Chapter 22

1And it came to pass after these things, that God tested Abraham, and He said to him, "Abraham," and he said, "Here I am."   אוַיְהִ֗י אַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְהָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים נִסָּ֖ה אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו אַבְרָהָ֖ם וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי:
after these things: Some of our Sages say (Sanh. 89b) [that this happened]: after the words [translating “devarim” as “words”] of Satan, who was accusing and saying, “Of every feast that Abraham made, he did not sacrifice before You one bull or one ram!” He [God] said to him, “Does he do anything but for his son? Yet, if I were to say to him, ‘Sacrifice him before Me,’ he would not withhold [him].” And some say,“ after the words of Ishmael,” who was boasting to Isaac that he was circumcised at the age of thirteen, and he did not protest. Isaac said to him,“ With one organ you intimidate me? If the Holy One, blessed be He, said to me, ‘Sacrifice yourself before Me,’ I would not hold back.” - Cf. Gen. Rabbah 55:4.   אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה: יֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אוֹמְרִים (סנהדרין פ"ט) אַחַר דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל שָׂטָן, שֶׁהָיָה מְקַטְרֵג וְאוֹמֵר מִכָּל סְעוּדָה שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם לֹא הִקְרִיב לְפָנֶיךָ פַּר אֶחָד אוֹ אַיִל אֶחָד; אָמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם עָשָׂה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל בְּנוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר לוֹ זְבַח אוֹתוֹ לְפָנַי לֹא הָיָה מְעַכֵּב; וְיֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים אַחַר דְּבָרָיו שֶׁל יִשְׁמָעֵאל, שֶׁהָיָה מִתְפָּאֵר עַל יִצְחָק שֶׁמָּל בֶּן י"ג שָׁנָה וְלֹא מִחָה, אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק בְּאֵבֶר א' אַתָּה מְיָרְאֵנִי? אִלּוּ אָמַר לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא זְבַח עַצְמְךָ לְפָנַי, לֹא הָיִיתִי מְעַכֵּב.
Here I am: This is the reply of the pious. It is an expression of humility and an expression of readiness. — [from Tan. Vayera 22]   הִנֵּֽנִי: כָּךְ הִיא עֲנִיָּתָם שֶׁל חֲסִידִים, לְשׁוֹן עֲנָוָה הוּא וּלְשׁוֹן זִמּוּן:
2And He said, "Please take your son, your only one, whom you love, yea, Isaac, and go away to the land of Moriah and bring him up there for a burnt offering on one of the mountains, of which I will tell you."   בוַיֹּ֡אמֶר קַח־נָ֠א אֶת־בִּנְךָ֨ אֶת־יְחִֽידְךָ֤ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַ֨בְתָּ֙ אֶת־יִצְחָ֔ק וְלֶ֨ךְ־לְךָ֔ אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ הַמֹּֽרִיָּ֑ה וְהַֽעֲלֵ֤הוּ שָׁם֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה עַ֚ל אַחַ֣ד הֶֽהָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֹמַ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ:
Please take: Heb. קַח נָא is only an expression of a request. He [God] said to him, “I beg of you, pass this test for Me, so that people will not say that the first ones [tests] had no substance.” - [from Sanh. ad loc.]   קַח־נָא: אֵין נָא אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן בַּקָשָׁה, אָמַר לוֹ בְּבַקָּשָׁה מִמְּךָ, עֲמֹד לִי בְּזֶה הַנִּסָּיוֹן, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת לֹא הָיָה בָהֶן מָמָּשׁ:
your son: He [Abraham] said to Him,“ I have two sons.” He [God] said to him,“ Your only one.” He said to Him,“ This one is the only son of his mother, and that one is the only son of his mother.” He said to him,“ Whom you love.” He said to Him,“ I love them both.” He said to him,“ Isaac.” Now why did He not disclose this to him at the beginning? In order not to confuse him suddenly, lest his mind become distracted and bewildered, and also to endear the commandment to him and to reward him for each and every expression. — [from Sanh. 89b, Gen. Rabbah 39:9, 55:7]   אֶת־בִּנְךָ: אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָנִים יֵשׁ לִי, אָמַר לוֹ אֶת יְחִידְךָ; אָמַר לוֹ זֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ וְזֶה יָחִיד לְאִמּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ אֲשֶׁר אָהַבְתָּ; אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲנִי אוֹהֵב, אָמַר לוֹ אֶת יִצְחָק (סנהדרין פ"ט). וְלָמָּה לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה? שֶׁלֹּא לְעַרְבְּבוֹ פִּתְאוֹם וְתָזוּחַ דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו וְתִטָּרֵף, וּכְדֵי לְחַבֵּב עָלָיו אֶת הַמִּצְוָה וְלִתֵּן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר:
the land of Moriah: Jerusalem, and so in (II) Chronicles (3:1): “to build the House of the Lord in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah.” And our Sages explained that [it is called Moriah] because from there [religious] instruction (הוֹרָאָה) goes forth to Israel. Onkelos rendered it [“the land of service”] as alluding to the service of the incense, which contained myrrh [“mor” is phonetically similar to Moriah], spikenard, and other spices.   אֶרֶץ המוריה: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וְכֵן בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים לִבְנוֹת אֶת בֵּית ה' בִּירוּשָׁלִַם בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה (דברי הימים ב ג'). וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ פֵּרְשׁוּ עַל שֵׁם שֶׁמִּשָּׁם הוֹרָאָה יוֹצְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגְּמוֹ עַל שֵׁם עֲבוֹדַת הַקְּטֹרֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוֹר נֵרְדְּ וּשְׁאָר בְּשָׂמִים:
bring him up: He did not say to him, “Slaughter him,” because the Holy One, blessed be He, did not wish him to slaughter him but to bring him up to the mountain, to prepare him for a burnt offering, and as soon as he brought him up [to the mountain], He said to him, “Take him down.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 56:8]   וְהַֽעֲלֵהוּ: לֹא אָמַר לוֹ שְׁחָטֵהוּ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה חָפֵץ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְשָׁחֳטוֹ אֶלָּא לְהַעֲלֵהוּ לָהָר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עוֹלָה, וּמִשֶּׁהֶעֱלָהוּ אָמַר לוֹ הוֹרִידֵהוּ:
one of the mountains: The Holy One, blessed be He, makes the righteous wonder (other editions: makes the righteous wait), and only afterwards discloses to them [His intentions], and all this is in order to increase their reward. Likewise, (above 12:1): “to the land that I will show you,” and likewise, concerning Jonah (3:2): “and proclaim upon it the proclamation.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 55:7]   אַחַד הֶֽהָרִים: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַתְהֵא הַצַּדִּיקִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְגַלֶּה לָהֶם; וְכָל זֶה כְּדֵי לְהַרְבּוֹת שְׂכָרָן, וְכֵן אֶל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ (בראשית י"ב), וְכֵן בְּיוֹנָה וּקְרָא עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַקְּרִיאָה (יונה ג ב):
3And Abraham arose early in the morning, and he saddled his donkey, and he took his two young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split wood for a burnt offering, and he arose and went to the place of which God had told him.   גוַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם אַבְרָהָ֜ם בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיַּֽחֲבשׁ֙ אֶת־חֲמֹר֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־שְׁנֵ֤י נְעָרָיו֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֖ת יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֑וֹ וַיְבַקַּע֙ עֲצֵ֣י עֹלָ֔ה וַיָּ֣קָם וַיֵּ֔לֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָֽמַר־ל֥וֹ הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים:
And…arose early: He hastened to [perform] the commandment (Pes. 4a).   וַיַּשְׁכֵּם: נִזְדָּרֵז לַמִּצְוָה (פסחים ד'):
and he saddled: He himself, and he did not command one of his servants, because love causes a disregard for the standard [of dignified conduct]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 55:8]   וַיַּֽחֲבשׁ: הוּא בְעַצְמוֹ, וְלֹא צִוָּה לְאֶחָד מֵעֲבָדָיו, שֶׁהָאַהֲבָה מְקַלְקֶלֶת הַשּׁוּרָה:
his two young men: Ishmael and Eliezer, for a person of esteem is not permitted to go out on the road without two men, so that if one must ease himself and move to a distance, the second one will remain with him. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 31; Gen. Rabbah ad loc., Tan. Balak 8]   אֶת־שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו: יִשְׁמָעֵאל וֶאֱלִיעֶזֶר, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם חָשׁוּב רַשַּׁאי לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ בְּלֹא ב' אֲנָשִׁים (בראשית רבה), שֶׁאִם יִצְטָרֵךְ הָאֶחָד לִנְקָבָיו וְיִתְרַחֵק, יִהְיֶה הַשֵּׁנִי עִמּוֹ:
and he split: Heb. וַיְבַקַע. The Targum renders וְצַלַח, as in (II Sam. 19:18): “and they split (וְצָלְחוּ) the Jordan,” an expression of splitting, fendre in Old French.   וַיְבַקַּע: תַּרְגּוּם וְצַלַּח, כְּמוֹ וְצָלְחוּ הַיַּרְדֵּן (שמואל ב' י"ט), לְשׁוֹן בִּקּוּעַ, פינדר"א בלע"ז:
4On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from afar.   דבַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י וַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֧ם אֶת־עֵינָ֛יו וַיַּ֥רְא אֶת־הַמָּק֖וֹם מֵֽרָחֹֽק:
On the third day: Why did He delay from showing it to him immediately? So that people should not say that He confused him and confounded him suddenly and deranged his mind, and if he had had time to think it over, he would not have done it. — [from Gen. Rabbah 55:6]   בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי: לָמָה אֵחַר מִלְּהַרְאוֹתוֹ מִיָּד? כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ הֲמָמוֹ וְעִרְבְּבוֹ פִּתְאוֹם וְטָרַף דַּעְתּוֹ, וְאִלוּ הָיָה לוֹ שָׁהוּת לְהִמָּלֵךְ אֶל לִבּוֹ לֹא הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה:
and saw the place: He saw a cloud attached to the mountain. — [from Gen. Rabbah 56: 1, Tan. Vayera 23]   וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם: רָאָה עָנָן קָשׁוּר עַל הָהָר:
5And Abraham said to his young men, "Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go yonder, and we will prostrate ourselves and return to you."   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶל־נְעָרָ֗יו שְׁבֽוּ־לָכֶ֥ם פֹּה֙ עִם־הַֽחֲמ֔וֹר וַֽאֲנִ֣י וְהַנַּ֔עַר נֵֽלְכָ֖ה עַד־כֹּ֑ה וְנִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֖ה וְנָשׁ֥וּבָה אֲלֵיכֶֽם:
yonder: Heb. עַד כֹּה, lit. until there, i.e., a short way to the place that is before us. And the Midrashic interpretation (Tan. ad loc.): I will see where is [the promise] that the Holy One, blessed be He, said to me (above 15:5): “So (כֹּה) will be your seed.”   עַד־כֹּה: כְּלוֹמַר דֶּרֶךְ מֻעָט לַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר לְפָנֵינוּ. וּמִקְרָא אַחֵר אֶרְאֶה הֵיכָן הוּא מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לִי הַמָּקוֹם כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ:
and return: He prophesied that they would both return. — [from Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan, second version, ch. 43; Rabbah and Tan. ad loc.] i.e., Abraham prophesied without realizing it.   וְנָשׁוּבָה: נִתְנַבֵּא שֶׁיָּשׁוּבוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם:
6And Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering, and he placed [it] upon his son Isaac, and he took into his hand the fire and the knife, and they both went together.   ווַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֲצֵ֣י הָֽעֹלָ֗ה וַיָּ֨שֶׂם֙ עַל־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָד֔וֹ אֶת־הָאֵ֖שׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּֽאֲכֶ֑לֶת וַיֵּֽלְכ֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם יַחְדָּֽו:
the knife: Heb. הַמַאֲכֶלֶת, so called because it consumes (אוֹכֶלֶת) the flesh, as it is stated (Deut. 32:42): “and My sword will consume (תֹּאכַלוּ) flesh,” and because it renders meat fit for consumption (אַכִילָה). Another explanation: This [knife] was מַאִכֶלֶת because the people of Israel still eat (אוֹכְלִים) the reward given for it. — [from Gen. Rabbah 56:3]   הַמַּֽאֲכֶלֶת: סַכִּין, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁאוֹכֶלֶת אֶת הַבָּשָׂר, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא וְחַרְבִּי תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר (דברים ל"ב), וְשֶׁמַּכְשֶׁרֶת בָּשָׂר לַאֲכִילָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר זֹאת נִקְרֵאת מַאֲכֶלֶת עַל שֵׁם שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹכְלִים מַתַּן שְׂכָרָהּ:
and they both went together: Abraham, who knew that he was going to slaughter his son, was going as willingly and joyfully as Isaac, who was unaware of the matter. —   וַיֵּֽלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּֽו: אַבְרָהָם שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ לִשְׁחֹט אֶת בְּנוֹ הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ בְּרָצוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה כְּיִצְחָק, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מַרְגִּישׁ בַּדָּבָר:
7And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father, and he said, "My father!" And he said, "Here I am, my son." And he said, "Here are the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?"   זוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יִצְחָ֜ק אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֤ם אָבִיו֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָבִ֔י וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֶּ֣נִּי בְנִ֑י וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֤ה הָאֵשׁ֙ וְהָ֣עֵצִ֔ים וְאַיֵּ֥ה הַשֶּׂ֖ה לְעֹלָֽה:
8And Abraham said, "God will provide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son." And they both went together.   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אַבְרָהָ֔ם אֱלֹהִ֞ים יִרְאֶה־לּ֥וֹ הַשֶּׂ֛ה לְעֹלָ֖ה בְּנִ֑י וַיֵּֽלְכ֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם יַחְדָּֽו:
will provide for Himself the lamb: i.e., He will see and choose for Himself the lamb (Targum Jonathan), and if there will be no lamb, my son will be for a burnt offering. And although Isaac understood that he was going to be slaughtered,“ they both went together,” with one accord (lit. with the same heart). - [from Gen. Rabbah 56:4]   יִרְאֶה־לּוֹ הַשֶּׂה: כְּלוֹמַר יִרְאֶה וְיִבְחַר לוֹ הַשֶּׂה, וְאִם אֵין שֶׂה, לעולה בני. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵבִין יִצְחָק שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ לְהִשָּׁחֵט, וַיֵּֽלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּֽו בְּלֵב שָׁוֶה:
9And they came to the place of which God had spoken to him, and Abraham built the altar there and arranged the wood, and he bound Isaac his son and placed him on the altar upon the wood.   טוַיָּבֹ֗אוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽמַר־ל֣וֹ הָֽאֱלֹהִים֒ וַיִּ֨בֶן שָׁ֤ם אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וַיַּֽעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֶת־הָֽעֵצִ֑ים וַיַּֽעֲקֹד֙ אֶת־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֔וֹ וַיָּ֤שֶׂם אֹתוֹ֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ מִמַּ֖עַל לָֽעֵצִֽים:
and he bound: his hands and his feet behind him. The hands and the feet tied together is known as עִקֵידָה (Shab. 54a). And that is the meaning of עִקֻדִים (below 30:39), that their ankles were white; the place where they are bound was discernible (Bereishith Rabbathi).   וַיַּֽעֲקֹד: יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מֵאֲחוֹרָיו; הַיָּדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם בְּיַחַד הִיא עֲקִידָה (שבת נ"ד), וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן עֲקֻדִּים, שֶׁהָיוּ קַרְסוּלֵיהֶם לְבָנִים, מָקוֹם שֶׁעוֹקְדִין אוֹתָן בּוֹ הָיָה נִכָּר:
10And Abraham stretched forth his hand and took the knife, to slaughter his son.   יוַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־הַמַּֽאֲכֶ֑לֶת לִשְׁחֹ֖ט אֶת־בְּנֽוֹ:
11And an angel of God called to him from heaven and said, "Abraham! Abraham!" And he said, "Here I am."   יאוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֵלָ֜יו מַלְאַ֤ךְ יְהֹוָה֙ מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֣ם | אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי:
“Abraham! Abraham!”: This is an expression of affection, that He repeated his name. — [from Tos. Ber. ch. 1, Sifra Vayikra ch. 1]   אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם: לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה הוּא, שֶׁכּוֹפֵל אֶת שְׁמוֹ:
12And he said, "Do not stretch forth your hand to the lad, nor do the slightest thing to him, for now I know that you are a God fearing man, and you did not withhold your son, your only one, from Me."   יבוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַ֤ח יָֽדְךָ֙ אֶל־הַנַּ֔עַר וְאַל־תַּ֥עַשׂ ל֖וֹ מְא֑וּמָה כִּ֣י | עַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־יְרֵ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ אַ֔תָּה וְלֹ֥א חָשַׂ֛כְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ֥ אֶת־יְחִֽידְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽנִּי:
Do not stretch forth: to slaughter [him]. He [Abraham] said to Him,“ If so, I have come here in vain. I will inflict a wound on him and extract a little blood.” He said to him,“ Do not do the slightest thing (מְאוּמָה) to him.” Do not cause him any blemish (מוּם) !- [from Gen. Rabbah 56:7]   אַל־תִּשְׁלַח: לִשְׁחֹט; אָמַר לוֹ אִם כֵּן לְחִנָּם בָּאתִי לְכָאן, אֶעֱשֶׂה בּוֹ חַבָּלָה וְאוֹצִיא מִמֶּנוּ מְעַט דָּם, אָמַר לוֹ אל תעש לו מאומה – אַל תַּעַשׂ בּוֹ מוּם:
for now I know: Said Rabbi Abba: Abraham said to Him, “I will explain my complaint before You. Yesterday, You said to me (above 21:12): ‘for in Isaac will be called your seed,’ and You retracted and said (above verse 2): ‘Take now your son.’ Now You say to me, ‘ Do not stretch forth your hand to the lad.’” The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him (Ps. 89:35): “I shall not profane My covenant, neither shall I alter the utterance of My lips.” When I said to you,“ Take,” I was not altering the utterance of My lips. I did not say to you,“ Slaughter him,” but,“ Bring him up.” You have brought him up; [now] take him down. — [from Gen. Rabbah 56:8]   כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי: אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא, אָמַר לוֹ אַבְרָהָם אֲפָרֵשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת שִׂיחָתִי, אֶתְמוֹל אָמַרְתָּ לִי כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע, וְחָזַרְתָּ וְאָמַרְתָּ קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, עַכְשָׁו אַתָּה אוֹמֵר אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל הַנַּעַר? אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, לֹא אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה (תהילים פ"ט); כְּשֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְךָ "קַח", מוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה – לֹא אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ שְׁחָטֵהוּ אֶלָּא הַעֲלֵהוּ, אַסַּקְתֵּיהּ, אַחְתֵּיהּ.
for now I know: From now on, I have a response to Satan and the nations who wonder what is My love towards you. Now I have a reason (lit. an opening of the mouth), for they see “ that you fear God.” -   כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי: מֵעַתָּה יֵשׁ לִי מַה לְּהָשִׁיב לַשָּׂטָן וְלָאֻמּוֹת הַתְּמֵהִים מַה הִיא חִבָּתִי אֶצְלְךָ; יֵשׁ לִי פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה עַכְשָׁו, שֶׁרוֹאִים כִּי יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה:
13And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and he saw, and lo! there was a ram, [and] after [that] it was caught in a tree by its horns. And Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son.   יגוַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּרְא֙ וְהִנֵּה־אַ֔יִל אַחַ֕ר נֶֽאֱחַ֥ז בַּסְּבַ֖ךְ בְּקַרְנָ֑יו וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אַבְרָהָם֙ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיַּֽעֲלֵ֥הוּ לְעֹלָ֖ה תַּ֥חַת בְּנֽוֹ:
and lo! there was a ram: It was prepared for this since the six days of Creation. — [from Tan. Shelach 14]   וְהִנֵּה־אַיִל: מוּכָן הָיָה לְכָךְ מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית:
after: After the angel said to him, “ Do not stretch forth your hand,” he saw it as it [the ram] was caught. And that is why the Targum translates it: “ And Abraham lifted his eyes after these [words], i.e., after the angel said, ” Do not stretch forth your hand.“ (Other editions: and according to the Aggadah,” after all the words of the angel and the Shechinah and after Abraham’s arguments").   אַחַר: אַחֲרֵי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ, רָאָהוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא נֶאֱחָז, וְהוּא שֶׁמְּתַרְגְּמִינָן וּזְקַף אַבְרָהָם יַת עֵינוֹהִי בָּתַר אִלֵּין:
in a tree: Heb. בסבך‏ַ, a tree. — [from Targum Onkelos]   בַּסְּבַךְ: אִילָן:
by its horns: For it was running toward Abraham, and Satan caused it to be caught and entangled among the trees. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 31]   בְּקַרְנָיו: שֶׁהָיָה רָץ אֵצֶל אַבְרָהָם, וְהַשָּׂטָן סוֹבְכוֹ וּמְעַרְבְּבוֹ בָאִילָנוֹת:
instead of his son: Since it is written: “and offered it up for a burnt offering,” nothing is missing in the text. Why then [does it say]: “instead of his son” ? Over every sacrificial act that he performed, he prayed, “May it be [Your] will that this should be deemed as if it were being done to my son: as if my son were slaughtered, as if his blood were sprinkled, as if my son were flayed, as if he were burnt and reduced to ashes.” - [from Tan. Shelach 14]   תַּחַת בְּנֽוֹ: מֵאַחַר שֶׁכָּתוּב וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ לְעֹלָה, לֹא חָסֵר הַמִּקְרָא כְּלוּם, מַהוּ תַּחַת בְּנוֹ? עַל כָּל עֲבוֹדָה שֶׁעָשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל וְאוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתְּהֵא זוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא עֲשׂוּיָה בִּבְנִי, כְּאִלּוּ בְּנִי שָׁחוּט, כְּאִלּוּ דָּמוֹ זָרוּק, כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מֻפְשָׁט, כְּאִלּוּ הוּא נִקְטָר וְנַעֲשֶׂה דֶּשֶׁן:
14And Abraham named that place, The Lord will see, as it is said to this day: On the mountain, the Lord will be seen.   ידוַיִּקְרָ֧א אַבְרָהָ֛ם שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַה֖וּא יְהֹוָ֣ה | יִרְאֶ֑ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יֵֽאָמֵ֣ר הַיּ֔וֹם בְּהַ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה יֵֽרָאֶֽה:
The Lord will see: Its simple meaning is as the Targum renders: The Lord will choose and see for Himself this place, to cause His Divine Presence to rest therein and for offering sacrifices here.   ה' יִרְאֶה: פְּשׁוּטוֹ כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, ה' יִבְחַר וְיִרְאֶה לוֹ אֶת הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה לְהַשְׁרוֹת בּוֹ שְׁכִינָתוֹ וּלְהַקְרִיב כָּאן קָרְבָּנוֹת:
as it is said to this day: that [future] generations will say about it, “On this mountain, the Holy One, blessed be He, appears to His people.”   אֲשֶׁר יֵֽאָמֵר הַיּוֹם: שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ לִימֵי הַדּוֹרוֹת עָלָיו בְּהַר זֶה יֵרָאֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעַמּוֹ:
to this day: the future days, like [the words] “until this day,” that appear throughout Scripture, for all the future generations who read this verse, will refer “until this day,” to the day in which they are living. The Midrash Aggadah (see Gen. Rabbah 56:9) [explains]: The Lord will see this binding to forgive Israel every year and to save them from retribution, in order that it will be said “on this day” in all future generations: “On the mountain of the Lord, Isaac’s ashes shall be seen, heaped up and standing for atonement.”   הַיּוֹם: הַיָּמִים הָעֲתִידִין, כְּמוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה שֶׁבְּכָל הַמִּקְרָא, שֶׁכָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים הַקּוֹרְאִים אֶת הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה אוֹמְרִים עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה עַל הַיוֹם שֶׁעוֹמְדִים בּוֹ. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה ה' יִרְאֶה עֲקֵדָה זוֹ לִסְלֹחַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל שָׁנָה וּלְהַצִּילָם מִן הַפֻּרְעָנוּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּאָמֵר הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה – בְּכָל הַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים – בְּהַר ה' יֵרָאֶה אֶפְרוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק צָבוּר וְעוֹמֵד לְכַפָּרָה:
15And an angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven.   טווַיִּקְרָ֛א מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֑ם שֵׁנִ֖ית מִן־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
16And he said, "By Myself have I sworn, says the Lord, that because you have done this thing and you did not withhold your son, your only one,   טזוַיֹּ֕אמֶר בִּ֥י נִשְׁבַּ֖עְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֗י יַ֚עַן אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשִׂ֨יתָ֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וְלֹ֥א חָשַׂ֖כְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ֥ אֶת־יְחִידֶֽךָ:
17That I will surely bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens and as the sand that is on the seashore, and your descendants will inherit the cities of their enemies.   יזכִּֽי־בָרֵ֣ךְ אֲבָֽרֶכְךָ֗ וְהַרְבָּ֨ה אַרְבֶּ֤ה אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְכַח֕וֹל אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־שְׂפַ֣ת הַיָּ֑ם וְיִרַ֣שׁ זַרְעֲךָ֔ אֵ֖ת שַׁ֥עַר אֹֽיְבָֽיו:
I will surely bless you: Heb. בָרֵ֣ךְ אֲבָֽרֶכְךָ֗, one [blessing] for the father and one for the son. —   בָרֵךְ אֲבָֽרֶכְךָ: אַחַת לָאָב וְאַחַת לַבֵּן:
and I will greatly multiply: Heb. וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה, one for the father and one for the son. — [from Gen. Rabbah 56:11]   וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה: אַחַת לָאָב וְאַחַת לַבֵּן:
18And through your children shall be blessed all the nations of the world, because you hearkened to My voice."   יחוְהִתְבָּֽרֲכ֣וּ בְזַרְעֲךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ עֵ֕קֶב אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ בְּקֹלִֽי:
19And Abraham returned to his young men, and they arose and went together to Beer sheba; and Abraham remained in Beer sheba.   יטוַיָּ֤שָׁב אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶל־נְעָרָ֔יו וַיָּקֻ֛מוּ וַיֵּֽלְכ֥וּ יַחְדָּ֖ו אֶל־בְּאֵ֣ר שָׁ֑בַע וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אַבְרָהָ֖ם בִּבְאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע:
and Abraham remained in Beer-sheba: This does not mean permanently dwelling, for he was living in Hebron. Twelve years prior to the binding of Isaac, he left Beer-sheba and went to Hebron, as it is said (above 21:34): “And Abraham dwelt in the land of the Philistines for many days,” [meaning] more numerous than the first [years] in Hebron, which were twenty-six years, as we explained above. — [from Seder Olam ch. 1]   וַיָּשָׁב אַבְרָהָם בִּבְאֵר שָׁבַע: לֹא יְשִׁיבָה מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּחֶבְרוֹן הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב, י"ב שָׁנִים לִפְנֵי עֲקֵדָתוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק יָצָא מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וְהָלַךְ לוֹ לְחֶבְרוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּגָר אַבְרָהָם בְּאֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים יָמִים רַבִּים, מְרֻבִּים מִשֶּׁל חֶבְרוֹן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, וְהֵם כ"ו שָׁנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁנוּ לְמַעְלָה:
20And it came to pass after these matters, that it was told to Abraham saying: "Behold Milcah, she also bore sons to Nahor your brother.   כוַיְהִ֗י אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַיֻּגַּ֥ד לְאַבְרָהָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר הִ֠נֵּ֠ה יָֽלְדָ֨ה מִלְכָּ֥ה גַם־הִ֛וא בָּנִ֖ים לְנָח֥וֹר אָחִֽיךָ:
after these matters, that it was told, etc.: When he returned from Mount Moriah, Abraham was thinking and saying, “Had my son been slaughtered, he would have died without children. I should have married him to a woman of the daughters of Aner, Eshkol, or Mamre. The Holy One, blessed be He, announced to him that Rebeccah, his mate, had been born, and that is the meaning of after these matters,” i.e., after the thoughts of the matter that came about as a result of the “akedah.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 57:3]   אַֽחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד וגו': בְּשׁוּבוֹ מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָה הָיָה אַבְרָהָם מְהַרְהֵר וְאוֹמֵר אִלּוּ הָיָה בְנִי שָׁחוּט כְּבָר, הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ בְּלֹא בָנִים, הָיָה לִי לְהַשִּׂיאוֹ אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת עָנֵר אֶשְׁכּוֹל וּמַמְרֵא, בִּשְּׂרוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה רִבְקָה בַת זוּגוֹ, וְזֶהוּ הדברים האלה, הִרְהוּרֵי דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ עַל יְדֵי עֲקֵדָה:
she also: She had [a number of] families equal to the [number of] the families of Abraham. Just as Abraham [engendered] the twelve tribes who emerged from Jacob-eight were the sons of the wives and four were the sons of maidservants-so were these also, eight sons of the wives and four sons of a concubine. — [from Gen. Rabbah 57:3]   גַם־היא: אַף הִיא הִשְׁוָת מִשְׁפְּחוֹתֶיהָ לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹת אַבְרָהָם י"ב, מָה אַבְרָהָם י"ב שְׁבָטִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִיַּעֲקֹב, ח' בְּנֵי הַגְּבִירוֹת וד' בְּנֵי שְׁפָחוֹת, אַף אֵלּוּ ח' בְּנֵי גְּבִירוֹת וְד' בְּנֵי פִּילֶגֶשׁ:
21Uz, his first born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel, the father of Aram.   כאאֶת־ע֥וּץ בְּכֹר֖וֹ וְאֶת־בּ֣וּז אָחִ֑יו וְאֶת־קְמוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִ֥י אֲרָֽם:
22And Kesed and Hazo and Pildash and Jidlaph, and Bethuel.   כבוְאֶת־כֶּ֣שֶׂד וְאֶת־חֲז֔וֹ וְאֶת־פִּלְדָּ֖שׁ וְאֶת־יִדְלָ֑ף וְאֵ֖ת בְּתוּאֵֽל:
23And Bethuel begot Rebecca." These eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother.   כגוּבְתוּאֵ֖ל יָלַ֣ד אֶת־רִבְקָ֑ה שְׁמֹנָ֥ה אֵ֨לֶּה֙ יָֽלְדָ֣ה מִלְכָּ֔ה לְנָח֖וֹר אֲחִ֥י אַבְרָהָֽם:
And Bethuel begot Rebecca: All these genealogies were written only for the sake of this verse. — [based on Gen. Rabbah 57:1,3]   וּבְתוּאֵל יָלַד אֶת־רִבְקָה: כָּל הַיִּחוּסִין הַלָּלוּ לֹא נִכְתְּבוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל פָּסוּק זֶה:
24And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, had also given birth to Tebah and Gaham and Tahash and Maacah.   כדוּפִֽילַגְשׁ֖וֹ וּשְׁמָ֣הּ רְאוּמָ֑ה וַתֵּ֤לֶד גַּם־הִוא֙ אֶת־טֶ֣בַח וְאֶת־גַּ֔חַם וְאֶת־תַּ֖חַשׁ וְאֶת־מַֽעֲכָֽה: