1

How many shofar blasts is a person required to hear on Rosh Hashanah? Nine.

[This figure is derived as follows]: The Torah mentions the word תרועה [sounding the shofar] three times in association with Rosh Hashanah and the Yovel. Every תרועה must be preceded and followed by a [single] long blast. According to the oral tradition, we learned that - whether on Rosh Hashanah or on Yom Kippur of the Yovel - all the soundings of the shofar of the seventh month are a single entity.

Thus, nine shofar blasts must be sounded on both of them: teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah; teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah; teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah.

א

כמה תקיעות חייב אדם לשמוע בראש השנה. תשע תקיעות. לפי שנאמר תרועה ביובל ובראש השנה שלש פעמים וכל תרועה פשוטה לפניה ופשוטה לאחריה. ומפי השמועה למדו שכל תרועות של חדש השביעי אחד הן. בין בראש השנה בין ביום הכפורים של יובל תשע תקיעות תוקעין בכל אחד משניהן. תקיעה ותרועה ותקיעה, תקיעה ותרועה ותקיעה, תקיעה ותרועה ותקיעה:

How many shofar blasts is a person required to hear on Rosh Hashanah - according to Torah law?

Nine. - However, as explained throughout the chapter, the Sages have required us to hear many more.

[This figure is derived - See Rosh Hashanah 33b.

as follows]: The Torah mentions the word תרועה [sounding the shofar] three times - Teru'ah is also mentioned in relation to sounding the trumpets (Numbers, Chapter 10), but that is not relevant in this immediate context.

in association with Rosh Hashanah - twice: Leviticus 23:24 and Numbers 29:1.

and the Yovel. - once: Leviticus 25:9.

Every תרועה must be preceded and followed by a [single] long blast. - Leviticus 25:9 states: והעברת שופר, and Numbers 29:1 states: תעבירו שופר. In both cases, the verb means "cause to pass." From that expression, Rosh Hashanah, ibid., derives that a long note should be sounded before the תרועה.

Based on the above, the text Galia Masechta (Orach Chayim 3) explains that the essential element of the mitzvah is the teru'ah, since that is the sound specifically required by the Torah. The teki'ot are required only as a supplementary factor.

According to the oral tradition, we learned that - whether on Rosh Hashanah or on Yom Kippur of the Yovel - Rosh Hashanah, ibid. notes that the verses which describe the sounding of the shofar on both occasions share a common word. Hence, an analogy (שוה גזירה) is established between them. Therefore...

all the soundings of the shofar of the seventh month, are a single entity. - Thus, on each occasion, the same three series of blasts must be sounded.

Thus, nine shofar blasts must be sounded on both of them: teki'ah - The single, long blast preceding the teru'ah

teru'ah - a blast which is interrupted into shorter sounds, as described in Halachot 2-4.

teki'ah - The single, long blast following the teru'ah

teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah; teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah. - two other identical series of blasts.

2

Over the passage of the years and throughout the many exiles, doubt has been raised concerning the teru'ah which the Torah mentions, to the extent that we do not know what it is:

Does it resemble the wailing with which the women cry when they moan, or the sighs which a person who is distressed about a major matter will release repeatedly? Perhaps a combination of the two - sighing and the crying which will follow it - is called teru'ah, because a distressed person will sigh and then cry? Therefore, we fulfill all [these possibilities].

ב

תרועה זו האמורה בתורה נסתפק לנו בה ספק לפי אורך השנים ורוב הגלות ואין אנו יודעין היאך היא. אם היא היללה שמייללין הנשים ביניהן בעת שמייבבין. או האנחה כדרך שיאנח האדם פעם אחר פעם כשידאג לבו מדבר גדול. או שניהם כאחד האנחה והיללה שדרכה לבא אחריה הן הנקראין תרועה. שכך דרך הדואג מתאנח תחלה ואחר כך מילל. לכך אנו עושין הכל:

Over the passage of the years and throughout the many exiles, doubt has been raised concerning the teru'ah which the Torah mentions, to the extent that we do not know what it is. - Rosh Hashanah 34a explains that our custom of blowing the shofar was instituted by Rabbi Abahu in Caesaria approximately one hundred years after the destruction of the second Temple. In this halachah, the Rambam explains the reason for Rabbi Abahu's action.

The Rambam's statements are accepted by Rabbenu Asher, Rabbenu Nissim, and most other authorities. Nevertheless, it is significant that Rav Hai Gaon, one of the major authorities who preceded the Rambam, offers a different explanation for Rabbi Abahu's actions.

Rav Hai Gaon maintains that it is impossible that a doubt existed among the Jewish people concerning such an important manner as sounding the shofar. Since the shofar was sounded each year, surely the tradition could have been maintained. Hence, he explains that all the different manners of sounding the shofar were acceptable and that Rabbi Abahu's contribution was the establishment of a uniform custom that included all the different practices common among the Jewish people. By mentioning the "many years" and "exiles," the Rambam addresses himself to the question raised by Rav Hai Gaon.

Does it resemble the wailing with which the women cry - thus, it would be short, staccato sounds like sobs

when they moan - The word teru'ah is translated into Aramaic as yevavah (moan), as in Judges 5:28: "Sisra's mother gazed out the window and moaned through the lattice."

or - does a teru'ah resemble...

the sighs - i.e., longer sounds

which a person who is distressed about a major matter will release repeatedly? - Since before a person cries, he sighs (Rosh Hashanah 33b).

Perhaps a combination of the two - sighing and the crying which will follow it - is called teru'ah, because a distressed person will sigh and then cry. Therefore, we fulfill all [these possibilities]. - as explained in detail in the following halachah.

The commentaries have emphasized the homiletic aspects of these halachot. On Rosh Hashanah, a Jew must concentrate on the coronation of God as King of the world. He may feel internal distress when he meditates on how his daily behavior does not reflect the proper relation between a subject and his king. Ultimately, this may motivate him to sigh and even to cry.

3

The crying refers to what we call teru'ah. The repeated sighs refer to what we call three shevarim.

Thus, the order of blowing the shofar is as follows: First, one recites the blessing and sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, three shevarim; and afterwards, a teru'ah; and afterwards, a teki'ah. He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series.

[Then,] he sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, three shevarim; and afterwards, a teki'ah. He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series.

[Then,] he sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, a teru'ah; and afterwards, a teki'ah. He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series.

Thus, there are a total of thirty shofar blasts, in order to remove any doubt.

ג

היללה היא שאנו קוראין תרועה. והאנחה זו אחר זו היא שאנו קוראין אותה שלשה שברים. נמצא סדר התקיעות כך הוא. מברך ותוקע תקיעה ואחריה שלשה שברים ואחריה תרועה ואחריה תקיעה. וחוזר כסדר זה שלש פעמים. ותוקע תקיעה ואחריה שלשה שברים ואחריה תקיעה וחוזר כסדר זה שלש פעמים. ותוקע תקיעה ואחריה תרועה ואחריה תקיעה וחוזר כסדר הזה שלש פעמים. נמצא מנין התקיעות שלשים כדי להסתלק מן הספק:

The crying - mentioned in the previous halachah

refers to what we call teru'ah. - short, staccato sounds like sobs. Since a teru'ah is considered to be a single blast, the entire series of sounds must be completed without the person who blows pausing to catch his breath.

The repeated sighs - mentioned in the previous halachah

refer to what we call three - The Maggid Mishneh writes that one may add to the number of shevarim as long as one does not take a breath between them. However, the Magen Avraham (590:2) writes that it is Ashkenazic custom not to sound more than three shevarim.

shevarim. - Like sighs, these sounds are neither short like teru'ot, nor prolonged like teki'ot, but rather of intermediate length, as described in the following halachah.

Thus, the order of blowing the shofar - to fulfill the mitzvah as commanded by the Torah.

is as follows: First, one recites the blessing - as explained in Halachah 10.

and sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, three shevarim; and afterwards, a teru'ah; and afterwards, a teki'ah. - in accordance with the opinion that maintains that a teru'ah resembles both sighing and crying.

He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series. - in order to have heard the three series of blasts required by Halachah 1.

Although the pattern of shofar blowing described by the Rambam has become universally accepted among the Jewish people, it is unclear when this practice was first instituted. One of the fundamental texts of the period directly following the conclusion of the Talmud, the Sh'eltot of Rav Achai Gaon (note 171), mentions a different practice.

Three series of blasts from each pattern are not blown directly after each other. Rather, after sounding three series of teki'ah, shevarim, teru'ah, teki'ah, three series of teki'ah, shevarim, teki'ah, and then three series of teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah is sounded.

[Then,] he sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, three shevarim; and afterwards, a teki'ah. - in accordance with the opinion that maintains that a teru'ah resembles sighing. It must be noted that from the passage on Rosh HaShanah 34a it seems that Rabbi Abahu instituted the series of three teru'ot before the series of three shevarim.

He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series. - to fulfill the obligation explained in Halachah 1.

[Then,] he sounds a teki'ah; afterwards, a teru'ah; and afterwards, a teki'ah. - in accordance with the opinion that maintains that a teru'ah resembles crying.

He repeats this pattern [until he completes] three series. - as explained above.

Thus, there are a total of thirty shofar blasts, - 18 teki'ot, six shevarim, and six teru'ot.

From the Rambam's expression, it appears that he considers the shevarim and teru'ah sounded in the first series as two separate blasts. From this, the Maggid Mishneh derives a halachic insight, maintaining that according to the Rambam, one may take a breath between the two. (The Mayim Chayim supports this conclusion, noting that, regarding this series, the Rambam states that one should blow "three shevarim, and afterwards, a teru'ah.") Nevertheless, the Ramban and other authorities do not permit this leniency.

Regarding halachah l'ma'aseh, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 590:4) suggests adhering to the more stringent view regarding the teki'ot required by Torah law. However, the Ramah maintains that this is unnecessary. Both the Shulchan Aruch HaRav 590:9, 10 and the Mishnah Berurah 590:20 suggest adhering to whichever practice is customarily followed in one's local community. However, if there is no accepted custom, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav suggests accepting the more stringent practice.

in order to remove any doubt - as mentioned in the previous halachah.

Though all three sounds would be included in the series of teki'ah, shevarim, teru'ah, teki'ah, it would be insufficient for such a series alone to be sounded. According to the opinions that maintain that a teru'ah is either sobbing or crying alone, there would be another sound interrupting between either the teki'ah which precedes or that which follows the teru'ah (Rosh Hashanah 34a).

4

The required length of a teru'ah is that of two teki'ot. The required length of the three shevarim is that of a teru'ah.

When a person sounds a teki'ah and a teru'ah, and afterwards sounds a long teki'ah, extending it twice the length of the original one, we do not say that it may be considered to be two teki'ot - thus allowing one [to complete the series merely by] sounding a teru'ah and another teki'ah. Rather, even if one extended a teki'ah the entire day, it is considered to be only a single teki'ah and one must sound another teki'ah, teru'ah, and teki'ah [until he completes] three series.

ד

שיעור תרועה כשתי תקיעות. שיעור שלשה שברים כתרועה. הרי שתקע והריע ותקע תקיעה ארוכה ומשך בה כשתים בראשונה. אין אומרין תחשב כשתי תקיעות ויריע אחריה ויחזור ויתקע. אלא אפילו משך בה כל היום אינה אלא תקיעה אחת וחוזר ותוקע ומריע ותוקע שלש פעמים:

The required length of a teru'ah is that of two teki'ot. - These statements are the source of much controversy among the Rabbis. The Mishnah (Rosh Hashanah 33b) states: "The required length of the teki'ah is three teru'ot; a teru'ah is three sobs."

The Talmud questions:

Behold, the baraita has taught: "the required length of a teki'ah is that of a teru'ah!"

Abbaye replied: "The author of the Mishnah considered the length of all the teki'ot in comparison to the length of all the teru'ot. The author of the baraita considered the length of each blast. There is no difference of opinion between them."

In his commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam interprets the above to mean: "The required length of all six teki'ot is equivalent to the required length of all three teru'ot," thus establishing each teru'ah as twice the length of a teki'ah. Hence, according to the Rambam, the length of the teki'ot are dependent on the length of the teru'ot.

Rabbenu Nissim objects to the Rambam's interpretation, explaining that the word והעברת, the verb mentioned in the commandment to blow the shofar, implies a long blast, and hence the measure mentioned by the Rambam would not be appropriate.

Similarly, the Ra'avad does not accept the Rambam's interpretation, and explains that the Mishnah establishes an independent measure for the length of a teki'ah - three teru'ot - with each teru'ah being equal to three short sobs. Thus, the measure of a teki'ah is equivalent to nine short sounds. The Ramban and the Rashba also subscribe to this view.

Rashi and most Ashkenazic authorities accept the simple meaning of the Mishnah and explain that a teki'ah is equal to the length of a teru'ah. However, as explained in the previous halachot, there are three different interpretations of the definition of a teru'ah. Thus, the required length for the teki'ah varies accordingly.

Regarding halachah l'ma'aseh, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 590:3) mentions the views of Rashi and the Ra'avad, but not that of the Rambam.

The required length of the three shevarim is that of a teru'ah. - i.e., the length of the three shevarim should resemble a series of teru'ot.

When a person sounds a teki'ah and a teru'ah, and afterwards sounds a long teki'ah, extending it twice the length of the original one - with the intention that it be considered to be the final blast of the first series and the initial blast of the following series

we do not say that it may be considered to be two teki'ot - although it is of sufficient length

thus allowing one [to complete the series merely by] sounding a teru'ah and another teki'ah. - This represents a rephrasing of the Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah 4:9 and Rosh Hashanah 28a.

Rather, even if one extended a teki'ah the entire day, it is considered to be only a single teki'ah - This decision runs contrary to the statements of the Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh Hashanah 3:3), which does not accept a teki'ah blown with such an intention at all.

and one must sound another teki'ah, teru'ah, and teki'ah [until he completes] three series. - This law is quoted as halachah by the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 590:6). However, the Ashkenazic authorities maintain that deference should be paid to the opinion mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud.

5

If a person hears one shofar blast at one hour and a second one an hour later - even if he waits the entire day - the two may be considered to be a single unit and he may fulfill his obligation.

The above applies provided each series is heard in the proper order; i.e., one may not hear a teru'ah and afterwards two teki'ot, or two teki'ot, and afterwards a teru'ah, and the like.

ה

שמע תקיעה אחת בשעה אחת ושניה בשעה שניה אפילו שהה כל היום כולו הרי אלו מצטרפין ויצא ידי חובתו. והוא שישמע כל בבא מהן על סדרה. לא שישמע תרועה ואחריה שתי תקיעות או שתי תקיעות ואחריהן תרועה וכיוצא בזה:

If a person hears one shofar blast at one hour and a second one an hour later - even if he waits the entire day - Rosh Hashanah 34a-b quotes Rabbi Yochanan: "If a person heard the nine shofar blasts even over a span of nine hours, he fulfills his obligation."

the two may be considered to be a single unit - It is undesirable to delay the shofar blasts or to interrupt between them by talking or performing any other activity. Nevertheless, if an interruption was made between blasts, as long as one concentrates one's attention on each shofar blast, they are considered to be a single halachic unit.

and he may fulfill his obligation. - The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 588:2) quotes this law. However, the Magen Avraham (588:2) compares this situation to the laws of Kri'at Shema (see Ramah, Orach Chayim 65:1) and explains that if one is prevented from hearing the shofar by forces beyond one's control, it is considered to be an interruption and one must begin the last series of blasts anew.

The above applies provided each series is heard in the proper order - a teki'ah, the series ofshevarim, teru'ot or the combination of the two, and then a teki'ah, as stated in Halachah 1.

i.e., one may not hear a teru'ah and afterwards two teki'ot, or two teki'ot and afterwards a teru'ah, and the like. - The Maggid Mishneh explains that with this phrase, the Rambam implies that even though a delay does not constitute an interruption, any shofar blast which is not in the proper order invalidates the entire series. Most other authorities (see Shulchan Aruch HaRav 590:12) explain that this applies only if one sounds the shofar with an improper blast, intending to fulfill one's obligation. Otherwise, no significance at all is attached to the shofar blast and it is not considered an interruption.

6

If a person heard nine shofar blasts from nine men simultaneously, he has not fulfilled his obligation for a single blast. [If he heard] a teki'ah from one, a teru'ah from another, and another teki'ah from a third, in sequence, he has fulfilled his obligation.

The above applies even if one heard [the shofar blasts] with interruptions, even if [the blowing was extended] over the entire day. A person does not fulfill his obligation until he hears all nine shofar blasts, for they are all [only] one mitzvah. Thus, they are dependent one on the other.

ו

שמע תשע תקיעות מתשעה בני אדם כאחד לא יצא אפילו ידי אחת. תקיעה מזה ותרועה מזה ותקיעה משלישי בזה אחר זה יצא ואפילו בסירוגין ואפילו כל היום כולו. ואינו יוצא ידי חובתו עד שישמע כל התשע תקיעות שכולן מצוה אחת הן לפיכך מעכבות זו את זו:

If a person heard nine shofar blasts from nine men simultaneously - At the same time, six blew teki'ot and three, teru'ot, so that the person could have heard the required number of shofar blasts

he has not fulfilled his obligation for a single blast. - Rabbenu Manoach gives two reasons for this decision:

a) because of the cacophony of sounds, the listener is unable to properly distinguish any one;

b) As stated in the previous halachah, one must hear the shofar blasts in the proper order, a teki'ah preceding and following a teru'ah; that requirement is not fulfilled in this instance.

Rashi, in his commentary on Rosh Hashanah 34b, disagrees with the Rambam's decision, explaining that Rosh Hashanah 27a states that even though two people blow the shofar simultaneously, since the mitzvah is dear to the hearer, he will concentrate sufficiently to differentiate between the sounds. Furthermore, the Tosefta 2:12 states specifically that one does fulfill one's obligation in this manner.

Tosafot disagrees with Rashi, mentioning the second reason stated by Rabbenu Manoach. It appears that the Rambam goes further and discounts Rashi's opinion entirely. According to Tosafot, the listener will have heard at least the first teki'ah, while the Rambam explicitly states "he has not fulfilled his obligation for a single blast." (See Lechem Mishneh.)

The Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 588:3 quotes the Rambam's decision as halachah. The Ramah quotes the law from Rosh Hashanah 27a, allowing a person to fulfill his obligation even though he heard two people blowing the shofar at the same time, provided he heard the blasts in the proper order.

[If he heard] a teki'ah from one, a teru'ah from another, and another teki'ah from a third, in sequence, he has fulfilled his obligation. - The fact that different people sounded the shofar does not prevent the fulfillment of the mitzvah.

The above applies even if one heard [the shofar blasts] with interruptions, even if [the blowing was extended] over the entire day. - There is a certain redundancy with this statement, because the same principle was mentioned in the previous halachah. Nonetheless, the Rambam included it to emphasize that the passage of time is not considered an interruption even when the shofar is being blown by different people (Rabbenu Manoach).

A person does not fulfill his obligation until he hears all nine shofar blasts, for they are all [only] one mitzvah. - as explained in Halachah 1.

Thus, they are dependent one on the other. - Based on this principle, a person who does not know how to blow either the shevarim or the teru'ot should not sound the teki'ot, for he will accomplish nothing by doing so (Tosafot, Rosh Hashanah 33b). Nevertheless, if a person knows how to sound both teki'ot and shevarim, he should sound three series of such blasts even if he does not know how to sound a teru'ah. Since it is possible that the mitzvah may be fulfilled by these series (as explained in Halachot 2 and 3), at the very least they should be sounded (Rabbenu Nissim, Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 593:2).

7

The congregation is obligated to hear the shofar blasts together with the order of blessings.

How is this expressed? The chazan recites Avot, Gevurot, the sanctification of God's name, Malchuyot [ - at this point,] the shofar is sounded three times; Zichronot - the shofar is sounded three times; Shofarot - the shofar is sounded three times - [and concludes the Amidah with] the Avodah, an acknowledgement [of God's wonders], and the priestly blessing.

ז

הצבור חייבין לשמוע התקיעות על סדר הברכות: כיצד אומר שליח צבור אבות וגבורות וקדושת השם ומלכיות ותוקע שלש. ואומר זכרונות ותוקע שלש. ואומר שופרות ותוקע שלש. ואומר עבודה והודייה וברכת כהנים:

The congregation - but not an individual (Rosh Hashanah 34b)

is obligated to hear the shofar blasts - i.e., the nine blasts mentioned in Halachah 1

together with the order of blessings. - Rosh Hashanah 16b explains that the Sages instituted the blowing of the shofar in the midst of the prayer service in order to confuse Satan, lest he lodge accusations against the Jews in the midst of their prayers. The Sages explain (ibid., 32b) that it would have been appropriate to institute the shofar blowing in the morning service. However, the Romans desired to stamp out the performance of the mitzvot and sent guards to make sure that the mitzvah was not fulfilled. After midday, the guards left, and then, in the musaf service, the shofar would be sounded.

Originally, the Sages' decree involved determining the place of the service when the mitzvah required by the Torah would be fulfilled and this halachah must be interpreted in that context. However, as explained in Halachot 11 and 12, it became universally accepted Jewish custom to blow the shofar before the musaf prayers to fulfill the Torah's commandment, and thus "confuse the Satan" even before the beginning of our prayers, and then to sound the shofar again in the midst of those prayers to fulfill the Rabbinic decree. See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 592:7.

How is this expressed? The chazan recites Avot - literally, "patriarchs"; the first blessing of the Amidah, which praises God as "the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob."

Gevurot - literally, "mighty acts"; the second blessing of the Amidah, which begins: "You are mighty," and recounts different expressions of God's power.

the sanctification of God's name - The third blessing of the Amidah, which includes the Kedushah prayer.

Malchuyot - Three additional blessings are recited in the musaf service of Rosh Hashanah: Malchuyot (acceptance of God's sovereignty), Zichronot (acknowledgement of God's remembrance of the Jewish people), and Shofarot (describing the significance of the sounding of the shofar).

Rosh Hashanah 16a states:

The Holy One, blessed be He, declares: "On Rosh Hashanah, recite before me Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot.

Malchuyot - so that you will crown Me as King over you.

Zichronot - so that I will remember you for good.

By what means? Through the shofar."

These blessings are described in the following halachot.

The prayers mentioning the sacred nature of the holiday and the sacrifices which were offered in the Temple are also included in the Malchuyot blessing.

[at this point,] the shofar is sounded three times - i.e., one series of teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah required by the Torah. Though this point is disputed in the Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah 32a relates that this opinion (quoted in the name of Rabbi Akiva) was the accepted practice in Yavneh.

Zichronot - the shofar is sounded three times - the second series of teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah required by the Torah.

Shofarot - the shofar is sounded three times - the final series of teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah required by the Torah.

[and concludes the the Amidah with] the Avodah - literally, "the service," i.e., the blessing R'tzey, which asks God to accept our prayers and restore the Temple service.

an acknowledgement [of God's wonders,] - the blessing Modim.

8

These three intermediate blessings recited on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur of the Yovel - Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot - are each dependent on each other.

In each of these blessings, one is required to recite ten verses reflecting the content of the blessing - three verses from the Torah, three from the Book of Psalms, and three from [the words of] the prophets. One concludes with a verse from the Torah. Should a person conclude with a verse from the prophets, he fulfills his obligation.

Should a person recite only one verse from the Torah, one from the sacred writings, and one from the prophets, he fulfills his obligation. Even if he states: "In Your Torah, God, our Lord, it is written..." and recites one verse from the Torah and concludes, nothing further is necessary.

ח

שלש ברכות אמצעיות אלו של ראש השנה ויום הכפורים של יובל שהן מלכיות וזכרונות ושופרות מעכבות זו את זו וצריך לומר בכל ברכה מהן עשרה פסוקים מעין הברכה. שלשה פסוקים מן התורה. ושלשה מספר תהלים. ושלשה מן הנביאים. ואחד מן התורה משלים בו. ואם השלים בנביא יצא. ואם אמר פסוק אחד מן התורה ואחד מן הכתובים ואחד מן הנביאים יצא. ואפילו אמר ובתורתך ה' אלהינו כתוב לאמר ואמר פסוק של תורה והפסיק שוב אינו צריך כלום:

These three intermediate blessings recited on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur of the Yovel - The Mishnah (Rosh Hashanah 26b) states: "Rosh Hashanah and the Yovel are identical regarding the sounding of the shofar and the blessings."

Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot - The blessings must also be recited in this order (Magen Avraham 593:4).

are each dependent on each other. - i.e., a person who cannot recite all three blessings should not recite any. Generally, a person who does not know all the blessings of the Amidah should recite those that he knows. However, on the musaf service of Rosh Hashanah, a person should begin the Amidah only if he knows the entire service (Magen Avraham 593:2). (See also the Bi'ur Halachah.)

In each of these blessings, one is required to recite ten verses - Rosh Hashanah 32a explains that the number ten alludes to the ten expressions of praise used by King David in Psalm 150; or, alternatively, to the ten statements of creation; or, alternatively, to the ten commandments. The Jerusalem Talmud (Rosh Hashanah 4:7) explains that the ten verses of Malchuyot refer to David's ten expressions of praise; the ten Zichronot, to the ten calls to repentance proclaimed by Isaiah; and the ten Shofarot to the ten sacrificial animals offered in the Temple on Rosh Hashanah.

One may recite additional verses if one desires (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 591:4). Indeed, the text of the blessings generally recited for Malchuyot and Shofarot includes eleven quotes.

reflecting the content of the blessing - as explained in the commentary on the previous halachah

three blessings from the Torah - Since the Torah is on a higher level of holiness, its verses are mentioned first.

three from the Book of Psalms, and three from [the words of] the prophets. - The commentaries question why the Book of Psalms is given prominence over the words of the prophets, when generally the prophets' statements are considered on a higher level of holiness. Among the resolutions offered to this difficulty is that chronologically, the Psalms were written before the prophecies quoted (Tosafot, Rosh Hashanah 32a).

Examples of the verses recited are mentioned in the following halachah and commentary.

One concludes with a verse from the Torah. - because of the dearness of the Torah. Rosh Hashanah 32b explains that this was the custom of the experienced Sages of Jerusalem.

Should a person conclude with a verse from the prophets, he fulfills his obligation. - However, one should preferably conclude with a verse from the Torah. This is our present practice.

From the statements of the Rambam and the relevant passages from the Mishnah and Talmud, it would appear that originally there was no standard text containing universally accepted verses for these blessings. Rather, certain verses were commonly accepted and would be recited by almost all those who prayed. Others were left to the preference of each individual.

(One must remember that machzorim were uncommon in this period, and most of the prayers were recited by heart. Thus, the verses chosen by an individual might often have been those which he had been able to commit to memory.)

Should a person recite only one verse from the Torah, one from the sacred writings, and one from the prophets - Thus mentioning three verses in each blessing, one from each division of the T'nach

he fulfills his obligation. - after the fact. However, at the outset it is desirable to recite all ten verses.

Even if he states: "In Your Torah, God, our Lord, it is written..." and recites one verse from the Torah and concludes, nothing further is necessary. - The commentaries have questioned the Rambam's statements, which appear self-contradictory. In the previous clause, he stated that one must recite three verses - one from the Torah, one from the prophets, and one from the writings - to fulfill one's obligation, while this clause implies that the recitation of one is sufficient.

The source for the difficulty is the following quotes: The Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah 32a, states:

One should not recite fewer than ten verses for Malchuyot, ten for Zichronot, and ten for Shofarot. Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri says: "If one recites three - three of each - one fulfills his obligation."

Rosh Hashanah 35a quotes Rav Chanan'el as saying in the name of Rav:

Even if he states: "In Your Torah, it is written..." [and recites one verse], nothing further is necessary.

From the Talmud, it appears that both these statements are accepted as halachah. The Maggid Mishneh explains that the Rambam interprets Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri's requirement of three verses as the total for all three blessings. Thus, for each blessing, one must state "In Your Torah, it is written..." and recite a single appropriate verse. [This surely differs from the Rambam's statements in his commentary on the Mishnah.]

The Ramban, Rabbenu Nissim, and others explain that Rav Chanan'el agrees with Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri and thus, in addition to "In Your Torah, it is written...," he also requires one to say: "In Your holy writings, it is recorded...," and: "by your prophets, it was proclaimed...," mentioning an appropriate verse in each instance. (This opinion is quoted by Shulchan Aruch HaRav 586:8 and the Mishnah Berurah 591:11.)

Alternatively, one may explain the Rambam's position as follows: Ideally, one should recite ten verses for each blessing; after the fact, three are sufficient, as stated by Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri. When does this apply? Once one has recited at least one verse from the Torah. However, if one has not recited any verses, it is sufficient to say "In Your Torah, it is written..." and recite a single verse from the Torah, as Rav Chanan'el said in the name of Rav.

The flexibility regarding the number of quotes in each blessing was only granted in the previous generations. Since at present we have adopted a standard set of blessings, a person should not delete verses at will (Magen Avraham 591:6; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 591:8).

9

One should not recite [verses for] Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot which describe [Divine] retribution; for example, for Zichronot, [Psalms 78:39]: "And He remembered that they were mere flesh..."; for Malchuyot, [Ezekiel 20:33]: "With outpoured anger, I will reign over you..."; for Shofarot, [Hoshea 5:8]: "Blow the shofar in Givah..."

Similarly, Zichronot which are merely associated with an individual [should not be mentioned] even if they are of a positive nature - for example, [Psalms 106:4]: "Remember me, O God, amidst the favor of Your people," [Nehemiah 5:19]: "Remember me, my God, for good."

Verses using the verb פקד - for example, [Exodus 3:16]: "I have surely taken note..." - may not be included as Zichronot. One may mention verses that refer to retribution to be visited upon the gentile nations - for example, [Psalms 99:1]: "God is King, the nations will tremble..."; [Psalms 137:7]: "Remember, O God, against the Edomites, the day of Jerusalem"; or [Zechariah 9:14]: "God, the Lord, will sound the shofar and proceed in a southerly storm-wind."

All the following verses: [Deuteronomy 6:4]: "Hear Israel, God is our Lord, God is one"; [Deuteronomy 4:35]: "To you, it has been revealed that you may know..."; and [Deuteronomy 4:39]: "And you shall know today and draw it close to your heart..." express the concept of God's sovereignty. Even though [these verses] do not explicitly mention His kingship, they are equivalent to [Exodus 16:18]: "God will rule forever and ever"; and [Deuteronomy 33:5]: "When He became King in Jeshurun."

ט

אין מזכירין זכרונות מלכיות ושופרות של פורענות. זכרונות כגון ויזכור כי בשר המה וכו'. מלכיות כגון בחמה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם. שופרות כגון תקעו שופר בגבעה וכו'. ולא זכרון יחיד אפילו לטובה כגון זכרני ה' ברצון עמך, זכרה לי אלהי לטובה. ופקדונות אינן כזכרונות. כגון פקד פקדתי אתכם. ויש לו להזכיר פורענות של אומות עכו"ם כגון ה' מלך ירגזו עמים. זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים. וה' אלהים בשופר יתקע והלך בסערות תימן. שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד. אתה הראת לדעת וכו' וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך וכו' כל פסוק מאלו מלכות הוא ענינו אף על פי שאין בו זכר מלכות והרי הוא כמו ה' ימלוך לעולם ועד ויהי בישורון מלך וכו':

One should not recite [verses for] Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot which describe [Divine] retribution - Since Rosh Hashanah is a day of judgement, we are careful not to mention any factors that might lead to negative repercussions. For this reason, no confessional prayers are recited on Rosh Hashanah, and extreme care is taken regarding all aspects of our prayers and speech. (See Maharsha, Rosh Hashanah 32b.)

for example, for Zichronot, [Psalms 78:39]: "And He remembered that they were mere flesh..." - It is uncertain why the Rambam mentions a verse for Zichronot before one of Malchuyot.

for Malchuyot, [Ezekiel 20:33]: "With outpoured anger, I will reign over you..." - Rosh Hashanah 32a mentions that this prophecy concludes with the redemption of our people; since it is associated with anger and wrath, it is not fit to be mentioned on Rosh Hashanah.

for Shofarot, [Hoshea 5:8]: "Blow the shofar in Givah..."

Similarly, Zichronot which are merely associated with an individual [should not be mentioned] even if they are of a positive nature - for example, [Psalms 106:4]: "Remember me, O God, amidst the favor of Your people"; [Nehemiah 5:19]: "Remember me, my God, for good." - Even though on Rosh Hashanah each man is judged individually, and his own personal future is determined (see Rosh Hashanah 16b; Hilchot Teshuvah 3:3), it is desirable to look beyond these individual matters and concentrate our prayers on the welfare of the Jewish people as a whole.

Verses using the verb פקד - for example, [Exodus 3:16]: "I have surely taken note... - Rosh Hashanah 32a also mentions another verse - Genesis 21:1: "and God granted providence to Sarah" - as an example of this principle. The Talmud objects to this verse because it is of an individual nature. Though it continues to resolve that difficulty, explaining that God's granting providence to Sarah effected the future of the entire Jewish people, the Rambam nevertheless avoided the problem by choosing the verse which is clearly of general import.

may not be included as Zichronot. - The meaning of פקד is often "remember." Indeed, the Targum of the cited verse in Genesis is דכיר, the Aramaic for "remembered." Furthermore, the Talmud mentions that Rabbi Yosse allowed verses using the verb פקד, and although Rabbi Yehudah objected, in differences of opinion between the two, Rabbi Yosse's position is generally favored. Nevertheless, since there are many verses that use the verb זכר, there is no difficulty in establishing a practice that will be accepted by all opinions (Beit Yosef 591).

One may mention verses that refer to retribution to be visited upon the gentile nations - for example, [Psalms 99:1]: "God is King, the nations will tremble..."; [Psalms 137:7]: "Remember, O God, against the Edomites, the day of Jerusalem"; [Zechariah 9:14]: "God, the Lord, will sound the shofar and proceed in a southerly storm-wind." - Despite this decision, only the latter verse is included in the text of the blessings we recite on Rosh Hashanah.

All the following verses: [Deuteronomy 6:4]: "Hear Israel, God is our God, God is one"; [Deuteronomy 4:35]: "To you, it has been revealed that you may know..."; and [Deuteronomy 4:39]: "And you shall know today and draw it close to your heart..." express the concept of God's sovereignty. - These verses all express the oneness of God and creation; thus they emphasize how "He is unique and one, with none that compare to Him. His Kingship permeating all dominion." (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 591:11).

Even though [these verses] do not explicitly mention His kingship, they are equivalent to [Exodus 16:18]: "God will rule forever and ever"; and [Deuteronomy 33:5]: "When He became King in Jeshurun." - Shemot Rabbah 48:4 states that this verse refers to Moses. Though the Rambam accepts the principle that Moses served the people as a king (see Hilchot Beit HaBechirah 6:11), he does not necessarily view this verse as the source for that concept.

The verses which have been accepted in the standard text for these blessings are as follows:

MALCHUYOT

Torah

And you shall know today and draw it close to your heart that God is the Lord in the heavens above and the earth below. There is nothing else (Deuteronomy 4:39).

God will rule forever and ever (Exodus 15:18).

He does not look at iniquity in Jacob or see wrongdoing in Israel; God, his Lord, is with him and the desire of the King is in him (Numbers 23:21).

And there was a King in Jeshurun and the heads of the people assembled, together with all the tribes of Israel (Deuteronomy 33:5).

Psalms

For sovereignty is God's and He rules over the nations (22:29).

God is King. He has clothed Himself with grandeur; the Lord has girded Himself with strength. He has established the world firmly so that it will not falter (93:1).

Lift up your heads, O gates; be upraised, eternal doors, so the glorious King may enter. Who is the glorious King? God, strong and mighty, God, mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, O gates; be upraised, eternal doors, so the glorious King may enter. Who is the glorious King? The God of hosts. He is the glorious King for eternity (24:7-10).

Prophets

Thus said God, King and Redeemer of Israel, the God of hosts, "I am the first and I am the last. Aside from Me, there is no God" (Isaiah 44:6).

Deliverers will ascend Mount Zion to judge the mountain of Esau and the kingship will be God's (Ovadiah 1:21).

God will be King over the entire earth. On that day, God will be One, and His name, One (Zechariah 14:9).

Concluding Verse

Hear Israel, God is our Lord, God is One (Deuteronomy 6:4).

ZICHRONOT

Torah

And God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the livestock that were with him in the ark. And God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters were calmed (Genesis 8:1).

God heard their outcry. And God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob (Exodus 2:24).

I will remember My covenant with Jacob, also my covenant with Isaac, and also My covenant with Abraham, and I will remember the land (Leviticus 26:42).

Psalms

He has made a remembrance of His wonders, gracious and merciful is God (111:4).

He provides sustenance to those who fear Him. He will remember His covenant forever (111:5).

For them, He remembered His covenant and He relented in accordance with His abundant kindness (106:45).

Prophets

Go and call out in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: "Thus said God, 'For you, I remember the devotion of your youth, the love of your bridal days, as you went after Me in the desert, in an uncultivated land' (Jeremiah 2:2).

I will remember My covenant with you [made] in the days of your youth, and I will fulfill it for you as an everlasting covenant (Ezekiel 16:60).

"Is Ephraim not My beloved son? Is he not a precious child? For whenever I speak of him, I recall him even more. The inner parts of my being stir for him. I will surely have compassion on him," says God (Jeremiah 31:19).

Concluding Verse

For them, I will remember the covenant with their ancestors, whom I took out from the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations to be their Lord. I am God (Leviticus 26:45).

SHOFAROT

Torah

And it was on the third day, at dawn. There was thunder and lightning and a heavy cloud on the mountain. The sound of the shofar was very strong and all the people in the camp trembled (Exodus 19:16).

And the sound of the shofar proceeded, becoming stronger. Moses spoke and God answered Him out loud (Exodus 19:19).

And all the people saw the voices and the flames, the sound of the shofar and the mountain smoking. The people saw and recoiled and stood off from afar (Exodus 20:15).

Psalms

The Lord ascends through teru'ah, God through the sound of the shofar (47:6).

Sound off with trumpets and the call of the shofar before the King, God (98:6).

Blow the shofar on the new moon, on the appointed time of our sacred day. For it is a statute for Israel; an ordinance of the Lord od Israel (81:4-5)

Praise God. Praise the Almighty in His holiness. Praise Him in the firmament of His strength. Praise Him for His mighty acts. Praise Him according to His abundant greatness. Praise Him with the call of the shofar. Praise Him with harp and lyre. Praise Him with timbrel and dance. Praise Him with stringed instruments and flute. Praise Him with loud cymbals. Praise Him with resounding cymbals. Let every being with a soul praise God. Halleluyah (150).

Prophets

All those who inhabit the world, who dwell on earth: When the banner is raised on the mountain, you will see. When the shofar is sounded, you will hear (Isaiah 18:3).

And it shall be on that day, that a great shofar will be sounded, and those who were lost in the land of Asshur and those who were banished in the land of Egypt shall come and bow down to God on the holy mountain in Jerusalem (Isaiah 27:13).

And God will appear over them and His arrow shall go forth like lightning. God, the Lord, will sound the shofar and proceed in a southerly storm-wind (Zechariah 9:14-15).

Concluding Verse

And on the days of your rejoicing; on your holidays, and on your Rosh Chodesh days, you shall sound the trumpets over your burnt-offerings and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings, and they shall be a remembrance for you before your Lord. I am God, your Lord (Numbers 10:10).

10

The following is the commonly accepted custom for blowing the shofar on Rosh Hashanah in the communal services:

After the Torah is read and returned to its place, the congregation is seated. One person stands and recites the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, Lord of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to hear the sounding of the shofar.

The entire congregation responds "Amen." He then recites the blessing shehecheyanu, and the entire congregation responds "Amen" to him. Thirty shofar blasts are sounded in the proper order.

Kaddish is recited. The congregation stands and recites the musaf service. After the chazan completes the fourth blessing - i.e., Malchuyot - a teki'ah, three shevarim, a [series of] teru'ot, and a teki'ah are sounded once.

He then recites the fifth blessing - i.e., Zichronot. After he completes the blessing, a teki'ah, three shevarim, and a teki'ah are sounded. He then recites the sixth blessing - i.e., Shofarot. After he completes the blessing, a teki'ah, a [series of] teru'ot, and a teki'ah are sounded once, and he concludes the prayers.

י

המנהג הפשוט בסדר התקיעות של ראש השנה בצבור כך הוא. אחר שקוראין בתורה ומחזירין הספר למקומו יושבין כל העם ואחד עומד ומברך ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לשמוע קול שופר וכל העם עונין אמן. וחוזר ומברך שהחיינו וכל העם עונין אחריו אמן. ותוקע שלשים תקיעות שאמרנו מפני הספק על הסדר. ואומרים קדיש ועומדין ומתפללין תפלת מוסף. ואחר שגומר שליח צבור ברכה רביעית שהיא מלכיות תוקע תקיעה שלשה שברים תרועה תקיעה פעם אחת. ומברך ברכה חמישית שהוא זכרונות. ואחר שגומרה תוקע תקיעה שלשה שברים ותקיעה. ומברך ברכה ששית שהיא שופרות. ואחר שגומרה תוקע תקיעה תרועה ותקיעה פעם אחת וגומר התפלה:

The following is the commonly accepted custom for blowing the shofar on Rosh Hashanah - As mentioned in Halachah 7 and the commentary, the Sages had originally ordained that a person hear the shofar blasts required by the Torah in the midst of the musaf service. However, as evident from Rosh Hashanah 16a-b, even in Talmudic times the custom mentioned by the Rambam was already the general practice.

in the communal services: - The laws pertaining to an individual are mentioned at the conclusion of Halachah 12.

After the Torah is read - Hilchot Tefillah 13:10 states:

The common custom is to read on the first day: "And God showed providence to Sarah..., and on the second day: "And God presented a trial to Abraham..."

As stated in that halachah, the haftarah is recited after the Torah reading is concluded.

and returned to its place - Though at present, Ashkenazic custom is to blow the shofar in the presence of the Torah scrolls, the Rambam's son, Rav Avraham, supports his father's decision in the Ma'aseh Rokeach, explaining that it is not proper to make any interruptions between the shofar blowings which precede musaf and those within the prayer service.

the congregation is seated. - This practice is mentioned in Rosh Hashanah 16a and the Sh'eltot of Rav Achai Gaon. However, today it is Ashkenazic custom to stand when hearing these shofar blasts. Nevertheless, based on this original practice, these are still referred to as teki'ot meiyoshav - "the teki'ot sounded while seated."

One person stands - Rabbenu Manoach questions the need for the person blowing the shofar to stand. He offers two possible explanations:

a) as a mark of deference to the community;

b) in respect for the blessing recited, as implied by Nehemiah 8:4.

The Hagahot Maimoniot quotes the Jerusalem Talmud (the location of the source in the Jerusalem Talmud is a matter of question) as drawing an analogy (גזרה שוה) between the blowing of the shofar and the counting of the Omer. Hence, just as the Omer must be counted while standing, the shofar should be sounded in a similar position.

and recites the blessing - as required before the fulfillment of any positive commandment (Hilchot Berachot 11:1,2,8).

Blessed are You, God, Lord of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to hear the sounding of the shofar. - As mentioned in Chapter 1, Halachah 1, the fundamental aspect of the mitzvah is hearing, not blowing, the shofar. Nevertheless, the Sh'eltot suggests concluding the blessing "to blow the shofar" and the Sefer Mitzvot HaGadol advises the text "concerning the blowing of the shofar."

The entire congregation responds "Amen." He then recites the blessing shehecheyanu - as is necessary before the fulfillment of any mitzvah performed infrequently (Hilchot Berachot 11:9).

and the entire congregation responds "Amen" to him. Thirty shofar blasts are sounded in the proper order. - as explained in Halachah 3.

Kaddish is recited. - "The chazan always recites Kaddish before and after every prayer service (Rambam, Seder Tefillot kol Shanah)."

The congregation stands - and remain standing during the repetition of the the Amidah as well. Therefore, the shofar blasts sounded during these prayers are referred to as teki'ot m'umad (the shofar blasts sounded while standing).

and recites the musaf service. - in a hushed tone.

The Tur relates that there were varying customs regarding the recitation of the musaf service in a hushed tone. In certain communities, it had been customary for the congregation to recite the musaf prayers as on other festivals without reciting Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot. Only the chazan would recite the latter. However, even in the Tur's time, the prevailing custom was that even the congregation recited these three blessings.

The Sh'lah records the custom of sounding the shofar for Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot while the congregation recites the Amidah. However, this custom is not accepted in all communities.

After the chazan completes the fourth blessing - i.e., Malchuyot - a teki'ah, three shevarim, a [series of] teru'ot, and a teki'ah are sounded once. - The rationale for this practice and the different customs associated with these shofar blasts are discussed in Halachah 12 and its commentary.

In the text of prayers with which the Rambam concludes Sefer Ha'ahavah, he also mentions the recitation of the prayer Hayom Harat Olam.

He then recites the fifth blessing - i.e., Zichronot. After he completes the blessing, a teki'ah, three shevarim, and a teki'ah are sounded. He then recites the sixth blessing - i.e., Shofarot. After he completes the blessing, a teki'ah, a [series of] teru'ot, and a teki'ah are sounded once, and he concludes the prayers.

11

The person who sounds the shofar while they are sitting also sounds the shofar according to the order of blessings while they stand. He should not speak between the shofar blasts while the congregation is seated and those sounded while they stand. If he did talk between them, even though it is a transgression, he does not repeat the blessing.

יא

זה שתוקע כשהן יושבין הוא שתוקע על סדר הברכות כשהן עומדים. ואינו מדבר בין תקיעות שמיושב לתקיעות שמעומד. ואם סח ביניהן אף על פי שעבר אינו חוזר ומברך:

The person who sounds the shofar while they are sitting - the thirty shofar blasts mentioned in Halachah 3.

also sounds the shofar according to the order of blessings - i.e., Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot

while they stand. - Rav Hai Gaon also mentions this practice. The Kolbo explains that it is appropriate, since "when a person begins a mitzvah, we tell him to complete it" (Jerusalem Talmud, Rosh Hashanah 1:8). Nevertheless, the Magen Avraham 592:7 writes that in many communities, it has become customary to divide the honor of shofar blowing between two individuals.

He - i.e., the person blowing the shofar. Rabbi Yitzchak Alfasi and Rabbenu Asher write that not only he, but the entire congregation should refrain from speaking. The Maggid Mishneh does not accept this view, yet it is quoted by the Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 592:3.

should not speak - Permission is granted to speak about matters required for the prayers or for blowing the shofar (Ramah).

between the shofar blasts while the congregation is seated and those sounded while they stand - for since they are both part of one mitzvah, it is improper to interrupt between them.

If he did talk between them, even though it is a transgression, he does not repeat the blessing. - Since, essentially, the mitzvah is fulfilled by hearing the teki'ot before musaf, and the others are sounded only "to confuse Satan" (Rabbenu Manoach).

12

It is logical that each series of shofar blasts should be sounded three times for every blessing, as [the shofar] was sounded while [the congregation] was seated. However, since they satisfied every possible doubt [by hearing] the shofar while seated, there is no need for the congregation to repeat them in their entirety during the order of blessings. Rather, it is sufficient for them to hear one series for each blessing, and they will thus have heard the shofar during the order of blessings.

All of the above applies only to a congregation. However, there is no [set] custom regarding an individual. He fulfills his obligation whether or not he hears [the shofar blasts] during the order of blessings, whether seated or standing.

יב

בדין היה שיתקעו על כל ברכה כל בבא מהן שלש פעמים כדרך שתקעו כשהן יושבין אלא כיון שיצאו מידי ספק בתקיעות שמיושב אין מטריחין על הצבור לחזור בהן כולן על סדר ברכות. אלא די להן בבא אחת על כל ברכה כדי שישמעו תקיעות על סדר ברכות. וכל הדברים האלו בצבור אבל היחיד בין ששמע על סדר ברכות בין שלא שמע על הסדר בין מעומד בין מיושב יצא ואין בזה מנהג:

It is logical that each series of shofar blasts should be sounded three times for every blessing - Because of the doubt mentioned in Halachah 3, it would be proper for us to blow three series of blasts - i.e., teki'ah, shevarim, teru'ah, teki'ah; teki'ah, shevarim, teki'ah; and teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah - at the conclusion of each blessing.

as [the shofar] was sounded while [the congregation] was seated. - the shofar blasts sounded before musaf.

However, since they - the congregation

satisfied every possible doubt - regarding the proper manner of blowing the shofar, as explained in Halachah 3.

[by hearing] the shofar while seated, there is no need for the congregation to repeat them - these shofar blasts

in their entirety during the order of blessings. Rather, it is sufficient for them to hear one series for each blessing - as explained in Halachah 10

and thus, they will have heard the shofar during the order of blessings - and fulfilled the requirement of the Sages mentioned in Halachah 7.

In practice, a number of different customs are followed regarding this matter. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 592:1) suggests following the pattern described by the Rambam, but sounding each series three times, rather than once. The Ramah writes that Ashkenazic custom is to sound one series - teki'ah, shevarim, teru'ah, teki'ah - after each blessing. However, the Sh'lah suggests blowing three series of blasts - i.e., teki'ah, shevarim, teru'ah, teki'ah; teki'ah, shevarim, teki'ah; and teki'ah, teru'ah, teki'ah - at the conclusion of each blessing.

All of the above applies only to a congregation - as specifically stated in Halachot 7 and 10.

However, there is no [set] custom regarding an individual. He fulfills his obligation whether or not he hears [the shofar blasts] during the order of blessings - Some authorities object to the permission granted by the Rambam for an individual to interrupt his recitation of the the Amidah in order to hear the sounding of the shofar. However, the Rambam's opinion is based on his interpretation of Rosh Hashanah 34b. (See Ma'aseh Rokeach.)

whether seated or standing.

13

The blessings are not dependent on the teki'ot, nor are the teki'ot dependent on the blessings.

When there are two cities - in one it is known that there will definitely be someone to recite the nine blessings, but there is no one to blow the shofar - in the other, a doubt exists whether or not there will be someone to blow the shofar, one should go the latter, since the sounding of the shofar is a requirement of the Torah, while the blessings are of Rabbinic origin.

יג

התקיעות אינן מעכבות את הברכות והברכות אינן מעכבות את התקיעות. שתי עיירות באחת יודע בודאי שיש שם מי שיברך להן תשע ברכות ואין שם תוקע. ובשנייה ספק יש שם תוקע ספק אין שם תוקע הולך לשנייה. שהתקיעה מדברי תורה והברכות מדברי סופרים

The blessings - Malchuyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot.

are not dependent on the teki'ot - Therefore, if it is impossible for a person to hear the shofar blown, he should still attempt to recite or hear the blessings.

nor are the teki'ot dependent on the blessings. - Thus, if it is impossible for a person to hear the blessings, he should still attempt to hear the shofar being blown.

When there are two cities - in one it is known that there will definitely be someone to recite the nine blessings - recited in the musaf service on Rosh Hashanah

but there is no one to blow the shofar - in the other, a doubt exists whether or not there will be someone to blow the shofar, one should go the latter, since the sounding of the shofar is a requirement of the Torah - as mentioned in Chapter 1, Halachah 1

while the blessings - as is the prayer service in its entirety

are of Rabbinic origin. - i.e., surely if one could be sure of fulfilling the Torah commandment, one should do so at the expense of the fulfillment of the Rabbinic commandment. However, even if, as in the case described, there is a doubt whether one can fulfill the Torah commandment, one should take that risk, rather than forego the opportunity entirely, even if doing so will cause one to negate the fulfillment of the Rabbinic commandment.