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Monday, 24 Shevat 5777 / February 20, 2017

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Rambam - 3 Chapters a Day

Kilaayim - Chapter 6, Kilaayim - Chapter 7, Kilaayim - Chapter 8

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Kilaayim - Chapter 6

1

When a person sows vegetables or grain in a vineyard or maintains these species, allowing to grow 1/200th, he causes the vines around it to become hallowed in a radius - not a square1 - of sixteen cubits. We consider the entire circle with a diameter of 32 cubits as if it were filled entirely with vegetables. Any vine that grows in this circle becomes hallowed together with the vegetables. Any one outside the circle is not hallowed.

א

הזורע ירק או תבואה בכרם או המקיימו עד שהוסיף במאתים הרי זה מקדש מן הגפנים שסביבותיו שש עשרה אמה לכל רוח עגולות ולא מרובעות ורואין כל העיגול שרחבו שתים ושלשים אמה כאילו הוא כולו מלא ירק וכל גפן שתהיה בתוך עיגול זה נתקדשה עם הירק וכל שחוץ לעיגול אינן מתקדשות:

2

When does the above apply? When there are more than four cubits between the edge of this circle and the rows of the vines outside of it.2 If, however, there were exactly four cubits or less between them, we consider the circle as if it reached the row which is next to it and it is as if the diameter of the circle is 40 cubits. We take into consideration every vine that is included in this circle that is 40 cubits in diameter and it is hallowed.

ב

בד"א כשהיה בין שפתי העיגול הזה ובין שורות הגפנים שחוצה לו יותר על ארבע אמות אבל אם היה ביניהם ארבע אמות מצומצמות או פחות רואין את העיגול כאילו הגיע לשורה הסמוכה לו וכאילו רוחב העיגול ארבעים אמה ורואין כל גפן שתפול בתוך עיגול זה של ארבעים אמה הרי היא מתקדשת:

3

When does the above apply? When one sows or maintains the different species in the midst of the vineyard. When, however, he sows [the grain or vegetable] outside the vineyard, but next to it, he causes the two rows of the vines3 next to [the different species] sown to become hallowed. [The hallowed portion of the vines continues] over the entire length of [the area] sown plus four cubits [on either side]. A portion four cubits wide [of the area] sown along the entire length of the [external] row of the vineyard becomes hallowed.4 If one sows [such crops] next to a single vine, only a circle with a radius of six handbreadths of the area sown becomes hallowed.5

ג

במה דברים אמורים בזורע או מקיים תוך הכרם אבל הזורע חוץ לכרם וסמוך לו הרי זה מקדש שתי שורות של גפנים הסמוכות לזרע באורך כל הזרע ויתר ארבע אמות חוץ לזרע ומתקדש מן הזרע רוחב ארבע אמות באורך כל השורה של כרם ואם זרע בצד גפן יחידית אינו מקדש מן הזרע אלא ששה טפחים לכל רוח:

4

A small vine that is less than a handbreadth long does not cause the sown [area]6 to become hallowed.7 When does the above apply? When there are two [vines] planted opposite two others and another one projects as a tail.8 If, however, the entire vineyard [was planted] in this manner, it does become hallowed.9

ד

ילדה פחות מטפח אינה מקדשת את הזרעים בד"א בשתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאה זנב אבל אם היה כל הכרם כן הרי זה מקדש:

5

[The following rules apply when there are] two gardens one above the other10 and the lower one is planted as a vineyard. One should plant the upper one until he reaches within the aerial space of ten handbreadths of the vineyard.11 For it is forbidden to sow seeds within ten handbreadths of the aerial space of a vineyard or a vine. If the upper [garden] was planted as a vineyard, one should sow the lower garden until he reaches within three handbreadths of the roots of the vines.

ה

שתי גנות זו על גב זו התחתונה עשויה כרם זורע את העליונה עד שהוא מגיע לאויר עשרה טפחים קרוב לכרם שאויר עשרה טפחים סמוך לכרם או לגפן יחידית אסור לזרוע בו זרעים ואם היתה העליונה עשויה כרם הרי זה זורע את התחתונה עד שהוא מגיע למטה משלשה טפחים מעיקר הגפנים:

6

When a person's field was sown with vegetables or grain and he changed his mind and decided to plant vines in it, he should turn over the sown produce with a plow and then plant the vines.12 He should not plant the vines and then turn over [the produce].

If it was planted with vines and he changed his mind and decided to sow crops there, he should uproot the vines and then sow the crops. If he desires to merely cut off the vines until there is less than a handbreadth of them near the earth, it is permissible for him to sow [the crops at this point] and then uproot the remainder of the vines from the earth.13

ו

מי שהיתה שדהו זרועה ירק או תבואה ונמלך ליטע בה גפנים הופך את הזרעים במחרישה ואחר כך נוטע ולא יטע ואח"כ יהפוך היתה נטועה גפנים ונמלך לזרוע בה זרעים משרש את הגפנים ואחר כך זורע את הזרעים ואם רצה לקוץ את הגפנים עד שלא ישאר מהן אלא פחות מטפח סמוך לארץ הרי זה מותר לזרוע ואח"כ יחזור וישרש את הנשאר בארץ מן הגפנים:

7

[The following laws apply when a person] extends a vine [by embedding it] in the earth,14 even if he encloses it in a dried15 gourd that serves as a cylinder for it or in an earthernware cylinder.16 If there are three handbreadths or more of earth covering it, it is permitted to sow [crops of other species] above it.17 If there was less earth than that upon it, it is forbidden to sow above it18 It is, however, permitted to sow at its side.19

ז

המבריך את הגפן בארץ אפילו הבריכה בתוך הדלעת שיבשה ונעשת כסילון או בתוך סילון של חרש אם היה העפר על גבה שלשה טפחים או יותר הרי זה מותר לזרוע על גבה ואם היה על גבה פחות מזה אסור לזרוע על גבה ומותר לזרוע בצדה:

8

If he extended it through hard ground,20 it is permitted to sow crops over it even if there are only three fingerbreadths and not three handbreadths of earth upon it.21

When does the above apply?22 When the base of the vine is not visible. If, however, it is visible, it is necessary to make a distinction of [at least] six handbreadths23 at either side in every direction before sowing just as one must make such a separation from any one vine that was not extended in the ground, as will be explained.24

ח

הבריכה בסלע אע"פ שאין עפר על גבה אלא שלש אצבעות מותר להביא זרע עליה במה דברים אמורים שאין עיקר הגפן נראה אבל אם נראה צריך להרחיק ששה טפחים לכל רוח ואחר כך יזרע כמו שמרחיק מכל גפן יחידית שלא הוברכה כמו שיתבאר:

9

When a person extends three vines in the ground, but their bases are visible, if there are between four and eight cubits between them,25 they are grouped together with the other vines that are growing [in the vineyard]26 and it is as if they were not extended in the ground. If not, they are not included among the others.

ט

המבריך שלש גפנים ועיקריהם נראין אם יש ביניהן מארבע אמות עד שמונה הרי אלו מצטרפין לשאר גפנים העומדות וכאילו לא הבריכן ואם לאו אינם מצטרפות:

10

If there were less than three vines, they are not included [as part of the vineyard].27 Instead, one should separate six handbreadths on every side and sow [other crops].28

י

היו פחות משלש אין מצטרפין אלא מרחיק מהן ששה טפחים לכל רוח וזורע:

11

Anyone who sows crops under branches and leaves that emerge from the vines causes [the produce] to be hallowed even though the crops are several cubits away from the base of the vine.29

יא

כל הזורע תחת השריגים והעלין היוצאין מן הגפן הרי זה קידש ואף על פי שהזרע רחוק מעיקר הגפן כמה אמות:

12

When a person drapes a vine over a portion of a trellis30 [intended for vines], he should not plant [crops] under the remainder of the trellis31 even though there are no leaves or branches upon them.32 If he did plant there, since there are no crops under the shade of the vine, it is permitted.33 Similar [laws apply] if he draped a vine over some branches of a tree that does not produce fruit,34 e.g., cedars or pines. If, by contrast, he draped a vine over some of the branches of a fruit-bearing tree, it is permitted to sow under the branches of the tree where the vine was not draped. [The rationale is] that a person does not nullify a fruit-bearing tree to make it a trellis for a vine.35

If, after [produce] was sown, the branches were extended and covered the produce, they should be shifted to another place.36

יב

הדלה את הגפן על מקצת אפפירות לא יזרע תחת מותר האפיפירות ואע"פ שאין עליהן לא עלין ולא שריגים ואם זרע הואיל ואין הזרע תחת סכך הגפן הרי זה מותר וכן אם הדלה הגפן על מקצת בדי אילן שאינו עושה פירות כגון הארז והברוש אבל אם הדלה על מקצת אילן מאכל הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחת בדי האילן שלא נמשכו עליהן שריגי הגפן שאין אדם מבטל אילן מאכל ועושה אפיפירות לגפן ואם נמשכו השריגים אחר שזרע וסככו על הזרע הרי זה מחזירם למקום אחר:

13

When a person sows under the remainder of the trellises37 or under the remainder of the branches of a tree that does not produce fruit38 and then the branches of the vine were extended and covered the crops, it is forbidden to maintain them or shift the branches [of the vine].39 What should he do? He should uproot the crops.

יג

הזורע תחת מותר האפיפירות או תחת מותר אילן שאינו עושה פירות ונמשכו שריגי הגפן וסככו על הזרעים הרי זה אסור לקיימו או להחזיר השריגים אלא כיצד עושה עוקר הזרע:

14

When reeds are jutting out from the lattice on the surface of a trellis, but [the owner] does not want to jut them off lest he destroy the trellis, he is permitted to sow [crops] under them.40 If he left them so that the branches and leaves that emerge will grow upon them, it is forbidden to sow [crops] under them.

יד

קנים היוצאין מן הערים וחס עליהן לפוסקן כדי שלא ישחית האפיפירות הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחתיהן ואם הניחם כדי שיהלכו עליהן השריגים והעלין היוצאין הרי זה אסור לזרוע תחתיהן:

15

When a branch41 emerges from a vine which is propped up42 or from the trunk of a vine that is not propped up, 43 we considered it as if a plumb line is hanging from it to the earth and it is forbidden to sow under it. Similarly, if one extends a branch from one tree to another, it is forbidden to sow under it.

טו

פרח היוצא מן העריס או מן הדלית רואין אותו כאילו משקולת תלויה בו עד הארץ ואסור לזרוע תחתיו וכן המותח זמורה מאילן לאילן אסור לזרוע תחתיה:

16

When a person ties a rope or rubber cord to a branch and ties the other end to a tree, he is permitted to sow [crops] under the rope.44 If he extended this rope with the intent that the branches and leaves will grow upon it, it is like a trellis and it is forbidden to sow under it.

טז

קשר חבל או גמי בזמורה וקשר הראש אחד באילן הרי זה מותר לזרוע תחת החבל ואם מתח חבל זה כדי שיהלכו עליו השריגים והעלים הרי הוא כאפיפירות ואסור לזרוע תחתיו:

Footnotes
1.

And thus the vines on the corners are permitted.

2.

The Rambam derives these concepts from an analysis of the wording of Kilayim 5:5. To explain: The Mishnah states: "[A person who] plants a vegetable in a vineyard... causes 45 vines to be hallowed. When? When they are planted, each one four [cubits from the other] or five [cubits from each other]." As the Rambam explains in his Commentary to the Mishnah, if the vines are five cubits away from each other, some of the 45 vines will be outside the circle. Now its true, that if the vines are four cubits away from each other, there will be individual vines within four cubits of the circle. There will not, however, be "rows of the vines" outside the circle.

The Ra'avad differs with his interpretation. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's view.

3.

Since the prooftext cited above speaks of "the vineyard" becoming hallowed, the area that becomes hallowed must be at least two rows wide, for only that is worthy of being called "a vineyard" [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:5)]. The Ra'avad objects to the Rambam's ruling, but the Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh question his objection.

The Kessef Mishneh also clarifies that here a smaller portion of the vineyard is forbidden than in the previous halachah, because the mixed species is not surrounded by the vineyard on all sides. Hence, only four cubits, the area is necessary to perform the work necessary for the vineyard, is forbidden.

4.

The Radbaz adds that if one sows the vegetables or grain beyond the row of the vineyard, a four cubit portion of that area is also forbidden.

5.

For this is the size of the area necessary to tend to a single vine (Kilayim 6:1).

6.

This applies regardless of the species of crops sown there (in contrast to the opinion of Rashi, Sotah 43b) [Kessef Mishneh].

7.

I.e., because the plants are small, planting them is not considered planting a "vineyard." See also Hilchot Ma'aser Sheni 10:19. It is possible to say that one should, however, keep a distance of six handbreadths between them and grain or vegetables, as stated in the previous halachah with regard to a single vine.

8.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 7, which describes vines planted in this manner as "a small vineyard."

9.

For this indicates that this person considers this as a vineyard; alternatively this is a Rabbinic safeguard, lest an observer think that planting other species is permissible in an ordinary vineyard (Radbaz).

10.

This refers to a terraced hill with gardens planted on an incline (Radbaz)

11.

The notes to the Frankel edition of the Mishneh Torah cite Hilchot Shabbat 4:4,18 which speaks about the significance of ten handbreadths of space.

12.

From the ruling in Chapter 2, Halachah 13, it would appear that he should also wait until the seeds rot (Tosafot Yom Tov).

13.

The Radbaz states that following this course of action will be beneficial, for pulling out the vines will save him the trouble of having to cover the seeds with earth, for that task will be accomplished as a matter of course.

14.

The Rambam is referring to a process which was used to extend a vine and increase its fertility. For if a vine was allowed to grow endlessly, its fertility would wane as it grew longer. Therefore its head was implanted in the ground. There it would grow roots - thus increasing the nurture it could give the plant - and then from the embedded head would sprout forth a new plant.

15.

If the gourd is not dried out, it is certainly forbidden, because the gourd itself is a separate species.

16.

Since as the vine's roots grow, they will emerge from the sides of these cylinders, they are considered as subservient to the earth and not as independent entity. If, however, the person places the vine in a metal pipe, these laws do not apply (See the Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 7:1).

17.

Since it is buried so deeply in the earth, it is no longer considered significant.

18.

Because the amount of earth over it is not that much to cause it to be considered as insignificant.

19.

Were it above ground, by contrast, one would have to move six handbreadths away before sowing a crop.

20.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:2).

21.

For its roots will not emerge.

22.

This applies to the previous halachah as well.

23.

The notes to the Frankel edition of the Mishneh Torah mention that this ruling appears to be somewhat of a departure from the Rambam's understanding as reflected in his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

24.

Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

25.

When vines are this distance apart they are still considered as part of the same vineyard (Chapter 7, Halachah 2).

26.

The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam and maintains that this law applies even if there are no other vines. He maintains that since a portion of the vines extended in the ground is visible, they themselves can be grouped together and considered a vineyard, because the three bases and the three heads are considered as six vines. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh justify the Rambam's ruling. They do not dispute the law mentioned by the Ra'avad, but maintain that it is not the interpretation of the mishnah cited above. (Significantly, the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah appears to follow the Ra'avad's approach.)

27.

The Rambam derives this law from the fact that the mishnah cited above speaks of "three vines." Implied is that the law does not apply to less.

28.

As stated in Halachah 8.

29.

I.e., even though the branch is only an extension of the vine, sowing under it is forbidden. See Halachah 15.

30.

See Chapter 8, Halachah 1, for a description of such trellises.

31.

I.e., a person prepared a series of trellises over which to drape a vine. In fact, however, he did not drape the vine over the entire area of the trellises, only over a portion of it. He should, nevertheless, be stringent and regard the vine as growing over the entire trellis, because ultimately, it will spread over it.

32.

The rationale is that they are placed there so that ultimately, the vine will grow and be extended upon them.

33.

For unless the vine spreads there, the prohibition is merely a Rabbinic safeguard.

34.

I.e., it forbidden to sow crops under the entire tree. The produce becomes hallowed, however, only when sowed under the area where the vine is actually draped.

35.

Since it is a fruit tree, it has its own importance and it is never considered as merely a trellis for the grapes as long as the grape vine is not draped over these branches.

36.

Note the contrast to the stringency mentioned in the following halachah. The reason for the leniency in this halachah is that the branches of a fruit-bearing tree are considered entities in their own right and are not subservient to the vine. Hence, since it was permitted to sow the crops there, they are not forbidden if the vine grows unintentionally.

37.

I.e., portions of the trellises to which the vines have not spread.

38.

For they are considered as equivalent to the trellises, as stated in the previous halachah.

39.

Since he transgressed by sowing there, our Sages required him to uproot the crops (Radbaz). From the Rambam's wording here and in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:3), it would appear that he maintains that only the crops are forbidden, but not the vines.

40.

Since his intent is not to drape vines upon them, they are not considered as part of the trellis [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 6:8)].

41.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 6:9).

42.

Our translation is taken from the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (ibid. 7:1).

43.

Since he transgressed by sowing there, our Sages required him to uproot the crops (Radbaz). From the Rambam's wording here and in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:3), it would appear that he maintains that only the crops are forbidden, but not the vines.

44.

For he is not planning to have the vine grow upon it.

Kilaayim - Chapter 7

1

When a person comes to sow [crops] next to a vineyard, he should move four cubits from the roots of the vines1 and sow.2 From a single vine, he should move six handbreadths away and sow.

If there was a row of vines, one next to each other - even 100 of them - it is not considered as a vineyard, but as a single vine. One must move [only] six handbreadths away from the row [before] sowing. If there were two rows, one must move four cubits away from every side before sowing.3

א

הבא לזרוע בצד הכרם מרחיק ממנו ארבע אמות מעיקרי הגפנים וזורע ואם גפן יחידית היא מרחיק ממנה ששה טפחים וזורע היתה שורה אחת של גפנים זו בצד זו אפילו הן מאה אין זה כרם אלא כגפן יחידית ומרחיק מן השורה ששה טפחים וזורע היו שתי שורות הרי אלו כרם וצריך להרחיק ארבע אמות מכל צד ואחר כך יזרע:

2

How many vines must there be in each row? Three or more.4

When does the above apply?5 When there are between four and eight cubits between each vine. If, however, there are eight cubits besides the place of the vines between the two rows, they are considered as distinct from each other. They are not considered as a single vineyard and there is no need to separate more than six handbreadths from each row. Similarly, if there are less than four cubits6 between each of [the two rows], they are considered as a single vine and it is [only necessary] to make a distinction of six handbreadths on each side.

ב

וכמה יהיה בכל שורה שלש גפנים או יותר בד"א בשהיה בין כל גפן וגפן מארבע אמות עד שמונה אמות אבל אם היה בין שתי השורות שמונה אמות חוץ ממקום הגפנים עצמן הרי אלו כמובדלות זו מזו ואינן כרם אחד ואינו מרחיק אלא ששה טפחים מכל שורה וכן אם היה ביניהן פחות מארבע הרי אלו כגפן אחת ומרחיק ששה טפחים לכל רוח:

3

If there were three rows, even though there are less than four cubits between them, they are considered as a vineyard, for we consider the middle row as if it does not exist.7 Similarly, if there were three rows and eight cubits or more between each row, one may sow between the rows.8

ג

היו שלש שורות אע"פשיש ביניהן פחות מארבע הרי אלו כרם ורואין את האמצעיות כאילו אינם וכן אם היו שלש שורות ובין כל שורה ושורה שמונה אמות או יותר הרי זה זורע בין השורות:

4

Therefore if a person sows his vineyard from the outset with an eight cubit separation left between each row, he is permitted to sow crops within it, leaving a distance of only six handbreadths between [the crops and] every row of vines.9If, however, he sowed [crops] outside the vineyard, he must make a separation of four cubits from the outer row, as applies with regard to other vineyards.10 The laws [applying to the space] between the rows of this vineyard are not the same as those that apply to a vineyard whose center was devastated,11 for from the outset, he planted them in a separate manner.

ד

לפיכך הנוטע את כרמו מתחלה והרחיק בין כל שורה ושורה שמונה אמות מותר להביא זרע בתוכו ומרחיק מכל שורה ששה טפחים בלבד אבל אם זרע חוצה לו צריך להרחיק משורה החיצונה ארבע אמות כשאר הכרמים ואין דין בין השורות של זה הכרם ככרם שחרב באמצעו שהרי מתחלה נטען מרוחקין:

5

When there was one row of vines in a field and another row in a field belonging to a colleague that was opposite it and close to it, [the two rows] can be combined to be considered as a vineyard12 although there is a private path, a communal path,13 or a fence which is less than ten handbreadths high14 provided there are less than eight cubits between them.

ה

היתה בשדה זו שורה אחת של גפנים ובשדה חבירו שורה אחרת כנגדה קרובה לה אף על פי שמפסיק ביניהן דרך היחיד או דרך הרבים או גדר שהוא נמוך מעשרה טפחים הרי אלו מצטרפות להיות שתיהן כרם והוא שיהיה ביניהן פחות משמונה:

6

[The following rules apply if one] planted one row on ground level and one row on a terrace: If the terrace is ten handbreadths above ground level, they are not considered as a single entity.15 If it is lower than that, they are.16

ו

נטע שורה אחת בארץ ושורה אחת במדרגה אם גבוהה המדרגה מן הארץ עשרה טפחים אינם מצטרפין פחות מיכן מצטרפין:

7

When a person plants five vines: two opposite each other and one which projects like a tail, it is called a small vineyard.17 It is necessary to separate four cubits from it on all sides. If, however, however, he planted two opposite two and one in the middle or one row of three and two opposite them in a second row,18they are not considered a vineyard and it is only necessary to make a separation of six handbreadths on each side.

ז

הנוטע חמש גפנים שתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאת זנב הרי זה נקרא כרם קטן וצריך להרחיק מהן ארבע אמות לכל רוח אבל אם נטען שתים כנגד שתים ואחת באמצע או שלש בשורה זו ושתים כנגדן בשורה שנייה אינם כרם ואינו מרחיק מהן אלא ששה טפחים לכל רוח:

8

[The following laws apply when] a vineyard has been devastated. If there are ten vines [whose produce] can be reaped in an area fit to harvest a se'ah [of grain]19 and they are planted two opposite two and one projecting like a tail or it is possible to see them as two rows of three, it is called a meager vineyard20 and it is forbidden to sow [crops] in it.

ח

כרם שחרב אם יש בו ללקט עשר גפנים לכל בית סאה ויהיו נטועות שתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאה זנב או יש בו לכוין שלש כנגד שלש הרי זה נקרא כרם דל ואסור לזרוע בכולו:

9

[The following laws apply when] a vineyard is not planted in rows, but rather randomly. If it is possible to see [the vines] as having been planted two opposite three,21 it is considered as a vineyard.22 If not, it is not considered a vineyard and it is sufficient to separate only six handbreadths from each individual vine before sowing.

ט

כרם שאינו נטוע שורות שורות אלא מעורבב אם יש בו לכוין שתים כנגד שלש הרי זה כרם ואם לאו אינו כרם אלא דיו להרחיק ששה טפחים מכל גפן וגפן וזורע:

10

When the base of the vines are [planted] opposite each other, but the branches are not growing opposite each other, it is considered a vineyard.23 If the branches are [growing] opposite each other, but the bases are not [planted] opposite each other, it is not considered a vineyard. If when the vines were thin, they were not [positioned] opposite each other, but when they grew thick, they were positioned opposite each other, it is considered a vineyard.

How should one know if the vines are planted opposite each other? He should take a measuring line and measure from one to the other.

י

היו העיקרים מכוונין והגוף אינו מכוון הרי זה כרם הגוף מכוון והעיקר אינו מכוון אינו כרם היו דקות ואינן מכוונות העבו והרי הן מכוונות הרי זה כרם כיצד הוא יודע אם הן מכוונות מביא חוט המדה ומותח מזו לזו:

11

[The following laws apply when] the middle of a vineyard has been devastated, but it remains complete on all its sides. If the empty portion in the center [has a diameter of] sixteen cubits, one may separate four cubits24 from the base of the vines on each side and sow in the midst of the empty portion.25 If [the diameter] is less than sixteen cubits, he should not bring seed there.26 If he did sow there, since he made a separation of four cubits from the vineyard's vines on all sides, [the produce] does not become hallowed.

יא

כרם שחרב באמצעו ונשאר שלם מכל סביביו אם יש בקרחת שבאמצעו שש עשרה אמה הרי זה מרחיק מעיקרי הגפנים ארבע אמות לכל רוח וזורע באמצע הקרחת ואם אין בה שש עשרה אמה הרי זה לא יביא זרע לשם ואם הביא הואיל והרחיק ארבע אמות לכל רוח מן הגפנים של כרם הרי זה לא קידש:

12

Similarly, if an empty portion was left without vines between the end of the vineyard and its fence, it is called "a forsaken [portion of a] vineyard."27 If it is [at least] twelve cubits wide,28 one may [merely] separate four cubits from the vines and sow the remainder.

יב

וכן מקום שנשאר פנוי בלא גפנים בין סוף הכרם ובין הגדר שלו והוא הנקרא מחול הכרם אם יש בו שתים עשרה אמה מרחיק מן הגפנים ארבע אמות וזורע את השאר:

13

If it was less than twelve cubits wide, he should not bring seeds [to sow] there. If he did, since he made a separation of four cubits [between the seeds and the vineyard, the produce] does not become hallowed.29

When does the above apply? In a large vineyard.30 [The laws of] "a forsaken portion," by contrast, do not apply with regard to a small vineyard.31 Instead, one may make a separation of four cubits from the end of the vines and sow until the fence. Similarly, if there are eight cubits or more between each row of a large vineyard,32 [the laws of] "a forsaken portion," do not apply.33

יג

היה בו פחות משתים עשרה אמה לא יביא זרע לשם ואם הביא הואיל והרחיק ארבע אמות הרי זה לא קידש במה דברים אמורים בכרם גדול אבל בקטן אין לו מחול אלא מרחיק ארבע אמות מסוף הגפנים וזורע עד הגדר וכן כרם גדול שהיה בין כל שורה ושורה שמונה אמות או יתר אין לו מחול:

14

If the fence surrounding the vineyard was less than ten handbreadths high or it was ten handbreadths high, but not four handbreadths wide,34 [the laws of] "a forsaken portion," do not apply.35 Instead, one should make a separation of four cubits from the base of the vines and sow until the barrier. Even if there are four and a half cubits between the vines and the barrier, he may sow the half cubit.

יד

היה הגדר המקיף את הכרם פחות מעשרה טפחים או שהיה גובהו עשרה טפחים ואין בו רוחב ארבעה טפחים אין לו מחול אלא מרחיק מסוף הגפנים ארבע אמות וזורע עד המחיצה אפילו היה בין הגפנים ובין המחיצה ארבע אמות ומחצה זורע את חצי האמה:

15

When a fence is ten handbreadths high or a trench is ten handbreadths and four handbreadths wide, it is permitted to plant a vineyard on one side and vegetables on the other side.36 Even if there is a barrier made of reeds [with spaces in between them], as long as there is less than three handbreadths between one reed and another,37 the fence is considered as separating between the vineyard and the vegetables.

טו

גדר שהוא גבוה עשרה טפחים וכן חריץ שהוא עמוק עשרה טפחים ורחב ארבע הרי זה מותר ליטע כרם בצדו מכאן וירקות בצדו מכאן אפילו מחיצה של קנים אם אין בין קנה לחבירו שלשה טפחים הרי זו מובדלת בין הכרם והירק בגדר:

16

[The following laws apply when] the fence separating between the vineyard and the vegetables is breached. If it is ten cubits or less, it is considered as an entrance and it is permitted. If the breach was more than ten [cubits], [it is] forbidden [to sow vegetables] opposite the open portion unless he moves the required measure away38 from the vines.

[The following rules apply when] there are many breaches39 in the fence.40 If the [portions of the fence that remain] standing are equal to those that have been breached, it is permitted as if there was no breach. If the breached portions exceed those which remain standing, he should not sow in front of all those open spaces unless he separates in the appropriate manner.41

טז

גדר המבדיל בין כרם וירק שנפרץ עד עשר אמות הרי זה כפתח ומותר היתה פרוצה יותר מעשר כנגד הפרצה אסור עד שירחיק מן הגפנים כשיעור נפרצו בו פרצות רבות אם היה העומד כפרוץ הרי זה מותר כאילו אין שם פרצה היה פרוץ מרובה על העומד לא יזרע כנגד כל המקומות הפרוצים עד שירחיק כשיעור:

17

When the partition of a vineyard is breached,42 [the court] tells [the owner]:43 "Close it." If he closed it and it was breached [again], [the court] tells him: "Close it." If he despairs and does not close it,44 [the produce] becomes hallowed.45

יז

מחיצת הכרם שנפרצה אומרים לו גדור גדרה ונפרצה אומרים לו גדור נתייאש ממנה ולא גדרה הרי זה קידש:

18

When a building is partially covered by a roof and partially open and vines are planted on one side, it is permissible to plant vegetables on the other. [The rationale is that] we consider it as if the end of the roof descends and closes [the area] off and creates a barrier between them.46 If he completes the roof, it is forbidden [to plant two species].47

יח

בית שחציו מקורה וחציו אינו מקורה וגפנים נטועות בצד זה מותר לזרוע ירקות בצד האחר שהרי פי תקרה כאילו ירד וסתם ונעשה ביניהן כמחיצה ואם השוה את קרויו אסור:

19

When [the walls of] a small courtyard were breached entirely to a large courtyard and there were vines in the large courtyard, it is forbidden to sow [other produce] in the smaller one.48 If he sows there, that produce is forbidden and the vines are permitted. If there were vines in the smaller [courtyard], it is permitted to sow other produce in the larger one.49 [The rationale is] that since the larger [courtyard] has barriers on either side,50 it is considered as separate from the smaller one. The smaller one, by contrast, is not considered as separate from the larger one.

יט

חצר קטנה שנפרצה במלואה לגדולה והיו הגפנים בגדולה אסור לזרוע בקטנה ואם זרע הזרעים אסורין והגפנים מותרין היו הגפנים בקטנה מותר לזרוע בגדולה הואיל ויש בגדולה פסין מכאן ומכאן הרי היא כמובדלת מן הקטנה ואין הקטנה מובדלת מן הגדולה:

20

[The following laws apply when] a trench that is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide passes through a vineyard. If it passes from the beginning of the vineyard to the end, [since] it appears as [passing] between two [separate] vineyards, it is permitted to sow [other crops] in it, provided the vines do not become draped over it, as we explained.51

If it did not pass from side to side,52 it is considered as a vat in the midst of a vineyard, in which instance even if it is ten [handbreadths] deep and four handbreadths wide or more, it is forbidden to sow within it unless the empty portion is at least sixteen cubits wide.53

כ

חריץ שהוא עובר בכרם עמוק עשרה ורחב ארבעה אם היה מפולש מראש הכרם ועד סופו הרי זה נראה כבין שני הכרמים ומותר לזרוע בתוכו ובלבד שלא יהיו הגפנים מסככין עליו כמו שבארנו ואם לא היה מפולש הרי הוא כגת שבאמצע הכרם שאף על פי שהיא עמוקה עשרה ורחבה ארבעה או יתר אסור לו לזרוע בתוכה אא"כ היה בקרחת שש עשרה אמה:

21

A path54 between two vineyards resembles a vineyard that was devastated in its midst.55 If there are sixteen cubits between them, he may make a separation of four cubits on either side and sow in the remainder. If there was less than that between them, he should not bring seeds there.

כא

שביל שבין שני הכרמים הרי הוא ככרם שחרב מאמצעו אם יש ביניהם שש עשרה אמה מרחיק מזה ארבע אמות ומזה ארבע אמות וזורע את המותר ואם היה פחות מכאן לא יביא זרע לשם:

22

[The following laws apply with regard to] a mound56 in a vineyard. If it is ten [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths] wide,57 it is permitted to sow vegetables on its top as long as the branches of the vine do not touch58 it so that from above, there does not appear to be vegetables in the midst of the vineyard.

When does the above apply? [When the mound] is rectangular.59 If, however, the mound is circular, there must be an empty space of four handbreadths in its midst60 so that it will be separated from the earth and there must be three handbreadths of earth on its top.61

כב

שומרה שבכרם אם גבוהה עשרה ורחבה ארבעה מותר לזרוע בראשה ירק ובלבד שלא יהיו השריגין נוגעין בה כדי שלא יראה ירק בתוך הכרם מלמעלה במה דברים אמורים במרובעת אבל אם היתה השומרה עגולה צריכה שיהיה בתוכה חלל ארבעה טפחים כדי שתהיה מופלגת מן הארץ וצריכה עפר על ראשה מלמעלה שלשה טפחים:

23

When there is a building in a vineyard, if it is three handbreadths or more62 by three handbreadths until four handbreadths,63 one may sow vegetables inside of it.64 If it is less than three handbreadths by three handbreadth, it is considered as closed65 and one should not sow [vegetables] within it.

כג

הבית שבכרם אם היה יותר משלשה טפחים על שלשה טפחים עד ארבעה זורעין בתוכו ירק ואם היה פחות משלשה על שלשה הרי הוא כסתום ואין זורעין בתוכו:

24

When one vine is planted in a pit66 or in the midst of a trench, one must separate six handbreadths67 from it, [then] one may sow [other crops] in the remainder of the trench as one would do on flat ground. If the trench was ten handbreadths deep and there was a border on the edge of the trench with a top four handbreadths wide, it is forbidden to sow other crops inside of it even though one made a separation of six handbreadths.68

כד

גפן יחידית שהיתה נטועה בתוך הנקע או בתוך החריץ מרחיק ממנה ששה טפחים לכל רוח וזורע את כל החריץ כדרך שעושה במישור ואם היה עמוק עשרה והיה רחב שפת החריץ למעלה ארבעה אסור לזרוע בתוכו אע"פשהרחיק ששה:

25

Similarly, when there is one vine that is surrounded by a fence that is ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide, one should not sow [other produce] in the entire area set off by the barriers69 even though one makes a separation of six handbreadths. If one made a separation of six handbreadths and sowed, however, the produce is not hallowed.70

What is the initial and preferred size of the separation one should make? Four cubits on every side.71 Afterwards, he may sow [other produce] in the remainder of the trench or in the remainder of the area surrounded by a fence.

כה

וכן גפן יחידית שהיתה מוקפת גדר גבוה עשרה ורחב ארבעה לא יזרע בכל המחיצה ואע"פ שהרחיק ששה ואם הרחיק ששה וזרע לא קידש וכמה ירחיק לכתחלה ויזרע ארבע אמות לכל רוח ואח"כ יזרע שאר החריץ או שאר המקום המוקף גדר:

Footnotes
1.

See Chapter 8, Halachah 3.

2.

For this is the space necessary to tend to the vineyard (Kilayim 7:1).

3.

For this is considered as a vineyard.

4.

Note, however, the exception in Halachah 7.

5.

I.e., when are the vines considered as a collective, a vineyard, and not individual entities.

6.

Here the four cubits are measured tightly, rather than amply. See Chapter 8, Halachah 12.

7.

When the vines are planted so densely, they will not grow well. Thus we assume that ultimately, the middle vines will be uprooted. Since that is their eventual fate, even while they exist, they are not considered as significant entities.

8.

For each row is considered as an independent entity and hence, it is only necessary to make a six handbreadth separation between them.

The Ra'avad follows a more stringent view and maintains that since there are three rows, they appear as a vineyard. Unless there is a significant distance - sixteen cubits - between them, they are considered as a collective. The Kessef Mishneh states that although the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:8) appears to support the Ra'avad's view, the Rambam's opinion has its source in the Jerusalem Talmud.

9.

For, with regard to the produce sowed within it, each row is considered like an individual vine.

10.

The rationale is that this vineyard was designated as a vineyard from the outset and an outside observer should be able to see that it is separate from an adjoining field. Hence, a proper separation must be made from its outer borders. The Ra'avad differs, stating that if a separation is required outside it, one certainly should be required inside it. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh support the Rambam's view.

11.

In which instance, it is necessary to make a separation of four cubits, as stated in Halachah 11.

12.

Despite the fact that the two rows of vines belong to two separate individuals, since they are close enough to appear as a single entity, it is forbidden to sow crops between them and one must make a separation of four cubits on the outside [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:7)].

13.

Inspired by the Ra'avad's gloss, we have chosen this translation, rather than the term "public thoroughfare" which is usually used, because, here the road is no more than eight handbreadths wide, as stated at the conclusion of the halachah, while a "public thoroughfare" is sixteen cubits wide, as stated in Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 3:3 and Hilchot Shabbat 14:1. Notably, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam mentions the figure of sixteen cubits.

14.

If, however, it is ten handbreadths high, it is considered as a distinguishing factor, as stated in Chapter 3, Halachah 15.

15.

Certain restrictions, nevertheless, apply, as stated in Chapter 6, Halachah 5.

16.

According to the standard published text of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:2), the Rambam changed his mind when issuing the ruling here. Rav Kappach, however, maintains that a printing error crept into that text.

17.

Ordinarily, a vineyard must have at least two rows of three vines each, as implied by Halachot 1-2. The differences between an ordinary vineyard and a small vineyard are mentioned in Halachah 13.

During the Talmudic era in Eretz Yisrael, it was very common to plant vineyards with five vines. See the accompanying diagram.

18.

This represents the Rambam's interpretation of the phrase "two opposite two, and one in between" in Kilayim 4:6.

19.

50 cubits by 50 cubits.

20.

I.e., it is obviously sparsely planted. Nevertheless, there are enough vines in it for it to be called a vineyard and sowing other species is forbidden.

21.

The Radbaz and Rav Yosef Corcus interprets this as meaning "two opposite two and one projecting like a tail" as in the previous halachot.

22.

And it is forbidden to sow other crops there and one must separate four cubits from its outer perimeter before sowing other crops.

23.

I.e., and not as individual vines. Hence, the restrictions mentioned in the previous note apply.

24.

The amount of space necessary to perform work in the vineyard.

25.

Thus he will save a circle with a radius of at least 8 cubits in which to sow crops [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:1)].

26.

For the area is still considered as a vineyard.

27.

Our translation is based on the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (loc. cit.).

28.

The requirement of twelve cubits is determined as follows: Four cubits are required for the tilling of the vineyard and four cubits are required for a path near the fence. If the remaining space is less than four cubits wide, it is not significant and is considered subsumed to the vineyard. If it is larger than that, it is considered as an independent entity and it is permitted to sow crops in it (Eruvin 93ab).

29.

For the prohibition is a Rabbinic safeguard.

30.

I.e., one with at least three rows of three vines.

31.

From the Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 4:1), it appears that this term refers to a vineyard with three rows of two vines. Certainly it applies to one with only five vines, as described in Halachah 7.

As mentioned above, with regard to a large vineyard, the owner is willing to refrain from sowing the four cubits next to the fence so that they can be used as a path. With regard to a small vineyard, he is not prepared to forgo the use of so much space.

32.

In which instance, the leniency mentioned in Halachah 3 applies (Kessef Mishneh).

33.

Since this vineyard is planted irregularly, the laws governing the ordinary pattern in which vines are planted do not apply (ibid.).

34.

This is referring to a stone fence, which was usually built ten by four.

35.

One of the reasons four cubits were left open next to the fence for people to walk was that walking there strengthened the fence. A fence that does not possess those dimensions does not need to be strengthened.

36.

Without moving away from the fence or trench. The fence or the trench itself creates a distinction between the two crops.

37.

The rationale is that within three cubits, we apply the principle of l'vud and the open space between the reeds is considered as closed [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 4:3)].

38.

Four cubits.

39.

That are less than ten cubits wide.

40.

With regard to the following, note the parallels to Hilchot Shabbat 16:16.

41.

He may, however, sow opposite the portions that remain standing, provided they are four cubits wide.

42.

And there is grain or vegetables growing outside it.

43.

As a warning. At this stage, the status of the produce is not changed.

44.

And the produce increases 1/200th in size.

45.

Because there is no distinction between the other produce and the vineyard.

46.

Note the parallels in Hilchot Shabbat 17:35; Hilchot Sukkah 4:5, 8-9.

47.

Even though the vineyard is indoors, there is still a Rabbinic prohibition involved.

48.

For the two courtyards are considered as a single entity. Note the parallels in Hilchot Tefilah 8:7-8; Hilchot Eruvin 3:24.

Rashi, Eruvin 92b states that even if one makes a separation of four cubits, it is forbidden to sow in the smaller courtyard, because it is considered as an entranceway to the larger one.

49.

Provided one separates four cubits.

50.

I.e., a portion of its walls remain standing.

51.

See Chapter 5, Halachah 8, Chapter 6, Halachah 11, and Halachah 22 of this chapter.

52.

And is thus surrounded by the vineyard on all three sides. Accordingly, although the trench is a separate entity, it is forbidden to sow within it.

53.

As stated in Halachah 11.

54.

When mentioning the principles upon which this law is based, Kilayim 4:2-3 does not speak of a path. The Rambam, however, mentions it as a further inclusion, teaching that even if people use it to walk back and forth, it is not considered a separation unless it is of the appropriate length (Radbaz).

55.

Halachah 11.

56.

Alternatively, a guardhouse.

57.

Since it has these dimensions, it is considered as a separate entity, distinct from the vineyard. Although a trench must pass from one end of the vineyard to the other as stated in Halachah 20, greater leniency is granted in this instance, because the mound stands out because of its height.

58.

This reflects the Rambam's translation of the word kotesh in Kilayim 5:3.

59.

Since the space is rectangular, it is distinct and considered significant, even if it is not four handbreadths by four handbreadths (P'nei Moshe, Jerusalem Talmud, Kilayim 5:3).

60.

I.e., it must be able to circumscribe a square four handbreadths by four handbreadths (Radbaz).

61.

I.e., if the base of the mound was a stone, there must be three handbreadths of loose earth.

62.

Our translation, though not literal, is based on the gloss of the Radbaz.

63.

The meaning of this phrase is somewhat problematic and in fact it is lacking in certain versions of the Mishneh Torah. According to the Jerusalem Talmud, this refers to the height of the building. The intent being that if the building is not four cubits high, one must hollow out its earth so that it reaches the height of four handbreadths.

64.

Because of its walls, the building is a distinct entity and one may sow up to the wall itself, even at the entrance. There is no need to make a separation (Radbaz).

65.

Based on the halachic principle of l'vud.

66.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 5:4), the Rambam writes that this refers to a pit used to store water.

67.

For this is the amount of space necessary to till one vine (ibid.).

68.

This is a continuation of the principle stated in the following halachah (Rav Yosef Corcus).

69.

Since the fence is significant, it causes everything contained within it to be considered as a single entity. Hence, the entire enclosed area is considered as a vineyard even though it contains only one vine (Radbaz).

70.

For the minimum requirements have been met.

71.

For this is sufficient even in a vineyard.

Kilaayim - Chapter 8

1

When vines grow in their natural manner with their branches and their clusters lying on the earth, [the place where they grow] is called a vineyard (kerem). When, however, a person creates something like a bed or a platform raised above the earth so that the clusters and the branches will be extended over it and he lifted up the foliage of the vines from the ground unto that trellis and draped them over it, it is called an aris. The branches and the like from which the trellis or platform was made and upon which the foliage of the vine is draped are called apiperot. Different laws apply to an aris.

א

הגפנים שגדלו כברייתן והרי השריגים והאשכולות שלהן מושלכין בארץ הן הנקראין כרם אבל העושה כמו מטה או כמו שבכה גבוהה מעל הארץ כדי שיהיו האשכולות והשריגים נמשכין עליה והגביה נוף הגפנים מעל הארץ על אותה המטה והדלה אותו הרי זה נקרא עריס ואותם הקנים וכיוצא בהן שעשה מהן מטה או שבכה והדלה עליהן את נוף הגפן הן הנקראים אפיפירות ודינים אחרים יש בעריס:

2

When a person plants one row of five or more vines and drapes them over a wall that is ten handbreadths high or the like, or he planted them on the side of a trench1 that is ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide, they are [also] classified as an aris. It is necessary to separate from an aris four cubits [before] sowing [other produce], similar to the separation [required in] a vineyard.2

ב

הנוטע שורה אחת של חמש גפנים או יתר וערסן על גבי כותל גבוה עשרה וכיוצא בו או שנטען בצד חריץ עמוק עשרה ורחב ארבעה הרי אלו נקראין עריס וצריך להרחיק מן העריס ארבע אמות ואחר כך יזרע כדרך שמרחיק מן הכרם:

3

From where do we measure? From the base of the fence over which he draped them. What is implied? He made a separation of a cubit between the row of vines and the wall. Thus the aris is made from the vines and the wall, he should measure four cubits from the wall and sow.3 Thus there are five cubits between [the crops] sown and the base of the vines. If he seeks to sow on the side of the vines, he should separate four cubits from the base of the vines. Thus he is five cubits away from the wall. This is the pattern followed when dealing with any aris.

ג

ומהיכן מודדין מעיקר הנדר שערסן עליו כיצד הרחיק את השורה של גפנים מן הכותל אמה ונמצא העריס מן הגפנים ולכותל מודד מן הכותל ארבע אמות וזורע ונמצא בין הזרע ובין עקרי הגפנים חמש אמות ואם בא לזרוע מצד הגפנים מרחיק מעיקרי הגפנים ארבע אמות שנמצא רחוק מן הכותל חמש אמות ועל דרך זו דנין בכל עריס:

4

Whether one built the fence and then planted the vines or planted the vines and then built the fence, since he draped [the vines on the fence], it is considered as an aris. If the fence was destroyed4 or the trench filled, the aris ceases to exist and the entire row is considered as individual vines.5

ד

אחד הבונה את הגדר ואח"כ נטע או שנטע ואחר כך עשה הגדר הואיל וערסן הרי זה עריס נהרס הגדר או נסתם החריץ אין כאן עריס אלא הרי כל השורה כגפנים יחידים:

5

When an aris is destroyed6 in the middle and there remain five vines on one side of the fence and five vines on the other side of the fence opposite it,7 it is called "separate portions of an aris." If there are eight cubits and one sixtieth of a cubit between them,8 one must separate [only] six handbreadths between each row before sowing, provided he does not sow beneath the trellises as explained.9

ה

עריס שחרב אמצעו ונשתיירו בו חמש גפנים בצד הגדר מכאן וחמש גפנים בצד הגדר האחר מכנגדן זהו הנקרא פסקי עריס אם יש ביניהן שמונה אמות ואחד מששים באמה הרי זה מרחיק מכל שורה ששה טפחים וזורע והוא שלא יזרע תחת האפיפירות כמו שבארנו:

6

If there is exactly eight cubits between them, one should not bring seed there. If he did sow [other crops] there, since he separated six handbreadths [from each of the rows of vines], the produce is not hallowed. If there is no fence there,10 [all that is necessary is to] separate six handbreadths from each row and sow it. For there is no aris, nor the separated portions of an aris. If he went back and rebuilt the fence,11aris is considered to have been renewed or the separated portions of an aris to have been renewed.

ו

היה ביניהן שמונה אמות בצמצום הרי זה לא יזרע לשם ואם זרען הואיל והרחיק מכל שורה ששה טפחים הרי זה לא קידש ואם אין שם גדר מרחיק מכל שורה ששה טפחים וזורע שאין כאן לא עריס ולא פסקי עריס חזר ובנה הגדר חזר עריס למקומו וחזרו פסקי עריס למקומן:

7

[The following laws apply when there is] a small garden that is surrounded by a fence and one draped the vines12 [growing] around it on the outside on all of its walls.13 If [the garden] contains the space for a reaper and his basket to stand on one side14and the space for a reaper and his basket to stand on the other side, one may sow vegetables in it,15 because it is surrounded with a fence. If it is not that large, one may not sow in it, because the entire area appears as one aris with vegetables in it.16

ז

גנה קטנה שהיא מוקפת גדר ועירס את הגפנים סביב לה מבחוץ על כל כתליה אם יש בה מלא בוצר וסלו מכאן ומלא בוצר וסלו מכאן הואיל והיא מוקפת גדר זורעין בתוכה ירקות ואם אין [בה] כשיעור הזה אין זורעים בתוכה מפני שנראה הכל כעריס אחד וירק בתוכו:

8

[The following laws apply when] vines were planted on a terrace and their trellis17 extends and gives shade over a field. If one can stand on the earth and harvest the entire vine,18 we consider the entire area under the vine as if it was the base of the vines and forbid a radius of four cubits in the field on every side of the edge of the trellis. If he cannot reap [the grapes] unless he steps on a step or a ladder, it is forbidden only to sow under the trellis itself.19

ח

גפנים שהיו זרועים במדרגה גבוהה והעריס שלהן יוצא ומסכך על השדה אם עומד בארץ ובוצר את כולו רואין כל המקום שתחת העריס כאילו הוא מקום עקרי הגפנים ואוסר ארבע אמות בשדה לכל רוח משפת העריס ואם אינו יכול לבצור עד שיעלה במדרגה או בסולם אין אסור לזרוע אלא תחת העריס בלבד:

9

When there are two walls perpendicular to each other and vines are planted in the corner between them, the trellis extends outward from the corner and ends [in the midst of the area],20 one may separate the [required] measure21 from the base of the vines and sow in the place where the trellis ends and there is no aris. Although [the crops] were sowed between two walls between which there is an aris, since he separated the required measure, he may sow [other crops] between the walls.

ט

שני כתלים הסמוכין זה לזה והגפנים נטועים בזויות ביניהם והעריס יוצא עם הכתלים מתוך הקרן וכלה מרחיק מעיקרי הגפנים כשיעור וזורע במקום הכלה שאין עליו עריס ואע"פ שהזרע מכוון בין שני הכתלים שביניהן העריס הואיל והרחיק כשיעור הרי זה זורע בין הכתלים:

10

[The following rule applies when] the trunk of a vine ascended above the ground, then became bent and extended along the earth, and then ascended like a knee. When we measure between the vine and other [crops] six handbreadths or four cubits, we measure only from the end of the portion that rises up and not from the base of the first vine.22

י

גפן שעלה העץ שלה מן הארץ מעט ואח"כ נעקם ונמשך על הארץ וחזר ועלה כמו ארכובה כשמודדין בין הגפן ובין הזרע ששה טפחים או ארבע אמות אין מודדין אלא מסוף הארכובה לא מעיקר הגפן הראשון:

11

We have already explained23 that although one makes the required separation between the [other crops] sown and the vine, it is necessary to be careful that the vine will not provide shade for the vegetables, nor may the vegetables provide shade for the vine. If one sowed vegetables or grain and they grew and afterwards draped a vine over them, the straw [of the crops] are permitted,24 but the grain must be burnt. If the roots of the vine emerged in the four cubits between the vineyard and grain, they must be uprooted. If the roots of the grain emerge within these four cubits, it is permitted.

יא

כבר בארנו שאף על פי שמרחיק בין הזרע ובין הגפן כשיעור צריך להזהר שלא תסכך הגפן על הירק או יסכך הירק על הגפן זרק ירק או תבואה וצמחה ואחר כך סכך עליה את הגפן הקשין מותרין והדגן ידלק היו שרשי הגפן יוצאין לתוך הארבע אמות שבין הכרם והתבואה יעקר היו שרשי התבואה יוצאין לתוך הארבע אמות מותר:

12

All of the separations and required measures that are mentioned with regard to kilayim are measured in cubits that are six ample handbreadths.25 One should not be constricted in measuring [the forbidden] areas with regard to kilayim. For one should only constrict measurements when being stringent.26

יב

כל ההרחקות והשיעורין האמורין בכלאים באמה בת ששה טפחים שוחקות ולא יצמצם במדות הכלאים שאין מצמצמים אלא להחמיר:

13

All of the measures in which separations are made between vines and grain or vegetables apply only in Eretz Yisrael27 or in Syria.28 But in the Diaspora, it is permitted to sow [other crops] at the side of vines29 in a vineyard at the outset. In the Diaspora, it was forbidden only to sow two types of vegetables or grain and grape seeds in one handful.

If one tells a gentile child30 to sow [such a mixture] for him in the Diaspora, it is permitted.31 One should not, however, make such a statement to an adult, lest one also do so with a Jew.

יג

כל השיעורין האלו שמרחיקין בין הגפנים והתבואה או הירק אינן אלא בארץ ישראל או בסוריא אבל בחוצה לארץ מותר לזרוע בצד הגפנים בתוך הכרם לכתחלה ולא אסרו בחוצה לארץ אלא לזרוע שני מיני ירק או תבואה עם החרצן במפולת יד ואם אמר לתינוק נכרי לזרוע לו בחוצה לארץ מותר אבל לא יאמר לנכרי גדול שלא יתחלף בישראל:

14

Although it is permitted to sow vegetables at the side of a vineyard in the Diaspora, the vegetable that is sown there is forbidden to be eaten, even in the Diaspora.32 [This applies] provided one sees the owner harvest it and sell it. If, however, one is in doubt whether [the produce comes from there], it is permitted,33 as we explained in Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot.34

יד

ואע"פ שמותר לזרוע הירק בצד הכרם בחוצה לארץ הרי אותו הירק הזרוע שם אסור באכילה ואפילו בחוצה לארץ והוא שיראה אותו לוקט ומוכר אבל ספיקו מותר כמו שבארנו בהלכות מאכלות אסורות:

Footnotes
1.

And lowered the branches and the clusters into the trench.

2.

Thus the laws governing an aris are more severe than those governing a vineyard. For in a vineyard, it is not necessary to separate more than six handbreadths, because one row is not considered as a vineyard (Chapter 7, Halachah 1).

3.

Generally, a fence creates a distinction and it is not necessary to make a separation on its outside (Chapter 7, Halachah 14). In this instance, however, since the vines are draped over the fence itself, it is considered as part of the aris and a separation is required (Kessef Mishneh).

The Ra'avad differs and maintains that a fence always creates a distinction and there is no need to separate on its outer side. The source for the Rambam's ruling is Kilayim 6:1. Significantly, in his Commentary to the Mishnah, the Rambam follows the Ra'avad's approach and maintains that one measures only on the inside of the fence. There he explains that the School of Hillel, whose view is accepted as halachah, maintains that one measures four cubits from the fence. Thus the other crops need only be separated three cubits from the base of the vine.

Rav Kappach notes that in a manuscript copy of the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah, Rav Avraham, the Rambam's son, corrected his father's text, based on the ruling here. The Radbaz and the Kessef Mishneh note that the Rambam's change of mind is dependent on his understanding of the treatment of the mishnah in the Jerusalem Talmud.

4.

The Radbaz mentions that the fence does not have to be destroyed entirely. As long as its height is reduced below ten handbreadths, the laws of an aris no longer apply.

5.

As stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 1.

6.

The Radbaz mentions that the fence does not have to be destroyed entirely. As long as its height is reduced below ten handbreadths, the laws of an aris no longer apply.

7.

There were two rows of vines separated by a wall over which they were both draped. Thus the wall causes them to be considered as a single entity. The Ra'avad offers a different interpretation of this situation.

8.

As long as there are slightly more than eight cubits between the two rows, they are considered as separate entities and not as a single vineyard, as stated in Chapter 7, Halachah 2. As the Mishnah states (Kilayim 6:6), this is the only instance where an extra amount beyond whole numbers is required.

9.

Chapter 6, Halachah 12.

10.

I.e., it was destroyed entirely or partially.

11.

Either partially or to a height of ten handbreadths.

12.

I.e., at least five vines.

13.

This follows the Rambam's approach (explained in Halachah 3), that a fence over which vines are draped does not act as a separation for them even if they are located outside it. The Ra'avad differs in his gloss to that halachah and differs in this instance as well. [Significantly, in his Commentary to the Mishnah (Ediot 2:4), the Rambam resembles the Ra'avad's interpretation here.]

14.

The Jerusalem Talmud (Kilayim 6:1) interprets this as being two cubits: one for the reaper and one for his basket.

15.

He must, however, separate six handbreadths [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:2)].

16.

Since the space between the two fences is very small, the entire area is considered as a single unit.

17.

I.e., a trellis ten handbreadths high.

18.

I.e., they extend low enough that he can reach them without standing on any support.

19.

As would be the law if there was only one vine.

20.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:7), the Rambam depicts this situation as illustrated. Rabbenu Shimshon and the Ra'avad do not accept his interpretation.

21.

Six handbreadths [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 6:7)].

22.

In his Commentary to the Mishnah (Kilayim 7:1), the Rambam adds: "If [the original stem] was apparent and obvious that it is the base of the vine that became bent, we measure from the original base."

23.

Chapter 6, Halachah 11.

24.

For they were produced before the vines were introduced (Radbaz; see Chapter 5, Halachah 13).

25.

I.e., that one's fingers are not tightly pressed together, but held in a manner that allows air to pass between them [the Rambam's Commentary to the Mishnah (Eruvin 1:1)]. See also Hilchot Shabbat 17:36.

26.

See Chapter 7, Halachah 2.

27.

Where the prohibitions against mixed species apply according to Scriptural Law.

28.

Which in certain contexts is considered as Eretz Yisrael (see Hilchot Terumot 1:3-4) and where they apply according to Rabbinic Law.

29.

Among the vines themselves, however, it is forbidden to sow, even in the Diaspora (Kessef Mishneh).

30.

One may not, however, ask a Jewish child to perform such an activity, lest he become habituated to transgression (Shabbat 139a).

31.

The Turei Zahav 296:21 rules that even at the outset, it is permitted to ask a gentile child to do this.

32.

The Kessef Mishneh quotes Rabbenu Asher as differing with this ruling and permitting the vegetables to be eaten. The Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 296:69) follows the Rambam's ruling, while the Rama follows that of Rabbenu Asher.

33.

The conclusion of the tractate Orlah relates that if vegetables are being sold outside a vineyard in the Diaspora, one may purchase them provided one does not see them being harvested.

34.

Hilchot Ma'achalot Assurot 10:6-8.

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