Chapter 11

1As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood as a supporter and a stronghold for him.   אוַֽאֲנִי֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת אַחַ֔ת לְדָֽרְיָ֖וֶשׁ הַמָּדִ֑י עָמְדִ֛י לְמַֽחֲזִ֥יק וּלְמָע֖וֹז לֽוֹ:
As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede: when the kingdom of Babylon fell, and the rule of Media and Persia commenced, and the princes of Media and Persia entreated the Omnipresent to make the yoke of their frightful rule heavy upon you, I, Gabriel, stood as a supporter and as a stronghold for Michael, your prince.  
2And now, I shall tell you the truth. Behold three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth one will become wealthy with great wealth, and when be becomes strong with his wealth, he will arouse all against the kingdom of Greece.   בוְעַתָּ֕ה אֱמֶ֖ת אַגִּ֣יד לָ֑ךְ הִנֵּה־עוֹד֩ שְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה מְלָכִ֜ים עֹֽמְדִ֣ים לְפָרַ֗ס וְהָֽרְבִיעִי֙ יַֽעֲשִׁ֚יר עֹֽשֶׁר־גָּדוֹל֙ מִכֹּ֔ל וּכְחֶזְקָת֣וֹ בְעָשְׁר֔וֹ יָעִ֣יר הַכֹּ֔ל אֵ֖ת מַלְכ֥וּת יָוָֽן:
Behold three more kings: Our Sages of blessed memory in Seder Olam (ch. 28) said: “This refers to Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and Darius who rebuilt the Temple. Now what is the meaning of fourth’? The fourth, counting from Media.” In the book of Joseph Ben Gorion, however, it is written that Cyrus had a son who succeeded him before the reign of Ahasuerus, named Cambyses.  
and when he becomes strong: i.e., Darius.  
with his wealth, he will arouse: his entire kingdom to wage war against the kingdom of the heathens.  
3And a mighty king will arise and will rule a great dominion and do according to his will.   גוְעָמַ֖ד מֶ֣לֶךְ גִּבּ֑וֹר וּמָשַׁל֙ מִמְשָׁ֣ל רַ֔ב וְעָשָׂ֖ה כִּרְצוֹנֽוֹ:
And a mighty king will arise: in Greece, viz. Alexander of Macedon.  
and do according to his will: with Darius the king of Persia, and he will slay him and receive his kingdom, and the Persians will be enslaved by the heathens [the Greeks.  
4And when he arises, his kingdom will be broken, and it will be divided to the four directions of the heavens, but not to his posterity, and not like the dominion that he ruled, for his kingdom will be uprooted and to others besides those.   דוּכְעָמְדוֹ֙ תִּשָּׁבֵ֣ר מַלְכוּת֔וֹ וְתֵחָ֕ץ לְאַרְבַּ֖ע רוּח֣וֹת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְלֹ֣א לְאַֽחֲרִית֗וֹ וְלֹ֚א כְמָשְׁלוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָשָׁ֔ל כִּ֚י תִנָּתֵשׁ֙ מַלְכוּת֔וֹ וְלַֽאֲחֵרִ֖ים מִלְּבַד־אֵֽלֶּה:
And when he arises, his kingdom will be broken: When he becomes very strong and reaches the height of his strength, his kingdom will be broken, meaning that he will die.  
and it will be divided to the four directions of the heavens: It is written in the book of Ben Gorion (ch. 14) that he divided his kingdom between the four heads of his family; they are the four heads of the leopard that Daniel saw (above 7:6): “And behold another one, like a leopard, and it had four wings of a bird on its back, and the beast had four heads.” He gave this one dominion in the east, this one in the west, this one in the north and this one in the south, and so in the first vision (8:8): “an appearance of four sprouted in its stead,” concerning the horns of the he-goat.  
but not to his posterity: The dominion will not come to his sons but to his family members. [The word] אַחֲרִיתוֹ coincides only with the expression of sons, and so Scripture states (Amos 4:2): “and you shall be borne on shields and your posterity (אַחֲרִיתְכֶן) in fishing boats,” which Jonathan renders: and your sons (sic) and daughters in fishermen’s boats.  
and not like the dominion that he ruled: but the kingdom of these will not be as strong as that of Alexander.  
for his kingdom will be uprooted: to divide to these four heads and to others besides these.  
5And the king of the south will overwhelm [the king of the north] and his officers, and he will rule with great dominion over his ruling.   הוְיֶֽחֱזַ֥ק מֶֽלֶךְ־הַנֶּ֖גֶב וּמִן־שָׂרָ֑יו וְיֶֽחֱזַ֚ק עָלָיו֙ וּמָשָׁ֔ל מִמְשָׁ֥ל רַ֖ב מֶמְשַׁלְתּֽוֹ:
And the king of the south will overwhelm: The head who will reign in the south will be stronger than the head opposite him who reigns in the north, and [stronger] than his officers.  
6And at the end of years they will join, and the daughter of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make a compromise, but her arm will not retain strength; and he and his arm will not prevail, and she and those who brought her and he who begot her and supported her in those times will be surrendered.   ווּלְקֵ֚ץ שָׁנִים֙ יִתְחַבָּ֔רוּ וּבַ֣ת מֶֽלֶךְ־הַנֶּ֗גֶב תָּבוֹא֙ אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן לַֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת מֵֽישָׁרִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־תַעְצֹ֞ר כּ֣וֹחַ הַזְּר֗וֹעַ וְלֹ֚א יַֽעֲמֹד֙ וּזְרֹע֔וֹ וְתִנָּתֵ֨ן הִ֚יא וּמְבִיאֶ֙יהָ֙ וְהַיֹּ֣לְדָ֔הּ וּמַֽחֲזִקָ֖הּ בָּֽעִתִּֽים:
to make a compromise: a compromise of peace between him and her father.  
will not retain, etc.: The king of the north will capture her, those who brought her, and her father who begot her and supported her in her time of trouble.  
will not retain: The arm of those who brought her [will not retain] strength to stand, [and her father will not prevail] before him, neither he nor his arm, meaning his mighty men.  
will be surrendered: into the hands of the king of the north, she and those who brought her, and he who begot her, i.e., her father.  
7A scion of her roots will arise in his position, and he will come to the army, and he will come into the stronghold of the king of the north, and he will succeed in them and take hold.   זוְעָמַ֛ד מִנֵּ֥צֶר שָֽׁרָשֶׁ֖יהָ כַּנּ֑וֹ וְיָבֹ֣א אֶל־הַחַ֗יִל וְיָבֹא֙ בְּמָעוֹז֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן וְעָשָׂ֥ה בָהֶ֖ם וְהֶֽחֱזִֽיק:
A scion of her roots will arise: a son sitting on his position, on the throne of the kingdom.  
and he will come to the army: to the king of the north.  
into the stronghold of the king of the north: i.e., in the cities of his strength, in his fortresses.  
and he will succeed in them: Heb. וְעָשָׂה בָהֶם, lit. and he will succeed against them.  
and take hold: and he will conquer them.  
8And also their gods with their princes with their coveted vessels of silver and gold he will bring in captivity to Egypt, and he will remain for years, more than the king of the north.   חוְגַ֣ם אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֡ם עִם־נְסִֽכֵיהֶם֩ עִם־כְּלֵ֨י חֶמְדָּתָ֜ם כֶּ֧סֶף וְזָהָ֛ב בַּשְּׁבִ֖י יָבִ֣א מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהוּא֙ שָׁנִ֣ים יַֽעֲמֹ֔ד מִמֶּ֖לֶךְ הַצָּפֽוֹן:
their princes: [as translated,] their princes.  
9And he will come into the kingdom of the king of the south and return to his land.   טוּבָ֗א בְּמַלְכוּת֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּ֔גֶב וְשָׁ֖ב אֶל־אַדְמָתֽוֹ:
And he will come into the kingdom of the king of the south: Through the kingdom of the king of the south, who was her father’s father, he will return to his land, which is Egypt, as is stated above: “will bring in captivity to Egypt.”  
10And his sons will agitate and gather a multitude of great armies, and he will come and inundate and pass, and he will return and agitate until his stronghold.   יוּבָנָ֣יו (כתיב וּבָנָ֣ו) יִתְגָּר֗וּ וְאָֽסְפוּ֙ הֲמוֹן֙ חֲיָלִ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים וּבָ֥א ב֖וֹא וְשָׁטַ֣ף וְעָבָ֑ר וְיָשֹׁ֥ב וְיִתְגָּרֶ֖ה (כתיב וְיִתְגָּרֶ֖ו) עַד־מָֽעֻזּֽוֹ (כתיב מָֽעֻזֹּֽה) :
And his sons: [i.e., the sons] of the king of the north will agitate.  
and he will come: Heb. וּבָא בוֹא, like וְהוֹלֵ הָלוֹ. The son of the king of the north will come and pass to the land of the south.  
and he will return and agitate: against the king of the south.  
until his stronghold: his fortified city.  
11And the king of the south will wage war, and he will go forth and wage war with him, with the king of the north, and he will raise a great multitude, and the multitude will be given into his hand.   יאוְיִתְמַרְמַר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּ֔גֶב וְיָצָ֕א וְנִלְחַ֥ם עִמּ֖וֹ עִם־מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֑וֹן וְהֶֽעֱמִיד֙ הָמ֣וֹן רָ֔ב וְנִתַּ֥ן הֶֽהָמ֖וֹן בְּיָדֽוֹ:
will wage war: will fight against the people.  
and the multitude will be given into his hand: [i.e., the multitude] of the king of the north [will be given] into his hand.  
12And the multitude will be raised up, and its heart will be haughty, and he will fell myriads, but he will not prevail.   יבוְנִשָּׂ֥א הֶֽהָמ֖וֹן וְרָ֣ם (כתיב יְרָ֣ום) לְבָב֑וֹ וְהִפִּ֛יל רִבֹּא֖וֹת וְלֹ֥א יָעֽוֹז:
And the multitude will be raised up: that of the king of the north, to become very haughty, for they planned in their hearts to be victorious in the war.  
and he will fell myriads: many of the army of the king of the south.  
but he will not prevail: Nevertheless, the victory of the war will not be his.  
13And the king of the north will return and raise a multitude greater than the first, and at the end of the times of years, he will come with a great army and with great possessions.   יגוְשָׁב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן וְהֶֽעֱמִ֣יד הָמ֔וֹן רַ֖ב מִן־הָֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן וּלְקֵ֨ץ הָֽעִתִּ֚ים שָׁנִים֙ יָ֣בוֹא ב֔וֹא בְּחַ֥יִל גָּד֖וֹל וּבִרְכ֥וּשׁ רָֽב:
14And in those times, many will rise up against the king of the south, and the sons of the renegades of your people will exalt themselves to bring about the vision but they will fail.   ידוּבָֽעִתִּ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם רַבִּ֥ים יַֽעַמְד֖וּ עַל־מֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּ֑גֶב וּבְנֵ֣י | פָּֽרִיצֵ֣י עַמְּךָ֗ יִֽנַּשְּׂא֛וּ לְהַֽעֲמִ֥יד חָז֖וֹן וְנִכְשָֽׁלוּ:
and the sons of the renegades of your people will exalt themselves to bring about the vision: I saw in the name of Rav Saadia Gaon that they were the renegades of Israel and their company.  
15And the king of the north will come and pour a mound and seize the fortified city, and the arms of the south will not stand up, and the people of his chosen ones will have no strength to stand.   טווְיָבֹא֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן וְיִשְׁפֹּךְ֙ סֽוֹלְלָ֔ה וְלָכַ֖ד עִ֣יר מִבְצָר֑וֹת וּזְרֹע֚וֹת הַנֶּ֙גֶב֙ לֹ֣א יַֽעֲמֹ֔דוּ וְעַם֙ מִבְחָרָ֔יו וְאֵ֥ין כֹּ֖חַ לַֽעֲמֹֽד:
and the people of his chosen ones: will be in the war.  
will have no strength to stand: before the king of the north, and although there is a superfluous “vav” here, it is customary for Scripture to speak in this manner as in, for example: “As for its nobles, there are none (וְאֵין) who proclaim the kingdom,” Isaiah (34:12).  
16And the one who comes to him will do as he wishes with no one rising up before him, and he will stand in the land of beauty, and he will destroy it with his hand.   טזוְיַ֨עַשׂ הַבָּ֚א אֵלָיו֙ כִּרְצוֹנ֔וֹ וְאֵ֥ין עוֹמֵ֖ד לְפָנָ֑יו וְיַֽעֲמֹ֥ד בְּאֶֽרֶץ־הַצְּבִ֖י וְכָלָ֥ה בְיָדֽוֹ:
will do: The king of the north, who comes to the king of the south, [will do] as he wishes.  
in the land of beauty: in the land of Israel.  
and he will destroy it: He will destroy the land with his army.  
17And he will set his face to come upon the strength of his entire kingdom, and the upright will be with him, and he will succeed. Now the daughter of the women he will give him to destroy her, but it will not stand, and she will not be for him.   יזוְיָשֵׂ֣ם | פָּ֠נָיו לָב֞וֹא בְּתֹ֧קֶף כָּל־מַלְכוּת֛וֹ וִיֽשָׁרִ֥ים עִמּ֖וֹ וְעָשָׂ֑ה וּבַ֚ת הַנָּשִׁים֙ יִתֶּן־ל֣וֹ לְהַשְׁחִיתָ֔הּ וְלֹ֥א תַֽעֲמֹ֖ד וְלֹא־ל֥וֹ תִהְיֶֽה:
And he will set his face: i.e., the king of the north, to come into the strength of the entire kingdom of the king of the south.  
and the upright will be with him: and Israel will be with the king of the south. Also with them will the king of the north battle in those days.  
and he will succeed: Heb. וְעָשָׂה, lit. and he will do.  
Now the daughter of the women he will give him to destroy her: This is the nation of Israel, [referred to in Song of Songs 1:8 as] “the fairest of women.” The king of the north will command the general of his army to destroy her. I say that he is Antiochus, the king of Greece, who issued decrees against Israel, and he commanded his general, Phillip, to kill whoever identified himself as a Jew, as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 18).  
but it will not stand: this counsel of his.  
and she will not be for him: the daughter of the women, for Mattathias the son of Johanan will rise and break off his [Antiochus’s] yoke from Israel.  
18And he will set his face to the isles, and he will seize many, and the prince will terminate his blasphemy to Him; besides his blasphemy He will recompense him.   יחוְיָשֵׂ֧ם (כתיב וְיָשֵׁ֧ב) פָּנָ֛יו לְאִיִּ֖ים וְלָכַ֣ד רַבִּ֑ים וְהִשְׁבִּ֨ית קָצִ֚ין חֶרְפָּתוֹ֙ ל֔וֹ בִּלְתִּ֥י חֶרְפָּת֖וֹ יָשִׁ֥יב לֽוֹ:
and the Prince will terminate his blasphemy to Him: His reproach and his blasphemy, with which he blasphemed the Holy One, blessed be He, and Israel, as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 20), and He punished him, for He smote him with evil boils while he was in transit, for he went to besiege Jerusalem, and his flesh became putrid, his limbs fell off and he ordered his slaves to bring him back to Antioch, but he did not manage to get there before he died of evil illnesses.  
19And he will return his face to the strongholds of his land, and he will stumble and fall, and he will not be found.   יטוְיָשֵׁ֣ב פָּנָ֔יו לְמָֽעוּזֵּ֖י אַרְצ֑וֹ וְנִכְשַׁ֥ל וְנָפַ֖ל וְלֹ֥א יִמָּצֵֽא:
to the strongholds of his land: to return to his fortified city.  
20And one who removes the oppressor will stand on his base, the glory of the kingdom, but in a few days it will be broken, but not with anger and not with war.   כוְעָמַ֧ד עַל־כַּנּ֛וֹ מַֽעֲבִ֥יר נוֹגֵ֖שׂ הֶ֣דֶר מַלְכ֑וּת וּבְיָמִ֚ים אֲחָדִים֙ יִשָּׁבֵ֔ר וְלֹ֥א בְאַפַּ֖יִם וְלֹ֥א בְמִלְחָמָֽה:
And one who removes the oppressor will stand on his base: and Mattathias the son of Johanan, who removed the oppressor from Israel, and who is the glory of the kingdom of Israel, will strengthen himself on his base on Mt. Modin, for he will be a prince and a mighty man, he and all his descendants after him, viz. the Hasmoneans.  
in a few days it will be broken: In a few days, their kingdom will be broken.  
but not with anger: of another nation.  
and not with war: but from themselves and with themselves, that Hyrcanus and Aristobulus will be jealous over the throne.  
21And a contemptible person will stand on his base, and they did not place the glory of the kingdom upon him, and he will come in peace and seize the kingdom with flattery.   כאוְעָמַ֚ד עַל־כַּנּוֹ֙ נִבְזֶ֔ה וְלֹא־נָֽתְנ֥וּ עָלָ֖יו ה֣וֹד מַלְכ֑וּת וּבָ֣א בְשַׁלְוָ֔ה וְהֶֽחֱזִ֥יק מַלְכ֖וּת בַּֽחֲלַקְלַקּֽוֹת:
And a contemptible person will stand on his base: Then the kingdom of Rome will strengthen itself on its stand, as it says (Obad. 1:2): “you are very despised,” and the Romans will rise and take the kingdom from the Greeks.  
22And the arms of inundation will be inundated from before him and be broken, and also the king with whom they made a covenant.   כבוּזְרֹע֥וֹת הַשֶּׁ֛טֶף יִשָּֽׁטְפ֥וּ מִלְּפָנָ֖יו וְיִשָּׁבֵ֑רוּ וְגַ֖ם נְגִ֥יד בְּרִֽית:
And the arms of inundation: And the mighty of the kingdom, who previously were inundating and powerful, will be inundated before the Romans and be broken.  
and also the king with whom they made a covenant: Also the king of Israel, who will form a treaty with them, will ultimately be inundated from before him, for [the Romans] will violate the treaty and betray them, as our Sages of blessed memory said: “Twenty-six years they kept their trust with Israel, but later they subjugated them.”  
23And from the alliance with him he will work deceitfully, and he will go up and overpower with few people.   כגוּמִן־הִתְחַבְּר֥וּת אֵלָ֖יו יַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה מִרְמָ֑ה וְעָלָ֥ה וְעָצַ֖ם בִּמְעַט־גּֽוֹי:
And from the alliance with him he will work deceitfully: And from the alliance that Rome will make with Israel, he will work deceitfully, for he will not reveal his evil plan.  
and he will go up: from his place.  
and overpower: in all places around the land of Judea: in Edom, in Ammon, and in Moab.  
with few people: He will not require a massive army, for the king of Judea will aid him, and so it is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 23).  
24With peace and in the fat places of the country he will come, and he will do what his fathers and his fathers' fathers did not do; plunder and spoils and belongings he will distribute to them, and about the fortresses he will devise his plans until the time.   כדבְּשַׁלְוָ֞ה וּבְמִשְׁמַנֵּ֣י מְדִינָה֘ יָבוֹא֒ וְעָשָׂ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־עָשׂ֚וּ אֲבֹתָיו֙ וַֽאֲב֣וֹת אֲבֹתָ֔יו בִּזָּ֧ה וְשָׁלָ֛ל וּרְכ֖וּשׁ לָהֶ֣ם יִבְז֑וֹר וְעַ֧ל מִבְצָרִ֛ים יְחַשֵּׁ֥ב מַחְשְׁבֹתָ֖יו וְעַד־עֵֽת:
plunder and spoils and belongings he will distribute to them: He will distribute to those who accept their yoke upon themselves until they conquer all with flattery and smooth speech.  
will distribute: Heb. יִבְזוֹר, like יִפְזוֹר. and so (Ps. 68:31): “he scatters (בִּזַר) peoples.”  
and about the fortresses: of the nations he will devise in his plans-to station [in them] the heads of his troops until the time that all will be conquered under them.  
25And he will arouse his strength and his heart upon the king of the south with a great army, and the king of the south will stir up war with a great and exceedingly strong army, and he will not stand because they will devise plans against him.   כהוְיָעֵר֩ כֹּח֨וֹ וּלְבָב֜וֹ עַל־מֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב֘ בְּחַ֣יִל גָּדוֹל֒ וּמֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּ֗גֶב יִתְגָּרֶה֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה בְּחַֽיִל־גָּד֥וֹל וְעָצ֖וּם עַד־מְאֹ֑ד וְלֹ֣א יַֽעֲמֹ֔ד כִּֽי־יַחְשְׁב֥וּ עָלָ֖יו מַֽחֲשָׁבֽוֹת:
and he will not stand: the king of the south.  
because they will devise plans against him: They will plot against him to fell him through the bribery that they will bribe his officers to betray him, as he concludes: “and those who eat his food will break him.”  
26And those who eat his food will break him, and his army will inundate, and many will fall.   כווְאֹֽכְלֵ֧י פַת־בָּג֛וֹ יִשְׁבְּר֖וּהוּ וְחֵיל֣וֹ יִשְׁט֑וֹף וְנָֽפְל֖וּ חֲלָלִ֥ים רַבִּֽים:
his food: Heb. פַּתבָּגוֹ, his food; one who takes a portion from his table.  
27As for the two kings-their hearts are to do evil, and on one table they will speak lies, but it will not succeed, for there is still an end to the appointed time.   כזוּשְׁנֵיהֶ֚ם הַמְּלָכִים֙ לְבָבָ֣ם לְמֵרָ֔ע וְעַל־שֻׁלְחָ֥ן אֶחָ֖ד כָּזָ֣ב יְדַבֵּ֑רוּ וְלֹ֣א תִצְלָ֔ח כִּי־ע֥וֹד קֵ֖ץ לַמּוֹעֵֽד:
As for the two kings: the officer of the Romans and the king with whom they made to covenant, which is mentioned above. That is Hyrcanus, who will form an alliance to aid him so that he, too, will aid him against Aristobulus his brother, ruling in Jerusalem.  
their hearts are to do evil: to the people of your nation, to harm Judea.  
and on one table: They will murmur lies about the kingdom of Aristobulus.  
but it will not succeed: for Israel will not be surrendered to destruction in those days.  
for there is still an end to the appointed time: of the destruction, at the end of sixty two weeks [of years], stated in this Book (9:25), and that appointed time is in the days of Agrippa, the son of Agrippa of the seed of Herod.  
28And he will return to his land with great possessions, and his heart is on the covenant with the holy ones, and he will succeed and return to his land.   כחוְיָשֹׁ֚ב אַרְצוֹ֙ בִּרְכ֣וּשׁ גָּד֔וֹל וּלְבָב֖וֹ עַל־בְּרִ֣ית קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְעָשָׂ֖ה וְשָׁ֥ב לְאַרְצֽוֹ:
And he will return: The Roman king [will return] to his land from [fighting] with the king of the south with many possessions.  
and his heart is on the covenant with the holy ones: to abrogate his treaty with Israel.  
and he will succeed: Heb. וְעָשָׂה, lit. and he will do, i.e., and he will succeed and return to his land.  
29After a time he will return and come into the south, but it will not be like the first nor like the last time.   כטלַמּוֹעֵ֥ד יָשׁ֖וּב וּבָ֣א בַנֶּ֑גֶב וְלֹֽא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה כָרִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה וְכָאַֽחֲרוֹנָֽה:
After a time: Heb. לַמּוֹעֵד, after a time, but this coming will not be as successful as the first one mentioned above (verse 7): “A scion of her roots will arise etc.,” in which the king of the north succe eded over the king of the south, or like the last, meaning this second time, about which we said: “and he will return to his land” with many possessions.  
30And companies will come upon him from the Kittites, and he will be crushed, and he will return and be wroth with the holy covenant, and he will succeed, and he will return and contemplate those who abandoned the holy covenant.   לוּבָ֨אוּ ב֜וֹ צִיִּ֚ים כִּתִּים֙ וְנִכְאָ֔ה וְשָׁ֛ב וְזָעַ֥ם עַל־בְּרִֽית־ק֖וֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂ֑ה וְשָׁ֣ב וְיָבֵ֔ן עַל־עֹֽזְבֵ֖י בְּרִ֥ית קֹֽדֶשׁ:
will come upon him: to battle with him.  
companies: Heb. צִיִים.  
Kittites: Romans, troops from the kingdom of Rome who will rebel against him.  
and he will be crushed: He will be slightly broken.  
and he will return and be wroth with the holy covenant: And he will return to his land and abrogate the treaty he had made with Israel.  
and he will return and contemplate those who abandoned the holy covenant: He will put his mind to it and contemplate that Israel has abandoned the holy covenant (and law), and unwarranted hatred and controversy will increase in the Second Temple [era], as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 45), and they will shed innocent blood, and he will rely on this and know that he will succeed, and he will abrogate his treaty with them and provoke them.  
31And arms from him will stand, and they will profane the Sanctuary, the stronghold, and they will remove the daily sacrifice, and place a silent abomination.   לאוּזְרֹעִ֖ים מִמֶּ֣נּוּ יַֽעֲמֹ֑דוּ וְחִלְּל֞וּ הַמִּקְדָּ֚שׁ הַמָּעוֹז֙ וְהֵסִ֣ירוּ הַתָּמִ֔יד וְנָֽתְנ֖וּ הַשִּׁקּ֥וּץ מְשֹׁמֵֽם:
And arms from him will stand: He will send his officers and his mighty men to Jerusalem.  
and they will profane: the stronghold of the Temple.  
32And those who deal wickedly against the covenant he will flatter with smooth speech, but the people that knows its God will adhere and perform.   לבוּמַרְשִׁיעֵ֣י בְרִ֔ית יַֽחֲנִ֖יף בַּֽחֲלַקּ֑וֹת וְעַ֛ם יֹֽדְעֵ֥י אֱלֹהָ֖יו יַֽחֲזִ֥קוּ וְעָשֽׂוּ:
And those who deal wickedly against the covenant: The renegades of Israel, who will join him and deal wickedly against their covenant with their fellows, he will flatter with smooth speech.  
but the people that knows its God: but the devout of Israel, who will adhere to the fear of their God will grasp it and not abandon it.  
and perform: their Torah.  
33And the wise of the people will allow the public to understand, and they will stumble by the sword and with flames, with captivity, and with plunder for days.   לגוּמַשְׂכִּ֣ילֵי עָ֔ם יָבִ֖ינוּ לָֽרַבִּ֑ים וְנִכְשְׁל֞וּ בְּחֶ֧רֶב וּבְלֶֽהָבָ֛ה בִּשְׁבִ֥י וּבְבִזָּ֖ה יָמִֽים:
And the wise of the people: the wise among them, such as the household of Rabbi [Judah Hanasi] and the sages of the generations.  
will allow the public to understand: They will preach the Torah to the common people and encourage them to adhere to it.  
will stumble: in their exile by the sword and by flames, etc.  
34And when they stumble, they will be helped with a little help, but many will join them because of smooth speech.   לדוּבְהִכָּ֣שְׁלָ֔ם יֵעָֽזְר֖וּ עֵ֣זֶר מְעָ֑ט וְנִלְו֧וּ עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם רַבִּ֖ים בַּֽחֲלַקְלַקּֽוֹת:
they will be helped with a little help: Through bribes and the money that they will pay tribute to their enemies, they will be helped.  
35And some of the wise will stumble to clarify some of them and to select and to cleanse until the time of the end, for there is yet until the time appointed.   להוּמִן־הַמַּשְׂכִּילִ֣ים יִכָּֽשְׁל֗וּ לִצְר֥וֹף בָּהֶ֛ם וּלְבָרֵ֥ר וְלַלְבֵּ֖ן עַד־עֵ֣ת קֵ֑ץ כִּי־ע֖וֹד לַמּוֹעֵֽד:
will stumble to clarify some of them: They will stumble in the calculations of the end, for they will put their mind to refine them and to resolve them to know them, but they will err concerning them.  
36And the king will do as he wishes, and he will exalt himself and magnify himself over every powerful one, and about the God of the mighty he will speak wondrous things, and he will succeed until the fury is spent, when it will be finished and executed.   לווְעָשָׂ֨ה כִרְצֹנ֜וֹ הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְיִתְרוֹמֵ֚ם וְיִתְגַּדֵּל֙ עַל־כָּל־אֵ֔ל וְעַל֙ אֵ֣ל אֵלִ֔ים יְדַבֵּ֖ר נִפְלָא֑וֹת וְהִצְלִ֙יחַ֙ עַד־כָּ֣לָה זַ֔עַם כִּֽי־נֶֽחֱרָצָ֖ה נֶֽעֱשָֽׂתָה:
And the king will do as he wishes: the kingdom of Rome.  
and he will succeed until the fury is spent: until the wrath of the Holy One, blessed be He, returns from Israel.  
when it will be finished and executed: when His decree will be finished. כִּי is like כַּאֲשֶׁר, when.  
37And he will not contemplate the gods of his fathers, and the most desirable of women and any god he will not contemplate, for he will magnify himself over all.   לזוְעַל־אֱלֹהֵ֚י אֲבֹתָיו֙ לֹ֣א יָבִ֔ין וְעַל־חֶמְדַּ֥ת נָשִׁ֛ים וְעַל־כָּל־אֱל֖וֹהַּ לֹ֣א יָבִ֑ין כִּ֥י עַל־כֹּ֖ל יִתְגַּדָּֽל:
And he will not contemplate the gods of his fathers: he will not put his mind to the Holy One, blessed be He, Who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, his [i. e., Israel’s] forefathers.  
the most desirable of women: the nation of Israel, [called] fairest of women.  
38But the god of the strongholds on its base he will honor, and the god that his ancestors did not know he will honor with gold and with silver and with precious stones and with desirable things.   לחוְלֶֽאֱלֹ֙הַּ֙ מָֽעֻזִּ֔ים עַל־כַּנּ֖וֹ יְכַבֵּ֑ד וְלֶֽאֱל֜וֹהַּ אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יְדָעֻ֣הוּ אֲבֹתָ֗יו יְכַבֵּ֛ד בְּזָהָ֧ב וּבְכֶ֛סֶף וּבְאֶ֥בֶן יְקָרָ֖ה וּבַֽחֲמֻדּֽוֹת:
But the god of the strongholds: the god of the cherubim who will make a treaty with him.  
on its base he will honor: for he will flatter the nations to be subservient to him.  
39And he will construct for the fortresses of the strongholds with a foreign god; whomever he will recognize, he will honor increasingly, and he will give them dominion over multitudes, and he will apportion land for a price.   לטוְעָשָׂ֞ה לְמִבְצְרֵ֚י מָֽעֻזִּים֙ עִם־אֱל֣וֹהַּ נֵכָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַכִּ֖יר (כתיב הַכִּ֖יר) יַרְבֶּ֣ה כָב֑וֹד וְהִמְשִׁילָם֙ בָּֽרַבִּ֔ים וַֽאֲדָמָ֖ה יְחַלֵּ֥ק בִּמְחִֽיר:
And he will construct: buildings.  
for the fortresses of the strongholds with a foreign god: i.e., in honor of a foreign god.  
whomever he will recognize, he will honor increasingly: He will increase the honor [and greatness] of those princes whom he will see fit to recognize their faces and to flatter.  
and he will apportion: to them.  
for a price: for little money.  
40And at the time of the end, the king of the south will clash with him, and the king of the north will storm over him with chariots, with horsemen, and with many ships, and he will come into the lands and inundate and pass.   מוּבְעֵ֣ת קֵ֗ץ יִתְנַגַּ֚ח עִמּוֹ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הַנֶּ֔גֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵ֨ר עָלָ֜יו מֶ֣לֶךְ הַצָּפ֗וֹן בְּרֶ֙כֶב֙ וּבְפָ֣רָשִׁ֔ים וּבָֽאֳנִיּ֖וֹת רַבּ֑וֹת וּבָ֥א בַֽאֲרָצ֖וֹת וְשָׁטַ֥ף וְעָבָֽר:
And at the time of the end: when our redemption draws near.  
and the king of the north will storm over him: over the king of the south.  
41And he will come into the land of beauty, and many will stumble, and these will escape from his hand: Edom, Moab, and the choice of the children of Ammon.   מאוּבָא֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ הַצְּבִ֔י וְרַבּ֖וֹת יִכָּשֵׁ֑לוּ וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ יִמָּֽלְט֣וּ מִיָּד֔וֹ אֱד֣וֹם וּמוֹאָ֔ב וְרֵאשִׁ֖ית בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן:
42And he will stretch forth his hand upon lands, and the land of Egypt will not survive.   מבוְיִשְׁלַ֥ח יָד֖וֹ בַּֽאֲרָצ֑וֹת וְאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶ֖ה לִפְלֵיטָֽה:
43And he will rule over the treasures of the gold and silver and over all the precious things of Egypt, and the Lybians and the Cushites will be at his steps.   מגוּמָשַׁ֗ל בְּמִכְמַנֵּי֙ הַזָּהָ֣ב וְהַכֶּ֔סֶף וּבְכֹ֖ל חֲמֻד֣וֹת מִצְרָ֑יִם וְלֻבִּ֥ים וְכֻשִׁ֖ים בְּמִצְעָדָֽיו:
44And tidings will terrify him from the east and from the north, and he will go forth in great wrath to destroy and to exterminate many.   מדוּשְׁמֻע֣וֹת יְבַֽהֲלֻ֔הוּ מִמִּזְרָ֖ח וּמִצָּפ֑וֹן וְיָצָא֙ בְּחֵמָ֣א גְדֹלָ֔ה לְהַשְׁמִ֥יד וּלְהַֽחֲרִ֖ים רַבִּֽים:
45And he will pitch his palatial tents between the seas and the beautiful holy mountain, and he will come to his end, and no one will help him.   מהוְיִטַּע֙ אָֽהֳלֵ֣י אַפַּדְנ֔וֹ בֵּ֥ין יַמִּ֖ים לְהַר־צְבִי־קֹ֑דֶשׁ וּבָא֙ עַד־קִצּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֥ין עוֹזֵ֖ר לֽוֹ: