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Monday, 6 Elul 5774 / September 1, 2014
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Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Ki Teitzei, 2nd Portion (Deuteronomy 21:22-22:7)

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Chapter 21

22. If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death, and he is put to death, you shall [then] hang him on a pole.   כב. וְכִי יִהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל עֵץ:
If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death: The juxtaposition of these passages [i.e., this one and that of the wayward and rebellious son] teaches [us] that if his father and mother spare him, he will eventually lead an evil life style and commit [grave] sins for which he will be sentenced to death by the court. — [Tanchuma 1]   וכי יהיה באיש חטא משפט מות: סמיכות הפרשיות מגיד, שאם חסים עליו אביו ואמו, סוף שיצא לתרבות רעה ויעבור עבירות ויתחייב מיתה בבית דין:
you shall [then] hang him on a pole: Our Rabbis said: All who are stoned [by the court] must [afterwards] be hanged, for the verse (23) says,“a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God.” [Thus, we find that the sin of blasphemy is connected with hanging,] and a blasphemer is punished by stoning. [Consequently, our Rabbis taught that all those stoned must be hanged.]- [San. 45b]   ותלית אותו על עץ: רבותינו אמרו, כל הנסקלין, נתלין, שנאמר (פסוק כג) כי קללת אלהים תלוי. והמברך ה', בסקילה:
23. But you shall not leave his body on the pole overnight. Rather, you shall bury him on that [same] day, for a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God, and you shall not defile your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance.   כג. לֹא תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל הָעֵץ כִּי קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה:
For a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God: Heb. קִלְלַת אלֹהִים. This is a degradation of the [Divine] King in Whose image Man is created, and the Israelites are God’s children. This is comparable to two identical twin brothers. One [of them] became king, while the other was arrested for robbery and hanged. Whoever saw him [the second brother, suspended on the gallows], would say,“The king is hanging!” [Therefore, the king ordered, and they removed him (Reggio ed.).] - [Sanh. 46b] Wherever [the term] קְלָלָה appears in Scripture, it means treating lightly (הָקֵל) and degrading. For example,“[And behold, you have with you Shimei the son of Gera…] and he cursed me with a severe curse (וְהוּא קִלְלַנִי קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת)” (I Kings 2:8). - [See II Sam. 16:5-13]   כי קללת אלהים תלוי: זלזולו של מלך הוא, שאדם עשוי בדמות דיוקנו וישראל הם בניו. משל לשני אחים תאומים שהיו דומין זה לזה, אחד נעשה מלך, ואחד נתפס ללסטיות ונתלה, כל הרואה אותו אומר המלך תלוי. כל קללה שבמקרא לשון הקל וזלזול, כמו (מלכים א' ב, ח) והוא קללני קללה נמרצת:

Chapter 22

1. You shall not see your brother's ox or sheep straying, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall return them to your brother._   א. לֹא תִרְאֶה אֶת שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ:
and ignore them: [I.e.,] by covering one’s eyes, pretending not to see it.   והתעלמת: כובש עין כאלו אינו רואהו:
You shall not see… and ignore them: Heb. לֹא-תִרְאֶה וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ [lit., “You shall not see them… but rather, you shall ignore them!” What it really means is:] You shall not see them and ignore them [i.e., ignore your brother’s animals straying]; that is the simple meaning of the verse. Our Rabbis, however, explain that [although the verse clearly means that one must not ignore them, nevertheless, the verse is alluding to] situations when one is, in fact, permitted to ignore them [for example, if he is a kohen , and the animals have wandered into a cemetery, where kohanim may not enter, or if he is an honored sage, and it it is beneath his dignity to lead animals or carry packages in public places-he may “ignore” them, and he is not obligated to return them to his brother]. — [Sifrei 22:45, B.M. 30a]   לא תראה, והתעלמת: לא תראה אותו שתתעלם ממנו, זהו פשוטו. ורבותינו אמרו פעמים שאתה מתעלם וכו':
2. But if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks it out, whereupon you shall return it to him.   ב. וְאִם לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ:
[And it shall be with you] until your brother seeks it out: Would you imagine that one should return it to him before he asks for it? Rather, [the meaning is that you must keep the animal] until you investigate him, [verifying] that he is is not a swindler [by demanding that he produce identifying signs]. - [B. M. 27b, Sifrei 22:47]   עד דרש אחיך: וכי תעלה על דעתך שיתנהו לו קודם שידרשהו, אלא דרשהו שלא יהא רמאי:
whereupon you shall return it to him: That there shall be something left in it to return, that it should not consume its [whole] value in your house, so you should claim it from him [from the owner]. From here, [the Rabbis] said: Any animal that works and eats, should work and eat [the proceeds of its work]; and [any animal] that does not work, yet still eats, should be sold [by the finder, and the money restored to the owner]. — [B.M. 28b]   והשבתו לו: שתהא בו השבה, שלא יאכל בביתך כדי דמיו ותתבעם ממנו. מכאן אמרו, כל דבר שעושה ואוכל יעשה ויאכל, ושאינו עושה ואוכל, ימכר:
3. So shall you do with his donkey, and so shall you do with his garment, and so shall you do with any lost article of your brother which he has lost and you have found. You shall not ignore [it].   ג. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם:
You shall not ignore [it]: You must not cover your eyes, pretending not to see it.   לא תוכל להתעלם: לכבוש עינך כאלו אינך רואה אותו:
4. You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen [under its load] on the road, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall pick up [the load] with him.   ד. לֹא תִרְאֶה אֶת חֲמוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ נֹפְלִים בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָקֵם תָּקִים עִמּוֹ:
You shall pick up [the load]: This is [the obligation of] טְעִינָה,“loading,” [i.e.,] to load up a burden that has fallen off it [the animal, as opposed to פְּרִיקָה, “unloading” a burden too heavy for the animal, delineated in Exod. 23:5]. — [B.M. 32a]   הקם תקים: זו טעינה. להטעין משאוי שנפל מעליו:
[You shall pick up (the load)] with him: [I.e.,] with the owner. However, if the owner walks away, sits down, and says, “Since the commandment is incumbent upon you, if you want to load, [go ahead and] load!” you are exempt. — [B.M. 32a]   עמו: עם בעליו, אבל אם הלך וישב לו, ואמר לו הואיל ועליך מצוה אם רצית לטעון טעון, פטור:
5. A man's attire shall not be on a woman, nor may a man wear a woman's garment because whoever does these [things] is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   ה. לֹא יִהְיֶה כְלִי גֶבֶר עַל אִשָּׁה וְלֹא יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה:
A man’s attire shall not be on a woman: making her appear like a man, thereby enabling her to go among men, for this can only be for the [purpose of] adultery. — [Nazir 59a]   לא יהיה כלי גבר על אשה: שתהא דומה לאיש כדי שתלך בין האנשים, שאין זו אלא לשם ניאוף:
nor may a man wear a woman’s garment: to go and abide among women. Another explanation: [In addition to not wearing a woman’s garment,] a man must also not remove his pubic hair or the hair of his armpits [for this is a practice exclusive to women]. — [Nazir 59a]   ולא ילבש גבר שמלת אשה: לילך ולישב בין הנשים. דבר אחר שלא ישיר שער הערוה ושער של בית השחי:
because… is an abomination: The Torah forbids only [the wearing of] clothes that would lead to abomination [i.e., immoral and illicit behavior]. — [Nazir 59a]   כי תועבת: לא אסרה תורה אלא לבוש המביא לידי תועבה:
6. If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and [it contains] fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother upon the young.   ו. כִּי יִקָּרֵא קַן צִפּוֹר | לְפָנֶיךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּכָל עֵץ | אוֹ עַל הָאָרֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים אוֹ בֵיצִים וְהָאֵם רֹבֶצֶת עַל הָאֶפְרֹחִים אוֹ עַל הַבֵּיצִים לֹא תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים:
If a bird’s nest chances before you: This excludes [a bird nest that is] ready at hand. - [Chul. 139a, Sifrei 22:55]   כי יקרא: פרט למזומן:
you shall not take the mother: while she is on her young, [whereas if she is only hovering overhead, you may take her from upon her young]. - [Chul. 140b]   לא תקח האם: בעודה על בניה:
7. You shall send away the mother, and [then] you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.   ז. שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת הָאֵם וְאֶת הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח לָךְ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים:
in order that it should be good for you, [and you should lengthen your days]: If in the case of a commandment easy [to fulfill, like this one] for which there is no monetary expense, Scripture says,“[Do this] in order that it should be good for you, and that you should lengthen your days,” then how much greater is the reward for [the fulfillment of] commandments that are more difficult to observe [or for which there is a monetary expense]. — [Sifrei 22:64, Chul. 142a]   למען ייטב לך: אם מצוה קלה שאין בה חסרון כיס, אמרה תורה למען ייטב לך והארכת ימים, קל וחומר למתן שכרן של מצות חמורות:
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