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Tuesday, 16 Iyar 5776 / May 24, 2016

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 5

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Avodat Yom haKippurim - Perek 5

Halacha 1

All of the services which the High Priest performs while wearing the white garments inside the Temple Building must be performed in the order in which we mentioned. If he performed one of them before another, his acts are of no consequence.

Halacha 2

If the High Priest took a handful of incense before he slaughtered the bull, his act is of no consequence. Although taking the handful of incense is performed in the Courtyard, it is necessary for service performed inside the Temple Building. Similarly, if the goat was slaughtered before the blood of the bull was presented inside the Holy of Holies, the act is of no consequence. Although the slaughter is performed in the Temple Courtyard, its blood is brought within the Temple Building.

Halacha 3

If the ram and the goat from the additional sacrifices of the day were offered before the service of the day in the Holy of Holies was performed, they are of no consequence.

Halacha 4

If the blood of the goat was presented in the Holy of Holies before the blood of the bull, i.e., before the High Priest completes its service, he should sprinkle the blood of the bull as commanded. Afterwards, he should bring another goat, slaughter it, and sprinkle its blood as commanded. The first goat is disqualified.

If, when sprinkling the blood on the parochet in the Sanctuary, he sprinkled the blood of the goat before the blood of the bull, he should sprinkle the blood of the goat a second time after the blood of the bull.

Halacha 5

If the blood of the goat spilled before he completed presenting it in the Holy of Holies, he should bring other blood and begin sprinkling it anew in the Holy of Holies.

Halacha 6

If he completed the presentation of the blood in the Holy of Holies and began presenting it in the Sanctuary and the blood was spilled before he completed them, he should bring other blood and begin from the first sprinklings in the Sanctuary.

Halacha 7

If he completed the first part of the presentation of the blood in the Sanctuary and began to apply the blood to the Golden Altar and the blood spilled before the applications were completed, he should bring other bloodand begin from the first applications to the altar. For each set of presentations of blood represents a separate phase of atonement.

Halacha 8

If he completed the application of the blood to the altar and then the blood spilled, he does not have to bring other blood, for pouring the remainder of the blood on the outer altar is not a binding requirement. If the blood of the bull was spilled before he completed all of the presentations, he should bring another bull and take a handful of incense before slaughtering the bull. He should offer the incense, then bring the blood of the second bull and sprinkle its blood.

Halacha 9

The only one which causes the priests and their clothes to become impure and which is burnt in the ashpile is the last bull with which the atonement was completed.

Halacha 10

If the blood of the bull became mixed with the blood of the goat before the High Priest completed the sprinklings, he should sprinkle from the mixture once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the bull and then sprinkle from the mixture once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the goat. If they became mixed together before the last sprinkling, he should sprinkle once downward for the sake of the bull and then sprinkle once upward and seven times downward for the sake of the goat.

Halacha 11

If the cups containing the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat become mixed together and the High Priest does not know which is the cup containing the blood of the bull and which is the cup containing the blood of the goat, he should sprinkle from one of them once upward and seven times downward and then sprinkle from the second one, once upward and seven times downward. And then he sprinkles again from the blood in the first cup, once upward and seven times downward. Thus regardless he will have sprinkled from the blood of the bull and afterwards, from the blood of the goat.

Halacha 12

The following rules apply when the High Priest received the blood of the bull in two cups and the blood of the goat in two cups and some of the cups became mixed together and it was not known which of the cups contained the blood of the bull and which, the blood of the goat. He should perform all the sprinklings as required by law from the cups that were not mixed together. He should then pour the remainder of the blood from the cups from which he sprinkled on the base of the altar, as required. The cups that were mixed together should be poured into the drainage channel.

Halacha 13

Even though the High Priest would purchase the bull sacrificed on Yom Kippur from his own resources, as implied by Leviticus 16:6: "The bull for the sin-offering that is his," the Omnipresent nullified his ownership of it in favor of all of his priestly brethren. For if they did not have a share of it, they could not derive atonement through its sacrifice.

Accordingly, if the High Priest died before the bull was slaughtered, the priest who assumes his position does not bring a different bull. Instead, he slaughters the first one, It is not considered a sin-offering whose owners have died which is itself consigned to death, for a sin-offering owned by many is never consigned to death,

If the High Priest slaughtered the bull, but died before sprinkling its blood to gain atonement, the second priest enters the Temple with this blood and performs the sprinkling that brings atonement.

Halacha 14

The desired manner of performing the mitzvah is that the two goats of Yom Kippur should be alike with regard to their appearance, their size, and their worth. They should be purchased at the same time. Nevertheless, even if they were not alike, they were acceptable. Similarly, if one was purchased on one day and the other on the following day, it is acceptable.

Halacha 15

The following rules apply if one of these goats die. If it dies before the lottery was held, he should take another one as a pair for the remaining one. If it died after the lottery, he should bring two new goats and conduct the lottery again as he did originally.

He sees which one died. If it was the one to be sacrificed to G‑d, he says: "This one for which the lot for God was chosen should replace it." If the dead goat was the one to be sent to Azazel, he says: "This one for which the lot for Azazel was chosen should replace it." The other one of the pair from which the second lottery was made should be left to pasture until it receives a disqualifying blemish. Then it should be sold and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. This course of action is taken, because a communal sin-offering is never consigned to death.

Halacha 16

When the bull and/or the goat to be offered on Yom Kippur became lost, others were separated in their stead and offered and then the first ones were found, those first ones should pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Afterwards, they should be redeemed and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. Similarly, if the first ones were found before the second were offered, the first ones should be sacrificed. The second ones should be allowed to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Afterwards, they should be redeemed and the proceeds used for freewill offerings. The rationale for these rulings is that a communal sin-offering is never consigned to death.

Halacha 17

A disqualifying blemish - even a temporary blemish - renders the goat sent to Azazel unfit. Similarly, if it becomes unfit to be sacrificed because of a time factor, it is disqualified. For example, its mother was slaughtered to feed a sick person on Yom Kippur. Although the pertinent prohibition involves "slaughtering" an animal and its offspring on the same day, pushing the goat to Azazel is equivalent to slaughtering it.

Halacha 18

If the goat was treifah, it is unacceptable, for Leviticus 16:10 states: "It shall stand alive."

Halacha 19

If the goat becomes sick and is unable to walk, the one taking it to Azazel should carry it on his shoulders, even on the Sabbath.

Halacha 20

If the one designated to take it becomes sick, it should be sent with another person.

Halacha 21

If the one designated to take it becomes impure, he should enter the Temple take it and depart, as Leviticus 16:21 states: "to the desert in the hands of a designated person." Implied is that it should be sent in the hands of the one designated even if he became ritually impure.

Halacha 22

If that person pushed the goat off the cliff and it did not die, he should descend after it and kill it with any article that will serve that purpose. It is permitted to benefit from the limbs of this goat.

Halacha 23

If the roof of the Temple Building was opened, the High Priest should not sprinkle the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat, because ibid.:17 states: "in the Tent of Meeting."

Halacha 24

When the inner altar had not been dedicated by the offering of incense previously, the High Priest should not sprinkle the blood upon it, as ibid. 4:7 states: "the altar of the incense offering."

Halacha 25

If the incense offering was lacking one of its spices or the smoke-raising herb, the High Priest is liable for death, as Leviticus 16:2 states: "He shall not die, because in a cloud I will appear on the kaporet." Similarly, he is liable for death for entering the Holy of Holies while he is not performing a mitzvah. Therefore, if he transgressed inadvertently by entering, but purposely offered an unacceptable incense offering or offered a complete incense offering together with the one that was lacking, he is liable for death.

Halacha 26

If he offered an olive-sized portion of the incense offering to be offered in the Holy of Holies in the Sanctuary, he is liable for death.

Halacha 27

Taking a handful of incense is considered as an element of the Temple service and improper thoughts can disqualify it. Similarly, the scooping of the coals for the incense offering can be disqualified by improper thoughts, for performance of the preparatory acts necessary to bring a sacrifice is considered as bringing the sacrifice itself.

Halacha 28

There is doubt regarding the proper ruling in all of the following incidents:

a) he collected the incense with his fingertips, with the sides of his hands, or scooped from below upward;

b) he gathered the incense with both hands and then brought them together;

c) the incense was scattered on the earth from his hand and he collected it;

d) a colleague gathered the incense and put it in his hands; or

e) a High Priest collected the incense and died and his replacement entered the Holy of Holies with the incense collected by the first.

In all these instances, as an initial preference, he should not offer such incense. If he did, it is acceptable.

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

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About the book
Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.
About the Publisher
Moznaim
Moznaim is the publisher of the Nehardaa Shas, a new, state-of-the-art edition of the Talmud and all major commentaries in 20 volumes. Click here to purchase or email the publisher at sales@moznaim.com
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When the Holy Temple was in existence, the Altar atoned for Israel; today, a person's table atones for him
  –Talmud, Berachot 55a
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About the book
Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.
About the Publisher
Moznaim
Moznaim is the publisher of the Nehardaa Shas, a new, state-of-the-art edition of the Talmud and all major commentaries in 20 volumes. Click here to purchase or email the publisher at sales@moznaim.com