude man [from this law. That is, if it is a human who is performing the work, his employer is permitted to “muzzle” him, that is, to prevent the worker from eating from the produce. Nevertheless, it is a mitzvah to allow him to eat from the employer’s produce.]- [Sifrei 25:154]   לא תחסם שור בדישו: דיבר הכתוב בהווה והוא הדין לכל בהמה חיה ועוף העושים במלאכה שהיא בדבר מאכל. אם כן למה נאמר שור, להוציא את האדם:
when it is threshing [the grain]: One might have thought that it is permissible to muzzle the animal outside [the work area, i.e., before it starts threshing]. Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox!”-i.e., at any time [even before the actual threshing] (see B.M. 90b). Why then, is threshing mentioned? To tell you that, just as threshing [has two specific features]: a) It is a thing that does not represent the completion of its process [rendering the product liable for tithing and challah], and b) it [namely, grain] grows from the ground, likewise, any [work] which resembles it [in these two features, is included in this law]. Thus, excluded [from this prohibition] is the labor of milking, cheese-making, or in churning [milk, to produce buttermilk], all of which deal with an item that does not grow from the ground. Also excluded is the labor of kneading [dough], or in rolling out the dough to shape, for these procedures do in fact complete the process, rendering the product liable for challah to be taken. A further exclusion to this prohibition is the labor of separating dates and figs [that is, when spreading out dates and figs on a roof or the like, so that they dry, the fruit may adhere into one mass. Here, the procedure is to separate individual dates or figs from the mass, a procedure] which completes the preparation process, rendering the fruit liable for tithing. — [B.M. 89a]   בדישו: יכול יחסמנו מבחוץ, תלמוד לומר לא תחסום שור מכל מקום, ולמה נאמר דיש, לומר לך מה דיש מיוחד דבר שלא נגמרה מלאכתו וגדולו מן הארץ, אף כל כיוצא בו, יצא החולב והמגבן והמחבץ שאין גדולו מן הארץ, יצא הלש והמקטף שנגמרה מלאכתו לחלה, יצא הבודל בתמרים ובגרוגרות שנגמרה מלאכתן למעשר:
5If brothers reside together, and one of them dies having no son, the dead man's wife shall not marry an outsider. [Rather,] her husband's brother shall be intimate with her, making her a wife for himself, thus performing the obligation of a husband's brother with her.   הכִּי יֵשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו וּמֵת אַחַד מֵהֶם וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ לֹא תִהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת הַמֵּת הַחוּצָה לְאִישׁ זָר יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ וּלְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וְיִבְּמָהּ:
If brothers reside together: [meaning] that they were both alive at the same time, [lit. that they had one dwelling in the world]. It excludes the wife of his brother who was no longer in the world [when he was born]. [This means as follows: If a man dies, and his brother is born after his death, his widow may not marry the brother of her deceased husband.] - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   כי ישבו אחים יחדו: שהיתה להם ישיבה אחת בעולם, פרט לאשת אחיו שלא היה בעולמו:
together: [This law applies only to brothers] who share in the inheritance“together” [namely, paternal brothers]. This excludes maternal brothers. - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   יחדו: המיוחדים בנחלה, פרט לאחיו מן האם:
having no son: Heb. וּבֵן אֵין-לוֹ [Literally,“and he has no son.” Here, the word אֵין can be read also as עַיִן, meaning to“investigate,” because an א is interchangeable with an ע (see Yev. 22b). Thus, the verse also teaches us:] Investigate him [if he has progeny of any sort]-whether he has a son or a daughter, or a son’s son or a son’s daughter, or a daughter’s son or a daughter’s daughter. [And if he has any of these, the law of יִבּוּם does not apply.]   ובן אין לו: עיין עליו בן או בת, או בן הבן, או בת הבן, או בן הבת, או בת הבת:
6And it will be, that the eldest brother [who performs the levirate marriage, if] she [can] bear will succeed in the name of his deceased brother, so that his [the deceased brother's] name shall not be obliterated from Israel.   ווְהָיָה הַבְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד יָקוּם עַל שֵׁם אָחִיו הַמֵּת וְלֹא יִמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל:
the eldest brother: Heb. הַבְּכוֹר, [literally“the firstborn.” However, here it means that] the eldest brother [of the deceased] should perform the levirate marriage with the widow. — [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   והיה הבכור: גדול האחים הוא מייבם אותה:
she [can] bear: Heb. אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד [literally, “who will give birth.”] This excludes a woman incapable of conception. - [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   אשר תלד: פרט לאילונית שאינה יולדת:
will succeed in the name of his deceased brother: [literally,“will rise in the name of his brother.”] The one who marries his wife, is to take the share of his deceased brother’s inheritance of their father’s property [in addition to his own share]. - [Yev. 24a]   יקום על שם אחיו: זה שייבם את אשתו יטול נחלת המת בנכסי אביו:
so that his name shall not be obliterated: This excludes [from the obligation of יִבּוּם] the wife of a eunuch whose name [was already] obliterated. - [Yev. 24a]   ולא ימחה שמו: פרט לאשת סריס ששמו מחוי:
7But if the man does not wish to take his brother's wife, the brother's wife shall go up to the gate, to the elders, and say, "My husband's brother has refused to perpetuate his brother's name in Israel he does not wish to perform the obligation of a husband's brother with me."   זוְאִם לֹא יַחְפֹּץ הָאִישׁ לָקַחַת אֶת יְבִמְתּוֹ וְעָלְתָה יְבִמְתּוֹ הַשַּׁעְרָה אֶל הַזְּקֵנִים וְאָמְרָה מֵאֵן יְבָמִי לְהָקִים לְאָחִיו שֵׁם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אָבָה יַבְּמִי:
to the gate: [Not to the gate of the city, but,] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: to the gate of the court.   השערה: כתרגומו לתרע בית דינא:
8Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him, and he shall stand up and say, "I do not wish to take her."   חוְקָרְאוּ לוֹ זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ וְדִבְּרוּ אֵלָיו וְעָמַד וְאָמַר לֹא חָפַצְתִּי לְקַחְתָּהּ:
and he shall stand up: [He must make this declaration] in a standing position. - [Sifrei 25:158]   ועמד: בעמידה:
and say: in the Holy Language. She too shall make her statement in the Holy Language. — [Yev. 106b]   ואמר: בלשון הקודש, ואף היא דבריה בלשון הקודש:
9Then his brother's wife shall approach him before the eyes of the elders and remove his shoe from his foot. And she shall spit before his face and answer [him] and say, "Thus shall be done to the man who will not build up his brother's household!"   טוְנִגְּשָׁה יְבִמְתּוֹ אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי הַזְּקֵנִים וְחָלְצָה נַעֲלוֹ מֵעַל רַגְלוֹ וְיָרְקָה בְּפָנָיו וְעָנְתָה וְאָמְרָה כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה אֶת בֵּית אָחִיו:
And she shall spit before his face: on the ground, [not in his face]. — [Yev. 106b]   וירקה בפניו: על גבי קרקע:
[Thus shall be done to the man] who will not build up [his brother’s household]: From here, [we learn] that one who has undergone the rite of chalitzah [described in these verses], cannot change his mind and marry her, for it does not say,“[Thus will be done to that man] who did not build up [his brother’s household],” but,“who will not build up [his brother’s household].” Since he did not build it up [when he was obliged to do so], he will never again build it up. — [Yev. 10b]   אשר לא יבנה: מכאן למי שחלץ שלא יחזור וייבם, דלא כתיב אשר לא בנה, אלא אשר לא יבנה, כיון שלא בנה שוב לא יבנה:
10And that family shall be called in Israel, "The family of the one whose shoe was removed."   יוְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל:
And his name shall be called [in Israel]: It is the duty of all those standing there to proclaim: חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל - “you, who have had your shoe removed!” - [Yev. 106b]   ונקרא שמו וגו': מצוה על כל העומדים שם לומר חלוץ הנעל:
11If [two] men, a man and his brother, are fighting together, and the wife of one of them approaches to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she stretches forth her hand and grabs hold of his private parts   יאכִּי יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים יַחְדָּו אִישׁ וְאָחִיו וְקָרְבָה אֵשֶׁת הָאֶחָד לְהַצִּיל אֶת אִישָׁהּ מִיַּד מַכֵּהוּ וְשָׁלְחָה יָדָהּ וְהֶחֱזִיקָה בִּמְבֻשָׁיו:
If… men… are fighting together: they will eventually come to blows, as it is said:“[to rescue her husband] from his assailant.” [The moral here is:] Peace cannot result from strife. — [Sifrei 25:160]   כי ינצו אנשים: סופן לבא ליד מכות, כמו שנאמר מיד מכהו. אין שלום יוצא מתוך ידי מריבה:
12you shall cut off her hand You shall not have pity.   יבוְקַצֹּתָה אֶת כַּפָּהּ לֹא תָחוֹס עֵינֶךָ:
You shall cut off her hand: [This verse is not to be understood literally, but rather, it means:] She must pay monetary damages to recompense the victim for the embarrassment he suffered [through her action. The amount she must pay is calculated by the court,] all according to the [social status] of the culprit and the victim (see B.K. 83b). But perhaps [it means that we must actually cut off] her very hand? [The answer is born out from a transmission handed down to our Rabbis, as follows:] Here, it says לֹא תָחוֹס,“do not have pity,” and later, in the case of conspiring witnesses (Deut. 19:21), the same expression, לֹא תָחוֹס, is used. [And our Rabbis taught that these verses have a contextual connection:] Just as there, in the case of the conspiring witnesses, [the literal expressions in the verse refer to] monetary compensation (see Rashi on that verse), so too, here, [the expression “You must cut off her hand” refers to] monetary compensation. — [Sifrei 25:161]   וקצותה את כפה: ממון דמי בשתו. הכל לפי המבייש והמתבייש. או אינו אלא ידה ממש, נאמר כאן לא תחוס, ונאמר להלן בעדים זוממין (לעיל יט יג) לא תחוס, מה להלן ממון, אף כאן ממון:
13You shall not keep in your pouch two different weights, one large and one small.   יגלֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה:
two different weights: [This term is not to be understood literally as “stones,” but rather, it refers to specific stones, namely:] weights [used to weigh merchandise in business].   אבן ואבן: משקלות:
one large and one small: [literally, “big and small.” This means:] the big stone“contradicts” [i.e., is inconsistent with] the small one. [That is to say, you must not have two weights which appear to be the same, but in fact, are unequal, allowing you] to purchase goods with the larger weight [thereby cheating the seller], and to sell with the smaller one [thereby cheating the buyer]. — [Sifrei 25:162]   גדולה וקטנה: גדולה שמכחשת את הקטנה, שלא יהא נוטל בגדולה ומחזיר בקטנה:
14You shall not keep in your house two different ephah measures, one large and one small.   ידלֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּבֵיתְךָ אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה:
You shall not keep: Heb. לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ, literally, “You will not have.” That is, the verse literally reads: “If you keep… two different weights, you will not have.” This teaches us that] if you do this, you will not have anything! - [Sifrei 25:162] [However,]   לא יהיה לך: אם עשית כן לא יהיה לך כלום:
15[Rather,] you shall have a full and honest weight, [and] a full and honest ephah measure, in order that your days will be prolonged on the land which the Lord, your God, gives you.   טואֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָּךְ אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָּךְ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכוּ יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ:
you shall have a full and honest weight: [Literally, “If you keep a full and honest weight, you will have.” That is to say,] if you do this, you will have much. — [Sifrei 25:162]   אבן שלמה וצדק יהיה לך: אם עשית כן יהיה לך הרבה:
16For whoever does these things, whoever perpetrates such injustice, is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   טזכִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה כֹּל עֹשֵׂה עָוֶל:
17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues,“When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זכור את אשר עשה לך: אם שקרת במדות ובמשקלות הוי דואג מגרוי האויב, שנאמר (משלי יא א) מאזני מרמה תועבת ה', וכתיב בתריה בא זדון ויבא קלון:
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁר קָרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ כָּל הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחֲרֶיךָ וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אשר קרך בדרך: לשון מקרה. דבר אחר לשון קרי וטומאה, שהיה מטמאן במשכב זכור. דבר אחר לשון קור וחום, צננך והפשירך מרתיחתך, שהיו כל האומות יראים להלחם בכם ובא זה והתחיל והראה מקום לאחרים. משל לאמבטי רותחת שאין כל בריה יכולה לירד בתוכה, בא בן בליעל אחד קפץ וירד לתוכה. אף על פי שנכוה, הקרה אותה בפני אחרים:
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   ויזנב בך: מכת זנב, חותך מילות וזורק כלפי מעלה:
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כל הנחשלים אחריך: חסרי כח מחמת חטאם, שהיה הענן פולטן:
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says,“Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   ואתה עיף ויגע: עיף בצמא, דכתיב (שמות יז ג) ויצמא שם העם למים, וכתיב אחריו ויבא עמלק:
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   ויגע: בדרך:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   ולא ירא: עמלק, אלהים, מלהרע לך:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ | לְךָ מִכָּל אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת זֵכֶר * (זֶכֶר) עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר) , even regarding an animal, to say:“This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תמחה את זכר עמלק: מאיש ועד אשה מעולל ועד יונק משור ועד שה (שמואל א' טו ג). שלא יהא שם עמלק נזכר אפילו על הבהמה, לומר בהמה זו משל עמלק היתה:
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