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Wednesday, 28 Tishrei 5775 / October 22, 2014

Chumash with Rashi

Chumash with Rashi

Parshat Noach, 4th Portion (Genesis 8:15-9:7)

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Chapter 8

15. And God spoke to Noah saying:   טו. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל נֹחַ לֵאמֹר:
16. "Go out of the ark, you and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.   טז. צֵא מִן הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּבָנֶיךָ וּנְשֵׁי בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ:
you and your wife, etc.: A man and his wife. Here He permitted them to engage in marital relations. See above 6:18, 7:7.   אתה ואשתך וגו': איש ואשתו, כאן התיר להם תשמיש המטה:
17. Every living thing that is with you of all flesh, of fowl, and of animals and of all the creeping things that creep on the earth, bring out with you, and they shall swarm upon the earth, and they shall be fruitful and multiply upon the earth."   יז. כָּל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ מִכָּל בָּשָׂר בָּעוֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל הָאָרֶץ הַיְצֵא אִתָּךְ וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּפָרוּ וְרָבוּ עַל הָאָרֶץ:
bring out: It is written הוֹצֵא, but it is read הַיְצֵא הַיְצֵא means: tell them that they should come out. הוֹצֵא means: if they do not wish to come out, you take them out. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:8]   הוצא: הוצא כתיב היצא קרי. היצא, אמור להם שיצאו. הוצא, אם אינם רוצים לצאת הוציאם אתה:
and they shall swarm upon the earth: But not in the ark. This tells us that even the animals and the fowl were prohibited from mating. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   ושרצו בארץ: ולא בתיבה, מגיד שאף הבהמה והעוף נאסרו בתשמיש:
18. So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him.   יח. וַיֵּצֵא נֹחַ וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּנְשֵׁי בָנָיו אִתּוֹ:
19. Every beast, every creeping thing, and all fowl, everything that moves upon the earth, according to their families they went forth from the ark.   יט. כָּל הַחַיָּה כָּל הָרֶמֶשׂ וְכָל הָעוֹף כֹּל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל הָאָרֶץ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם יָצְאוּ מִן הַתֵּבָה:
according to their families: They accepted upon themselves the condition that they cleave to their own species.   למשפחתיהם: קבלו עליהם על מנת לידבק במינן:
20. And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and he took of all the clean animals and of all the clean fowl and brought up burnt offerings on the altar.   כ. וַיִּבֶן נֹחַ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהֹוָה וַיִּקַּח מִכֹּל | הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהֹרָה וּמִכֹּל הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר וַיַּעַל עֹלֹת בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ:
of all the clean animals: He said,“The Holy One, blessed be He, commanded me to take in seven pairs of these only in order to offer up a sacrifice from them.” - [from Tan. Vayakhel 6, Gen. Rabbah 34:9]   מכל הבהמה הטהורה: אמר לא צוה לי הקב"ה להכניס מאלו שבעה שבעה אלא כדי להקריב קרבן מהם:
21. And the Lord smelled the pleasant aroma, and the Lord said to Himself, "I will no longer curse the earth because of man, for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth, and I will no longer smite all living things as I have done.   כא. וַיָּרַח יְהֹוָה אֶת רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֶל לִבּוֹ לֹא אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת כָּל חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי:
from his youth: This is written מִנְּעֻרָיו [i.e., without a “vav,” implying that] from the time that he [the embryo] shakes himself [נִנְעָר] to emerge from his mother’s womb, the evil inclination is placed in him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:10]   מנעריו: מנעריו כתיב משננער לצאת ממעי אמו ניתן בו יצר הרע:
I will no longer…and I will no longer: He repeated the words to denote an oath. That is what is written (Isa. 54:9): “That I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth,” and we do not find an oath concerning this matter except in this [statement, in] which He repeated His words, and this [repetition denotes that it] is an oath. So did our Sages expound in Tractate Shevuoth (36a).   לא אסף. ולא אסף: כפל הדבר לשבועה, הוא שכתוב (ישעיהו נד ט) אשר נשבעתי מעבור מי נח, ולא מצינו בה שבועה אלא זו שכפל דבריו והיא שבועה, וכן דרשו חכמים במסכת שבועות (לו א):
22. So long as the earth exists, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."   כב. עֹד כָּל יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ זֶרַע וְקָצִיר וְקֹר וָחֹם וְקַיִץ וָחֹרֶף וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ:
So long as the earth exists… shall not cease: Each of these six seasons has two months, as we learned: Half of Tishri, Marcheshvan, and half of Kislev are “seedtime.” Half of Kislev, Teveth, and half of Shevat are the “cold” season, etc. in B.M. (106b). (Other editions add: So long as the earth exists — Heb. עֹד means “always,” like (Num. 19:13): “his uncleanness is permanently (עוֹד) upon him.”)   עוד כל ימי הארץ וגו' לא ישבתו: שש עתים הללו שני חדשים לכל אחד ואחד, כמו ששנינו חצי תשרי ומרחשון וחצי כסליו זרע, חצי כסליו וטבת וחצי שבט קור וכו'. (עוד כל ימי, כלומר תמיד, כמו (במדבר יט יג) עוד טומאתו בו):
cold: is more severe than winter.   קור: קשה מחורף:
winter: Heb. חֹרֶף, the time for sowing barley and beans, which are early (חֲרִיפִין) to ripen quickly. The cold period is half of Shevat, Adar, and half of Nissan.   חורף: עת זרע שעורים וקטניות החריפין להתבשל מהר. הוא חצי שבט ואדר וחצי ניסן:
harvest: Half of Nissan, Iyar, and half of Sivan.   קציר: חצי ניסן ואייר וחצי סיון:
summer: קַיִץ. This is half of Sivan, Tamuz, and half of Av, which is the time of the gathering of the figs and the time when they dry them in the fields, and it (the dried fig) is קַיִץ, as (II Sam. 16:2): “the bread and the dried fruits (וְהַקַּיִץ) for the young men to eat.”   קיץ: חצי סיון תמוז וחצי אב, הוא זמן לקיטת תאנים וזמן שמייבשים אותן בשדות, ושמו קיץ כמו (שמואל ב טז ב) והלחם והקיץ לאכול הנערים:
heat: That is the end of the sunny season, half of Av, Elul, and half of Tishri, when the world is hottest, as we find in Tractate Yoma (29a): The end of the summer is more severe than the summer.   חום: הוא סוף ימות החמה חצי אב ואלול וחצי תשרי, שהעולם חם ביותר, כמו ששנינו במסכת יומא (כט א) שלהי קייטא קשי מקייטא:
and day and night shall not cease: From here we deduce that they ceased for the duration of the Flood: the planets did not function, and day was indistinguishable from night. — [from Gen. Rabbah 25:2, 34:11]   ויום ולילה לא ישבתו: מכלל ששבתו כל ימות המבול, שלא שמשו המזלות ולא ניכר בין יום ובין לילה:
shall not cease: All these shall not cease to perform according to their natural course.   לא ישבתו: לא יפסקו כל אלה מלהתנהג כסדרן:

Chapter 9

1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and He said to them: "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.   א. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ:
2. And your fear and your dread shall be upon all the beasts of the earth and upon all the fowl of the heaven; upon everything that creeps upon the ground and upon all the fish of the sea, [for] they have been given into your hand[s].   ב. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ:
and your dread: Heb. וְחִתְּכֶם, means “your fear,” like (Job 6:21):“You see terror (חֲתַת).” According to the Aggadah (Shab. 151b), however, it is an expression of life (חַיּוּת) , for as long as an infant [even] one day old is alive, there is no need to guard him from mice, but if Og, the king of Bashan is dead, he must be guarded from mice, as it is said: “And your fear and your life shall be.” When will your fear be upon the creatures? As long as you are alive.   וחתכם: ואימתכם כמו (איוב ו כא) תראו חתת. ואגדה לשון חיות שכל זמן שהתינוק בן יומו חי אין אתה צריך לשומרו מן העכברים, עוג מלך הבשן מת, צריך לשומרו מן העכברים, שנאמר ומוראכם וחתכם יהיה, אימתי יהיה מוראכם על החיות, כל זמן שאתם חיים:
3. Every moving thing that lives shall be yours to eat; like the green vegetation, I have given you everything.   ג. כָּל רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת כֹּל:
shall be yours to eat: (Sanhedrin 59b) For I did not permit the first man [Adam] to eat meat, but only vegetation, but for you, just as the green vegetation which I permitted for the first man, I have given you everything.   לכם יהיה לאכלה: שלא הרשיתי לאדם הראשון לאכול בשר אלא ירק עשב, ולכם כירק עשב שהפקרתי לאדם הראשון, נתתי לכם את כל:
4. But, flesh with its soul, its blood, you shall not eat.   ד. אַךְ בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ:
flesh with its soul: He prohibited them [to eat] a limb [cut off from] a living creature; i.e., as long as its soul is in it, you shall not eat the flesh. — [from Sanh. ad loc.] [i.e., if the limb is cut from the animal while it is alive, it is forbidden to be eaten even after the animal expires.]   בשר בנפשו: אסר להם אבר מן החי, כלומר כל זמן שנפשו בו לא תאכלו הבשר:
with its soul, its blood: As long as its soul is within it.   בנפשו דמו: בעוד נפשו בו:
flesh with its soul…you shall not eat: This refers to a limb of a living creature. And also, its blood, you shall not eat-This refers to blood of a living creature. — [from above source]   בשר בנפשו לא תאכלו: הרי אבר מן החי ואף בנפשו דמו לא תאכלו, הרי דם מן החי:
5. But your blood, of your souls, I will demand [an account]; from the hand of every beast I will demand it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of each man, his brother, I will demand the soul of man.   ה. וְאַךְ אֶת דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרשׁ מִיַּד כָּל חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרשׁ אֶת נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם:
But your blood: Even though I permitted you to take the life of animals, your blood I will demand of one who sheds his own blood [i.e., who commits suicide]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:13, B.K. 91b]   ואך את דמכם: אף על פי שהתרתי לכם נטילת נשמה בבהמה, את דמכם אדרוש מהשופך דם עצמו:
of your souls: Also one who strangles himself, even though no blood issued from him. — [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   לנפשותיכם: אף החונק עצמו אף על פי שלא יצא ממנו דם:
from the hand of every beast: Since the Generation of the Flood had sinned, and they were abandoned as prey for the wild beasts, which would have power over them, as it is said (Ps. 49:13, 21): “he is compared to the silenced animals” ; therefore, it was necessary to warn the beasts about them [not to kill them]. — [from unknown midrashic sources]   מיד כל חיה: לפי שחטאו דור המבול והופקרו למאכל חיות רעות לשלוט בהן, שנאמר (תהלים מט יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו, לפיכך הוצרך להזהיר עליהן את החיות:
and from the hand of man: From the hand of one who kills intentionally, without witnesses, I will demand [his life]. Cf. Targum Jonathan , verse 6.   ומיד האדם: מיד ההורג במזיד ואין עדים אני אדרוש:
from the hand of each man, his brother: From the hand of the one who loves him like a brother, and killed him unintentionally, I will demand [punishment], if he does not go into exile nor beg that his iniquity be forgiven. For even the inadvertent sinner requires atonement. If there are no witnesses to sentence him to exile, and he does not humble himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, will demand it of him, as our Rabbis expounded [on the verse] (Exod. 21:13): “And God placed him into his hand,” in Tractate Makkoth (10b): the Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn, etc. [The passage reads: What is this verse speaking of? Of two men, each of whom had murdered a person; one had murdered intentionally and one had murdered unintentionally. This one had no witnesses, and that one had no witnesses. The Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn; the one who murdered intentionally sits under a ladder, and the one who murdered unintentionally climbs down the ladder, and falls upon him, killing him. The one who murdered intentionally is killed, and the one who killed unintentionally is exiled.]   מיד איש אחיו: מיד שהוא אוהב לו כאח והרגו שוגג, אני אדרוש, אם לא יגלה ויבקש על עונו לימחל, שאף השוגג צריך כפרה, ואם אין עדים לחייבו גלות והוא אינו נכנע, הקדוש ברוך הוא דורש ממנו. כמו שדרשו רבותינו ז"ל והא-להים אנה לידו במסכת מכות (י ב) הקדוש ברוך הוא מזמנן לפונדק אחד וכו':
6. Whoever sheds the blood of man through man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God He made man.   ו. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם:
through man shall his blood be shed: If there are witnesses, you kill him. Why? “For in the image of God, etc.”   באדם דמו ישפך: אם יש עדים המיתוהו אתם, למה, כי בצלם א-להים וגו':
He made man: This is an elliptical verse. It should read: “the Maker made man,” and there are many such instances in Scripture.   עשה את האדם: זה מקרא חסר, וצריך להיות עשה העושה את האדם, וכן הרבה במקרא:
7. And you, be fruitful and multiply; swarm upon the earth and multiply thereon."   ז. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ בָהּ:
And you, be fruitful and multiply: According to its simple meaning: the first [mention of this expression] (verse 1) was a blessing, and this [mention] is a commandment. According to its midrashic interpretation, [it is written here] to compare one who does not engage in propagation to one who sheds blood. — [from Yev. 63b]   ואתם פרו ורבו: לפי פשוטו הראשונה לברכה, וכאן לצווי. ולפי מדרשו להקיש מי שאינו עוסק בפריה ורביה לשופך דמים:
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