Chapter 78

1A maskil of Asaph. Hearken, my people, to my instruction, extend your ear to the words of my mouth.   אמַשְׂכִּ֗יל לְאָ֫סָ֥ף הַֽאֲזִ֣ינָה עַ֖מִּי תּֽוֹרָתִ֑י הַטּ֥וּ אָ֜זְנְכֶ֗ם לְאִמְרֵי־פִֽי:
2I shall open my mouth with a parable; I shall express riddles from time immemorial.   באֶפְתְּחָ֣ה בְמָשָׁ֣ל פִּ֑י אַבִּ֥יעָה חִ֜יד֗וֹת מִנִּי־קֶֽדֶם:
… my mouth with a parable: They are the words of Torah.   במשל פי: הם דברי תורה:
3That we heard and we knew them, and our forefathers told us.   גאֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁ֖מַעְנוּ וַנֵּֽדָעֵ֑ם וַֽ֜אֲבוֹתֵ֗ינוּ סִפְּרוּ־לָֽנוּ:
4We shall not hide from their sons; to the last generation they will recite the praises of the Lord, and His might and His wonders, which He performed.   דלֹ֚א נְכַחֵ֨ד | מִבְּנֵיהֶ֗ם לְד֥וֹר אַֽחֲר֗וֹן מְ֖סַפְּרִים תְּהִלּ֣וֹת יְהֹוָ֑ה וֶֽעֱזוּז֥וֹ וְ֜נִפְלְאֹתָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָֽׂה:
We shall not hide from their sons: We, too, shall not hide [these words] from our fathers’ sons by not letting them know what they told us.   לא נכחד מבניהם: וגם אנו לא נכחד מבניהם של אבותינו מלהודיעם מה שספרו לנו:
5And He established testimony in Jacob, and He set down a Torah in Israel, which He commanded our forefathers to make them known to their sons.   הוַיָּ֚קֶם עֵד֨וּת | בְּיַֽעֲקֹ֗ב וְתוֹרָה֘ שָׂ֪ם בְּיִשְׂרָ֫אֵ֥ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵ֑ינוּ לְ֜הוֹדִיעָ֗ם לִבְנֵיהֶֽם:
6In order that the last generation might know, sons who will be born should tell their sons.   ולְמַ֚עַן יֵֽדְע֨וּ | דּ֣וֹר אַֽ֖חֲרוֹן בָּנִ֣ים יִוָּלֵ֑דוּ יָ֜קֻ֗מוּ וִֽיסַפְּר֥וּ לִבְנֵיהֶֽם:
7And they should put their hope in God, and not forget the deeds of God, and keep His commandments.   זוְיָשִׂ֥ימוּ בֵֽאלֹהִ֗ים כִּ֫סְלָ֥ם וְלֹ֣א יִ֖שְׁכְּחוּ מַֽעַלְלֵי־אֵ֑ל וּמִצְו‍ֹתָ֥יו יִנְצֹֽרוּ:
their hope: Heb. כסלם, their hope, and so (Job 31:24): “If I made gold my hope (כסלי).”   כסלם: תוחלתם וכן אם שמתי זהב כסלי (איוב ל״א:כ״ד):
8And they should not be as their forefathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation, who did not prepare its heart and whose spirit was not faithful to God.   חוְלֹ֚א יִֽהְי֨וּ | כַּֽאֲבוֹתָ֗ם דּוֹר֘ סוֹרֵ֪ר וּמֹ֫רֶ֥ה דּ֖וֹר לֹֽא־הֵכִ֣ין לִבּ֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־נֶֽאֶמְנָ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣ל רוּחֽוֹ:
as their forefathers: who were in Egypt and in the desert.   כאבותם: שהיו במצרים ובמדבר:
9The sons of Ephraim, armed archers, retreated on the day of battle.   טבְּֽנֵי־אֶפְרַ֗יִם נֹֽשְׁקֵ֥י רֽוֹמֵי־קָ֑שֶׁת הָֽ֜פְכ֗וּ בְּי֣וֹם קְרָֽב:
The sons of Ephraim: who left Egypt forcefully before the end [of the exile] and trusted in their might and in their arrows. Ultimately, they retreated and fled on the day of battle, as is delineated (I Chron. 7:21): “and the men of Gath, who were born in the land, slew them.”   בני אפרים: שיצאו ממצרים בזרוע לפני הקץ ובטחו בגבורתם ובחציהם וסופם הפכו לנוס ביום קרב כמפורש בדברי הימים והרגום אנשי גת הנולדי' בארץ:
archers: Heb. רומי, who cast and shoot, as (Exod. 15:1): “cast (רמה) into the sea.”   רומי: משליכין וזורקין, כמו רמה בים (שמות טו):
10They did not keep the covenant of God, and they refused to follow His Torah.   ילֹ֣א שָֽׁ֖מְרוּ בְּרִ֣ית אֱלֹהִ֑ים וּ֜בְתֽוֹרָת֗וֹ מֵֽאֲנ֥וּ לָלֶֽכֶת:
11They forgot His deeds and His wonders, which He showed them.   יאוַיִּשְׁכְּח֥וּ עֲלִֽילוֹתָ֑יו וְ֜נִפְלְאוֹתָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶרְאָֽם:
12Before their forefathers He wrought wonders, in the land of Egypt, the field of Zoan.   יבנֶ֣גֶד אֲ֖בוֹתָם עָ֣שָׂה פֶ֑לֶא בְּאֶ֖רֶץ מִצְרַ֣יִם שְׂדֵה־צֹֽעַן:
Before their forefathers He wrought wonders: (Nevertheless, Shem Ephraim) Afterwards, when the end arrived, they too “continued to sin against Him,” as he further concludes. (Another explanation, Shem Ephraim)   נגד אבותם עשה פלא: אחרי כן כשהגיע הקץ אף הם ויוסיפו לחטוא לו כמו שמסיים והולך:
Before their forefathers: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob came beside the sea, and the Holy One, blessed be He, showed them how He was redeeming their children.   נגד אבותם: אברהם יצחק ויעקב באו על הים והראם הקב"ה היאך הוא גואל את בניהם:
13He split the sea and took them across, He made the water stand as a heap.   יגבָּ֣קַע יָ֖ם וַיַּֽעֲבִירֵ֑ם וַיַּצֶּב־מַ֥יִם כְּמוֹ־נֵֽד:
as a heap: Heb. נד, a tall heap, as Onkelos renders (Exod. 15:8): “the flowing water stood up like a נֵד,” stood up like a wall.   כמו נד: תל גבוה כדמתרגמינן נצבו כמו נד (שם) קמו כשור:
14He led them with a cloud by day, and all night with the light of fire.   ידוַיַּנְחֵ֣ם בֶּֽעָנָ֣ן יוֹמָ֑ם וְכָל־הַ֜לַּ֗יְלָה בְּא֣וֹר אֵֽשׁ:
15He split rocks in the desert and gave them to drink as [from] great deeps.   טויְבַקַּ֣ע צֻ֖רִים בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר וַ֜יַּ֗שְׁקְ כִּתְהֹמ֥וֹת רַבָּֽה:
He split rocks: (Exod. 17:6): “and you shall strike the rock.”   יבקע צורים: והכית בצור וגו' (שם יז):
and He gave them to drink as [from] great deeps: in the great deeps. Even as they went through the midst of the sea, whose waters are salty, He sweetened fountains for them in the midst of the sea.   וישק כתהומות רבה: אף כשהיו הולכים בתוך הים שמימיו מלוחים המתיק להם מעיינות בתוך התהום:
16He drew flowing water from a rock and brought down water like rivers.   טזוַיּוֹצִ֣א נֽוֹזְלִ֣ים מִסָּ֑לַע וַיּ֖וֹרֶד כַּנְּהָר֣וֹת מָֽיִם:
and brought down water like rivers: [Water] that was flowing from the well. The princes would make a line with their staffs and the water would be drawn after them to the encampment of each tribe, as the matter that is stated (Num. 21:18): “by the order of the lawgiver, with their staffs,” as is explained in tractate Makkoth.   ויורד כנהרות מים: שהיו נוזלין מן הבאר והנשיאים היו עושין שרטוט במשענותם והמים נמשכים אחריהם לכל חניית שבט ושבט כענין שנאמר במחוקק במשענותם כמו שמפורש בארבעים ותשע מדות:
17But they continued further to sin against Him, to provoke the Most High in the desert.   יזוַיּוֹסִ֣יפוּ ע֖וֹד לַֽחֲטֹא־ל֑וֹ לַמְר֥וֹת עֶ֜לְי֗וֹן בַּצִּיָּֽה:
to provoke: Heb. למרות, to provoke, as (Deut. 9:7): “you have been provoking (ממרים).”   למרות: להקניט כמו ממרי' הייתם (דברים ט):
18They tried God in their heart by requesting food for their craving.   יחוַיְנַסּוּ־אֵ֥ל בִּלְבָבָ֑ם לִשְׁאָל־אֹ֥כֶל לְנַפְשָֽׁם:
19And they spoke against God; they said, "Can God set a table in the desert?   יטוַֽיְדַבְּר֗וּ בֵּֽאלֹ֫הִ֥ים אָ֖מְרוּ הֲי֣וּכַל אֵ֑ל לַֽעֲרֹ֥ךְ שֻׁ֜לְחָ֗ן בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
20True, He struck a rock and water flowed, and streams flooded. Can He give meat too? Can He prepare flesh for His people?"   כהֵ֚ן הִכָּה־צוּ֗ר | וַיָּז֣וּבוּ מַיִם֘ וּנְחָלִ֪ים יִ֫שְׁטֹ֥פוּ הֲגַם־לֶ֖חֶם י֣וּכַל תֵּ֑ת אִם־יָכִ֥ין שְׁאֵ֣ר לְעַמּֽוֹ:
flesh: Heb. שְׁאֵר, flesh.   שאר: בשר:
21Therefore, God heard and was incensed; fire was kindled against Jacob, and also wrath ascended upon Israel.   כאלָכֵ֚ן | שָׁמַ֣ע יְהֹוָה֘ וַיִּתְעַבָּ֥ר וְאֵ֣שׁ נִשְּׂקָ֣ה בְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וְגַם־אַ֜֗ף עָלָ֥ה בְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
fire was kindled against Jacob: Heb. נשקה, as (Ezek. 39:9): “and make fires and heat up (והשיקו) ,” which is an expression of heating and burning. As it is written (Num. 11:1): “and God’s fire broke out against them.”   ואש נשקה ביעקב: כמו ובערו והשיקו (יחזקאל ל״ט:ט׳) שהוא ל' היסק ותבערה כדכתיב ותבער בם אש ה':
22Because they did not believe in God and did not trust in His salvation.   כבכִּ֚י לֹ֣א הֶֽ֖אֱמִינוּ בֵּֽאלֹהִ֑ים וְלֹ֥א בָֽ֜טְח֗וּ בִּישֽׁוּעָתֽוֹ:
23And He had commanded the skies from above, and He had opened the portals of heaven.   כגוַיְצַ֣ו שְׁחָקִ֣ים מִמָּ֑עַל וְדַלְתֵ֖י שָׁמַ֣יִם פָּתָֽח:
24He had rained upon them manna to eat, and He had given them corn of heaven.   כדוַיַּמְטֵ֬ר עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם מָ֣ן לֶֽאֱכֹ֑ל וּדְגַ֣ן שָׁ֜מַ֗יִם נָ֣תַן לָֽמוֹ:
25Men ate the bread of the mighty; He sent them provisions for satisfaction.   כהלֶ֣חֶם אַ֖בִּירִים אָ֣כַל אִ֑ישׁ צֵידָ֬ה שָׁלַ֖ח לָהֶ֣ם לָשֽׂבַע:
bread of the mighty: Bread of the angels. Another explanation: אַבִּירִים means אֵבָרִים, limbs, for it was absorbed into the limbs, and they did not have to excrete.   לחם אבירים: לחמם של מלאכים, ד"א אבירים איברים שהיה נבלע בכל האברים ולא היו צריכים לנקביהם:
26He caused the east wind to set forth in heaven, and He led the south wind with His might.   כויַסַּ֣ע קָ֖דִים בַּשָּׁמָ֑יִם וַיְנַהֵ֖ג בְּעֻזּ֣וֹ תֵימָֽן:
He caused the east wind to set forth: (Num. 11:31): “And a wind set forth from the Lord, and it made quails fly.”   יסע קדים: ורוח נסע מאת ה' ויגז שלוים (במדבר י״א:ל״א):
27He rained down flesh upon them like dust, and, like the sand of the seas, winged fowl.   כזוַיַּמְטֵ֬ר עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם כֶּֽעָפָ֣ר שְׁאֵ֑ר וּכְח֥וֹל יַ֜מִּ֗ים ע֣וֹף כָּנָֽף:
 
28And He let it fall in the midst of their camp, around their dwellings.   כחוַיַּפֵּל בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַֽחֲנֵ֑הוּ סָ֜בִ֗יב לְמִשְׁכְּנֹתָֽיו:
29They ate and were very satisfied, and He brought them their desire.   כטוַיֹּֽאכְל֣וּ וַיִּשְׂבְּע֣וּ מְאֹ֑ד וְ֜תַֽאֲוָתָ֗ם יָבִ֥א לָהֶֽם:
30They were not estranged from their desire; while their food was still in their mouth,   ללֹא־זָר֥וּ מִתַּֽאֲוָתָ֑ם ע֜֗וֹד אָכְלָ֥ם בְּפִיהֶֽם:
They were not estranged from their desire: They did not become estranged from their desire, for they achieved all their desire. Another explanation: לא זרוּ מתאותם They were not distanced from their desire until the retribution came upon them. “While their food was still in their mouth, the wrath of the Lord (sic), etc.”   לא זרו מתאותם: לא נעשו זרים מתאותם כי כל תאותם השיגו עוד אכלם בפיהם ואף ה' חרה בעם, דבר אחר לא זרו מתאותם לא נתרחקו מתאותם עד שבאת להם הפורענות:
31The wrath of God ascended upon them and slew [some] of their stoutest and caused the chosen of Israel to fall.   לאוְאַ֚ף אֱלֹהִ֨ים | עָ֘לָ֚ה בָהֶ֗ם וַֽ֖יַּֽהֲרֹג בְּמִשְׁמַנֵּיהֶ֑ם וּבַֽחוּרֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הִכְרִֽיעַ:
and… the chosen of Israel: The chosen of them and the men of the assembly, הָאסַפסוּף (Num. 11:4). They are the elders, as it is said (Num. 11:16): “Assemble (אספו) to Me, etc.”   ובחורי ישראל: נבחרים שבהם והאספסוף הם הזקנים שנאמר בהם אספה לי (שם):
32Despite all this, they sinned again and did not believe despite His wonders.   לבבְּכָל־זֹ֖את חָֽטְאוּ־ע֑וֹד וְלֹ֥א הֶֽ֜אֱמִ֗ינוּ בְּנִפְלְאוֹתָֽיו:
33And He ended their days in vanity and their years in terror.   לגוַיְכַל־בַּהֶ֥בֶל יְמֵיהֶ֑ם וּ֜שְׁנוֹתָ֗ם בַּבֶּֽהָלָֽה:
34When He slew them, they would seek Him, and they would repent and pray to God.   לדאִם־הֲרָגָ֥ם וּדְרָשׁ֑וּהוּ וְ֜שָׁ֗בוּ וְשִֽׁחֲרוּ־אֵֽל:
When He slew them, etc.: Yet all this was not in truth, but with guile in their mouth and by lying with their tongue.   אם הרגום ודרשוהו וגו': אף היא לא באמת אלא בפתוי בפה וכזבו בלשונם:
35And they remembered that God is their rock and the Most High God is their Redeemer.   להוַֽיִּזְכְּרוּ כִּֽי־אֱלֹהִ֣ים צוּרָ֑ם וְאֵ֥ל עֶ֜לְי֗וֹן גֹּֽאֲלָֽם:
36They beguiled Him with their mouth, and with their tongue they lied to Him.   לווַיְפַתּ֥וּהוּ בְּפִיהֶ֑ם וּ֜בִלְשׁוֹנָ֗ם יְכַזְּבוּ־לֽוֹ:
37Their heart was not sincere with Him; they were not faithful in His covenant.   לזוְלִבָּם לֹֽא־נָכ֣וֹן עִמּ֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א נֶֽ֜אֶמְנ֗וּ בִּבְרִיתֽוֹ:
Their heart: was not sincere as with their mouth.   ולבם: לא כפיהם נכון ואף עפ"כ והוא רחום להם ומכפר עונם תמיד ולא השחיתם:
38But He is merciful, He expiates iniquity and does not destroy; many times He takes back His wrath and does not arouse all His anger.   לחוְה֚וּא רַח֨וּם | יְכַפֵּ֥ר עָו‍ֹ֘ן וְלֹ֪א יַ֫שְׁחִ֥ית וְהִרְבָּ֣ה לְהָשִׁ֣יב אַפּ֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יָ֜עִיר כָּל־חֲמָתֽוֹ:
But He is merciful: to them and constantly expiates their iniquity, and He did not destroy them.   והרבה: פעמים רבות:
many times: Many times He withdraws His wrath from them, and even if He punishes them, He does not arouse all His anger but little by little, because He remembers that they are flesh and that the evil inclination is hidden in their heart. That is a spirit that goes away when they die, and that spirit does not return to them in the world to come. When they are resurrected, the evil inclination will have no control over them.“A spirit that goes away and does not return” cannot be explained to mean their spirit of life, because if you say so, you have denied the resurrection of the dead. In this manner, it is explained in Aggadath Tehillim (Mid Ps. 78:8).   להשיב אפו: מהם ואף אם נפרע מהם לא העיר עליהם כל חמתו כי אם מעט מעט לפי שזכר כי בשר המה ויצר הרע טמון בלבם והוא רוח הולך כשימותו ולא ישוב אותו רוח בהם לעולם הבא כשיחיו אין יצר הרע שולט בהם ולא יתכן לפרש רוח הולך ולא ישוב רוחם של חיים בהם שאם אמרת כן כפרת בתחית המתים וכן מפורש באגדת תהלים:
39He remembers that they are flesh, a spirit that goes away and does not return.   לטוַיִּזְכֹּר כִּֽי־בָשָׂ֣ר הֵ֑מָּה ר֥וּחַ ה֜וֹלֵ֗ךְ וְלֹ֣א יָשֽׁוּב:
40How often they provoked Him in the desert, vexed Him in the wasteland!   מכַּמָּ֣ה יַ֖מְרוּהוּ בַמִּדְבָּ֑ר יַֽ֜עֲצִיב֗וּהוּ בִּֽישִׁימֽוֹן:
How often: [How many] times.   כמה: פעמים:
they provoked him: always in the desert.   ימרוהו: תמיד במדבר:
41They returned and tried God, and they sought a sign from the Holy One of Israel.   מאוַיָּשׁ֣וּבוּ וַיְנַסּ֣וּ אֵ֑ל וּקְד֖וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הִתְוֽוּ:
they sought a sign: Heb. התוו, an expression of a sign, as (Ezek. 9:4): “and set a mark (והתוית תו).” “A mark” is an expression of a wonder and a trial. They asked him for a sign and a mark (Exod. 17:7): “Is the Lord in our midst or not?”   התוו: לשון סימן כמו והתוית תו (יחזקאל ט׳:ד׳) וסימן הוא לשון מופת ונסיון בקשו ממנו אות וסימן היש ה' בקרבנו אם אין (שמות י״ז:ז׳):
42They did not remember His hand, the day that He redeemed them from distress.   מבלֹא־זָֽכְר֥וּ אֶת־יָד֑וֹ י֜֗וֹם אֲשֶׁר־פָּדָ֥ם מִנִּי־צָֽר:
43Who placed His signs in Egypt and His wonders in the field of Zoan.   מגאֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֣ם בְּ֖מִצְרַיִם אֹֽתוֹתָ֑יו וּ֜מֽוֹפְתָ֗יו בִּשְׂדֵה־צֹֽעַן:
44He turned their canals into blood, and their flowing waters they could not drink.   מדוַיַּֽהֲפֹ֣ךְ לְ֖דָם יְאֹֽרֵיהֶ֑ם וְ֜נֽוֹזְלֵיהֶ֗ם בַּל־יִשְׁתָּיֽוּן:
45He incited against them a mixture of wild beasts, which devoured them, and frogs, which mutilated them.   מהיְשַׁלַּ֬ח בָּהֶ֣ם עָ֖רֹב וַיֹּֽאכְלֵ֑ם וּ֜צְפַרְדֵּ֗עַ וַתַּשְׁחִיתֵֽם:
which mutilated them: They would pull off their testicles.   ותשחיתם: שומטין את ביציהם:
46He gave their produce to the finishing locusts and their toil to the increasing locusts.   מווַיִּתֵּ֣ן לֶֽחָסִ֣יל יְבוּלָ֑ם וִֽ֜יגִיעָ֗ם לָֽאַרְבֶּֽה:
47He killed their vines with hail and their sycamore trees with locusts.   מזיַֽהֲרֹ֣ג בַּבָּרָ֣ד גַּפְנָ֑ם וְ֜שִׁקְמוֹתָ֗ם בַּֽחֲנָמַֽל:
with locusts: Heb. בחנמל, the name of the locust. According to the Midrash (Mid. Ps. 78:13) [it is composed of the following words]: בָּא חָן מָל, it comes, encamps, and cuts. It cut off the greens of the tree and the grass and ate it.   בחנמל: שם ארבה, ומדרשו בא חן ומל היה מולל את ירק העץ והעשב ואוכלו:
48He gave over their animals to the hail and their cattle to the fiery bolts.   מחוַיַּסְגֵּ֣ר לַבָּרָ֣ד בְּעִירָ֑ם וּ֜מִקְנֵיהֶ֗ם לָֽרְשָׁפִֽים:
He gave over their animals to hail: When the hail began to fall, the Egyptian drove his sheep (his animal) into the house, and the hail came before him like a wall. The Egyptian slaughtered it [the animal] and put it on his shoulder, to take it to his house to eat it, but the birds came and took it from him. That is [the meaning of] “and their cattle to the birds (לרשפים),” as (Job. 5:7): “but flying creatures (בני רשף) fly upward.” This is its midrashic interpretation (Mid. Ps. 78:14), but according to its simple meaning, רשפים are bolts of fire, as it is written (Exod. 9:24): “and fire flaming within the hail.”   ויסגר לברד בעירם: כשהתחיל הברד לירד המצרי מבריח צאנו לבית והברד נעשה למולו כמין כותל והמצרי שוחטו ונותנו על כתיפו להוליכו לבית ולאוכלו והעוף בא ונוטלו הימנו וזה ומקניהם לרשפים לעופות כמו ובני רשף יגביהו עוף (איוב ה׳:ז׳) זה מדרשו ולפי פשוטו לרשפים רשפי אש כדכתיב (שמות ט׳:כ״ד) ואש מתלקחת בתוך הברד:
49He dispatched against them the kindling of His anger-wrath, fury, and trouble, a delegation of evil messengers.   מטיְשַׁלַּח־בָּ֨ם | חֲר֬וֹן אַפּ֗וֹ עֶבְרָ֣ה וָזַ֣עַם וְצָרָ֑ה מִ֜שְׁלַ֗חַת מַלְאֲכֵ֥י רָעִֽים:
50He leveled a path for His anger; He did not withhold their soul from death, and He delivered their body to pestilence.   ניְפַלֵּ֥ס נָתִ֗יב לְאַ֫פּ֥וֹ לֹֽא־חָשַׂ֣ךְ מִמָּ֣וֶת נַפְשָׁ֑ם וְ֜חַיָּתָ֗ם לַדֶּ֥בֶר הִסְגִּֽיר:
He leveled a path for His anger: Although the plagues were dispatched in anger, they performed only their orders; what they were commanded to kill, they killed, but nothing else. They went in their paths. In other commentaries I found as follows:   יפלס נתיב לאפו: אע"פ שבאף נשתלחו המכות לא שמשו אלא שליחותם מה שנצטוו להמית המיתו ולא הכל בנתיבותם הלכו, בפירושים אחרים מצאתי כן:
He leveled a path for His anger: When He smote every firstborn in Egypt, He showed the way for [the angel] who was destroying with anger to enter the houses of the Egyptians, but not the houses of the children of Israel.   יפלס נתיב לאפו: כשהכה כל בכור במצרים הורה דרך למשחית באף לבוא אל בתי מצרים ולא לבתי בני ישראל:
… and… their body: Heb. וחיתם, their body.   וחיתם: גופם:
51He smote every firstborn in Egypt, the first fruit of their strength in the tents of Ham.   נאוַיַּ֣ךְ כָּל־בְּכ֣וֹר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם רֵאשִׁ֥ית א֜וֹנִ֗ים בְּאָֽהֳלֵי־חָֽם:
52Then He caused His people to journey like sheep, and He led them as a flock in the desert.   נבוַיַּסַּ֣ע כַּצֹּ֣אן עַמּ֑וֹ וַֽיְנַֽהֲגֵ֥ם כָּ֜עֵ֗דֶר בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
53He led them securely and they were not afraid, and the sea covered their enemies.   נגוַיַּנְחֵ֣ם לָ֖בֶטַח וְלֹ֣א פָחָ֑דוּ וְאֶת־אֽ֜וֹיְבֵיהֶ֗ם כִּסָּ֥ה הַיָּֽם:
54He brought them to the border of His sanctuary, this mountain that His right hand had acquired.   נדוַיְבִיאֵם אֶל־גְּב֣וּל קָדְשׁ֑וֹ הַר־זֶ֜֗ה קָֽנְתָ֥ה יְמִינֽוֹ:
55He drove out nations from before them, and allotted them an inheritance by line, and He caused the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents.   נהוַיְגָ֚רֶשׁ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֨ם | גּוֹיִ֗ם וַ֖יַּפִּילֵם בְּחֶ֣בֶל נַֽחֲלָ֑ה וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֥ן בְּ֜אָֽהֳלֵיהֶ֗ם שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
He drove out… from before them: the seven nations.   ויגרש מפניהם: ז' אומות:
in their tents: of the nations.   באהליהם: של גוים:
56Yet they tried and provoked the Most High God, and did not keep His testimonies.   נווַיְנַסּ֣וּ וַ֖יַּמְרוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִ֣ים עֶלְי֑וֹן וְ֜עֵֽדוֹתָ֗יו לֹ֣א שָׁמָֽרוּ:
Yet they tried and provoked: during the days of the judges.   וינסו וימרו: בימי השופטים:
57They turned back and dealt treacherously as their forefathers; they turned around like a deceitful bow.   נזוַיִּסֹּ֣גוּ וַֽ֖יִּבְגְּדוּ כַּֽאֲבוֹתָ֑ם נֶ֜הְפְּכ֗וּ כְּקֶ֣שֶׁת רְמִיָּֽה:
like a deceitful bow: which does not shoot the arrow to the place the archer wishes.   כקשת רמיה: שאינה זורקת חץ למקום שהמורה חפץ:
58They provoked Him with their high places, and with their graven images they angered Him.   נחוַיַּכְעִיס֥וּהוּ בְּבָֽמוֹתָ֑ם וּ֜בִפְסִֽילֵיהֶ֗ם יַקְנִיאֽוּהוּ:
59God heard and became incensed, and He utterly rejected Israel.   נטשָׁמַ֣ע אֱ֖לֹהִים וַיִּתְעַבָּ֑ר וַיִּמְאַ֥ס מְ֜אֹ֗ד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
60And He abandoned the Tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent that He had stationed among men.   סוַיִּטֹּשׁ מִשְׁכַּ֣ן שִׁל֑וֹ אֹ֜֗הֶל שִׁכֵּ֥ן בָּֽאָדָֽם:
61He delivered His might into captivity, and His glory into the hand of the adversary.   סאוַיִּתֵּ֣ן לַשְּׁבִ֣י עֻזּ֑וֹ וְתִפְאַרְתּ֥וֹ בְיַד־צָֽר:
He delivered His might into captivity: He delivered the Ark and the tablets into the hands of the Philistines.   ויתן לשבי עוזו: מסר הארון והלוחות ביד פלשתים:
62And He delivered His people to the sword, and He became incensed with His inheritance.   סבוַיַּסְגֵּ֣ר לַחֶ֣רֶב עַמּ֑וֹ וּ֜בְנַֽחֲלָת֗וֹ הִתְעַבָּֽר:
63Fire consumed his youths and his virgins were not married.   סגבַּֽחוּרָ֥יו אָֽכְלָה־אֵ֑שׁ וּ֜בְתוּלֹתָ֗יו לֹ֣א הוּלָּֽלוּ:
Fire consumed his youths: [The fire of] His wrath.   בחוריו אכלה אש: עברתו:
were not married: Heb. לא הוללו. They were not married by being brought into a litter [under] a canopy because the youths died in battle. הוּלָלוּ is an expression of nuptials (הִלוּלָא) in Aramaic. Our Sages, however, explained it in reference to Nadab and Abihu (Mid. Ps. 78:18), but I feel uncertain about explaining it that way because he already commenced with the Tabernacle of Shiloh.   לא הוללו: לא נכללו לאפריון וחופה שמתו הבחורים במלחמה הוללו לשון הלולא בארמית, ורבותינו דרשוהו על נדב ואביהוא, ואין לבי מתיישב לפרשו כן שהרי כבר התחיל במשכן שילה:
64His priests fell by the sword, but his widows did not weep.   סדכֹּהֲנָיו בַּחֶ֣רֶב נָפָ֑לוּ וְ֜אַלְמְנֹתָ֗יו לֹ֣א תִבְכֶּֽינָה:
His priests fell by the sword: Hophni and Phinehas.   כהניו בחרב נפלו: חפני ופנחס:
but his widows did not weep: Even his widow was not allowed to bewail him, for she too died on the day of the tidings, as it is said (I Sam. 4:19): “And she knelt and gave birth, for her pains had suddenly come upon her.”   ואלמנותיו לא תבכינה: אף אלמנתו לא ניתנה לבכותו שאף היא מתה ביום השמועה כמו שנאמר (ש"א ד') ותכרע ותלד כי נהפכו עליה ציריה:
65And the Lord awoke as one asleep, as a mighty man, shouting from wine.   סהוַיִּקַ֖ץ כְּיָשֵׁ֥ן | אֲדֹנָ֑י כְּ֜גִבּ֗וֹר מִתְרוֹנֵ֥ן מִיָּֽיִן:
shouting: Heb. מתרונן, awaking and strengthening himself with speech to awaken from his wine. מתרונן is an expression of רנה, shouting.   מתרונן: מתעורר ומתגבר בדבור להקיץ מיינו, מתרונן לשון רנה הוא:
66And He smote His adversaries from the rear; He gave them perpetual disgrace.   סווַיַּ֣ךְ צָרָ֣יו אָח֑וֹר חֶרְפַּ֥ת ע֜וֹלָ֗ם נָ֣תַן לָֽמוֹ:
And He smote His adversaries from the rear: Plagues of the rear with hemorrhoids, which is a disgrace of perpetual ridicule for them.   ויך צריו אחור: מכות אחורים בעפולים ובטחורים והוא חרפת גדוף להם עולמית:
67He rejected the tent of Joseph and did not choose the tribe of Ephraim.   סזוַיִּמְאַס בְּאֹ֣הֶל יוֹסֵ֑ף וּבְשֵׁ֥בֶט אֶ֜פְרַ֗יִם לֹ֣א בָחָֽר:
He rejected the tent of Joseph: That is Shiloh, which is in Joseph’s territory.   וימאס באהל יוסף: הוא שילה שהוא בחלקו של יוסף:
68He chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, which He loved.   סחוַיִּבְחַר אֶת־שֵׁ֣בֶט יְהוּדָ֑ה אֶת־הַר־צִ֜יּ֗וֹן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָהֵֽב:
69And He built His Sanctuary like the high heavens, like the earth He established it forever.   סטוַיִּ֣בֶן כְּמוֹ־רָ֖מִים מִקְדָּשׁ֑וֹ כְּ֜אֶ֗רֶץ יְסָדָ֥הּ לְעוֹלָֽם:
And He built His Sanctuary like the high heavens, etc.: Like the heavens and the earth, about which two hands are mentioned, as it is stated (Isa. 48: 13): “Even My hand laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand measured the heavens with handbreadths.” Also the Temple was with two hands, as it is said (Exod. 15:17): “Your hands established.” (Cf. Mechilta, Shirah 10, Keth. 5a, Rashi to Exod. 15:17.) Another explanation:   ויבן כמו רמים מקדשו וגו': כמו שמים וארץ שנאמרו בהם שתי ידים שנאמר אף ידי יסדה ארץ וימינו טפחה שמים (ישעיה מ"ה) אף בית המקדש בשתי ידים שנאמר (שמות ט״ו:י״ז) כוננו ידיך, ד"א:
And He built His Sanctuary like the high heavens, like the earth He established it: Just as heaven and earth have no substitute, neither does the Temple have a substitute in which to let the Shechinah rest.   כמו רמים מקדשו: כארץ יסדה מה שמים וארץ אין להם חליפין אף מקדש אין לו חליפין להשרות שם שכינה:
70And He chose His servant David and took him from the sheepcotes.   עוַיִּבְחַר בְּדָוִ֣ד עַבְדּ֑וֹ וַ֜יִּקָּחֵ֗הוּ מִמִּכְלְאֹ֥ת צֹֽאן:
and took him from the sheepcotes: Heb. ממכלאתצאן, from the stalls of the sheep, as (Hab. 3:16): “The flock will be cut off from the fold (ממכלה).”   ממכלאות צאן: דירי צאן כמו (סוף חבקוק) גזר ממכלה צאן:
71From behind the nursing ewes He brought him, to shepherd Jacob His people and Israel His heritage.   עאמֵֽאַחַ֥ר עָל֗וֹת הֱבִ֫יא֥וֹ לִ֖רְעוֹת בְּיַֽעֲקֹ֣ב עַמּ֑וֹ וּ֜בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל נַֽחֲלָתֽוֹ:
From behind the nursing ewes He brought him: For he would shepherd the nursing ewes for his father, because he was merciful and would bring the kids first and feed them the upper tips of the grasses, which are tender. Then after them he would bring out the he-goats, who would eat the middle of the grasses, and afterwards, he would bring out the older ones, who would eat the roots. Said the Holy One, blessed be He, “This one is fit to shepherd My people.”   מאחר עלות הביאו: שהיה רועה לאביו הצאן המניקות שהיה רחמני ומוציא הגדיים תחלה ומאכילן ראשי עשבים העליונים שהם רכים, ומוציא התיישים אחריה' ואוכלין אמצע העשבים ואחר כך מוציא הזקנות ואוכלות השרשים אמר הקב"ה ראוי הוא זה להיות רועה את עמי:
72And He shepherded them according to the integrity of his heart, and with the skill of his hands he led them.   עבוַיִּרְעֵם כְּתֹ֣ם לְבָב֑וֹ וּבִתְבוּנ֖וֹת כַּפָּ֣יו יַנְחֵֽם: