1

The order of the fulfillment of these mitzvot on the night of the fifteenth [of Nisan] is as follows: In the beginning, a cup [of wine] is mixed for each individual. They recite the blessing,

בורא פרי הגפן and the kiddush of the day on it, and the blessing, shehecheyanu. Then, they drink [it].

Afterwards, one recites the blessing, על נטילת ידים, and washes one's hands. A set table is brought, on which are maror, another vegetable, matzah, charoset, the body of the Paschal lamb, and the meat of the festive offering of the fourteenth of Pesach. At present, we bring two types of meat on the table: one in commemoration of the Paschal sacrifice and one in commemoration of the festive offering.

א

סדר עשיית מצות אלו בליל חמשה עשר כך הוא. בתחלה מוזגין כוס לכל אחד ואחד ומברך בורא פרי הגפן ואומר עליו קדוש היום וזמן ושותה. ואחר כך מברך על נטילת ידים ונוטל ידיו. ומביאין שלחן ערוך ועליו מרור וירק אחר ומצה וחרוסת וגופו של כבש הפסח ובשר חגיגה של יום ארבעה עשר. ובזמן הזה מביאין על השלחן שני מיני בשר אחד זכר לפסח ואחד זכר לחגיגה:

The order of the fulfillment of these mitzvot -- the mitzvot of eating matzah, maror, and charoset, and of relating the story of the Exodus.

on the night of the fifteenth [of Nisan] -- and in the Diaspora, on the night of the sixteenth of Nisan

is as follows: In the beginning -- It is customary to begin the Seder as soon as possible after nightfall, in order that the children will be able to remain awake and participate in the Seder.

a cup [of wine] is mixed -- with water, as stated in Halachah 7:9.

for each individual -- See Halachah 7:7.

and they recite the blessing, בורא פרי הגפן, and the kiddush of the day on it and the blessing, shehecheyanu -- which is recited whenever a person fulfills a mitzvah that is not performed frequently. Though this blessing is instituted for the fulfillment of the mitzvah of celebrating the holiday of Pesach, one should also have the intention of including the other mitzvot mentioned above.

Then they drink [it] -- while reclining, as in Halachah 7:8.

Afterwards, one recites the blessing, על נטילת ידים, and washes one's hands -- in preparation for eating the vegetable dipped in charoset, as mentioned in the following halachah. In Hilchot Berachot 6:1, the Rambam writes that one must wash one's hands before partaking of any food dipped in a liquid. However, the present custom is not to recite a blessing before this washing. (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 473:6, Taz). See also Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 158:4.

A set table is brought -- In the Rambam's commentary on the Mishnah, Pesachim 1:3, he writes that the table is brought before kiddush. This is also the custom in most homes today, where the Seder plate is brought to the table before kiddush.

on which are -- all the objects to be used during the Seder:

maror, another vegetable -- to dip in the charoset as karpas, matzah, charoset, the body of the Paschal lamb, and the meat of the festive offering of the fourteenth of Pesach. -- The Paschal sacrifice should be eaten after one has been satisfied from eating other foods. Therefore, another sacrifice, a חגיגה (festive offering) was also brought to make up the main body of the festive meal. (See Hilchot Korban Pesach 10:12-14.)

At present -- when the Temple has not yet been rebuilt and we do not bring the Paschal sacrifice

we bring two types of meat on the table: one in commemoration of the Paschal sacrifice -- The Chidah mentions that it is customary that the meat designated in commemoration of the Paschal sacrifice be roasted in the way that sacrifice was roasted. Rabbenu Manoach writes that it is customary to take the front leg or shank-bone of a lamb as a reference to God's "outstretched arm."

It is forbidden to designate an animal as a sacrifice at present. Hence, since many of the common people might think that the shank-bone was actually a Paschal sacrifice, many authorities suggested using a bone from a chicken, a species which was never offered as a sacrifice. Similarly, we are warned not to eat the shank-bone.

and one in commemoration of the festive offering. -- The custom of bringing a type of meat to commemorate the festive offering is one of the opinions mentioned in Pesachim 114b. Our custom is to use an egg for that purpose. The Maggid Mishneh writes that the latter practice was commonly observed in his day as well. In contrast to the shank-bone, the egg may be eaten. Indeed, it is customary in many communities to begin the Seder meal by eating it.

2

He begins and recites the blessing, בורא פרי האדמה, takes the vegetable, dips it in charoset, and eats a כזית. He and all those eating together with him, each and every one, do not eat less than a כזית.

Afterwards, the table is taken away from the person reciting the Haggadah alone. The second cup [of wine] is mixed. Here is where the son asks, and the one reciting [the Haggadah] says:

Why is this night different from all other nights?

On all other nights, we are not required to dip even once. On this night, we dip twice?

On all other nights, we eat chametz (leaven) or matzah. On this night, only matzah?

On all other nights, we eat roasted, boiled, or cooked meat. On this night we eat only roasted?

On all other nights, we eat any type of vegetables. On this night, we eat maror (bitter herbs)?

On all other nights, we eat either sitting upright or reclining. On this night, we all recline?

ב

מתחיל ומברך בורא פרי האדמה ולוקח ירק ומטבל אותו בחרוסת ואוכל כזית הוא וכל המסובין עמו כל אחד ואחד אין אוכל פחות מכזית. ואחר כך עוקרין השולחן מלפני קורא ההגדה לבדו. ומוזגין הכוס השני וכאן הבן שואל. ואומר הקורא מה נשתנה הלילה הזה מכל הלילות שבכל הלילות אין אנו מטבילין אפילו פעם אחת והלילה הזה שתי פעמים. שבכל הלילות אנו אוכלין חמץ ומצה והלילה הזה כולו מצה. שבכל הלילות אנו אוכלין בשר צלי שלוק ומבושל והלילה הזה כולו צלי. שבכל הלילות אנו אוכלין שאר ירקות והלילה הזה מרורים. שבכל הלילות אנו אוכלין בין יושבין בין מסובין והלילה הזה כולנו מסובין:

He -- the person leading the Seder

begins and recites the blessing,

בורא פרי האדמה — recited before partaking of a vegetable. It is proper to have the intention to include also the maror, which is eaten later.

takes the vegetable -- Rabbenu Manoach writes that it is customary to use כרפס (parsley).

This practice is instituted in order to pique the curiosity of the children. (See Halachah 7:3.) They see us beginning to eat without continuing to do so.

dips it in charoset -- This custom is also mentioned in the Haggadot of Rav Saadia Gaon and Rav Amram Gaon. However, Rabbenu Tam and many Ashkenazic authorities object to it. Hence, it is our practice to dip the vegetable in salt water or vinegar. (See Beit Yosef, Orach Chayim 473.)

and eats a כזית — The Rambam requires that a כזית be eaten, because the Rabbis instituted the custom of eating the vegetable. The use of the term "eating" in halachah implies a minimum of a כזית (Maggid Mishneh). Nevertheless, this opinion is not accepted. The Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 473:6, states that less than a כזית should be eaten, in order that no question arise as to whether or not one is obligated to recite a blessing afterwards.

He and all those eating together with him, each and every one, do not eat less than a

כזית — Despite the fact that a כזית is eaten, the Rambam does not require the recitation of the blessing, בורא נפשות, after eating the vegetable. This is surely true according to our custom, in which less than a כזית is eaten.

Afterwards, the table is taken away -- to arouse the children's curiosity, as explained in Halachah 7:3.

from the person reciting the Haggadah alone. -- This was customary when people sat on couches with small tables in front of them. At present, it is customary to remove the Seder plate.

The second cup [of wine] is mixed. -- This also is intended to pique the children's curiosity, for though the wine is poured, it is not drunk until later.

Here is where the son asks and the one reciting [the Haggadah] says: -- Some versions of the Mishneh Torah omit the latter phrase, which implies that the questions are not asked by the children. Others interpret the passage as follows: the children ask without necessarily phrasing the questions precisely, and then the leader recites the standard text. Perhaps this is the source for the custom followed by many, where, after the child recites the four questions, the leader of the Seder, and, at times, each of the assembled, also recites the questions.

Why is this night different from all other nights?

On all other nights, we are not required to dip even once. On this night, we dip twice? — The first three of these four questions are recorded in the Mishnah. It must be noted that the commonly accepted text of the Haggadah follows a different order, quoting that mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud, Pesachim 116a. The order mentioned by the Rambam is found in the Jerusalem Talmud and the codifications of Rabbenu Asher and Rav Yitzchak Alfasi.

Perhaps, the reason for this order is that the first three questions follow the pattern the child sees at the Seder: first we dip (karpas,) then we eat matzah, and then we eat maror.

It must be noted that the expression "twice" represents somewhat of a question to the Rambam, who also requires the matzah and the sandwich to be dipped in charoset.

On all other nights, we eat chametz (leaven) or matzah. On this night, only matzah?

On all other nights, we eat roasted, boiled, or cooked meat. On this night we eat only roasted? — referring to the Paschal sacrifice, which was roasted. As mentioned in the following halachah, this question is not recited at present.

On all other nights, we eat any type of vegetables. On this

night, we eat maror (bitter herbs)? - In contrast to the question regarding matzah, we do not say only bitter herbs, for other vegetables are allowed (and even required: for use in the karpas) on Pesach.

On all other nights, we eat either sitting upright or reclining. On this night, we all recline? -- This question is not mentioned in the Mishnah. Some commentaries maintain that it was not recited in that period for it was customary for many to eat reclining throughout the year. Thus, doing so on Pesach was not a unique phenomenon. Nevertheless, this question is found in as early a Haggadah as that of Rav Amram Gaon.

Others maintain that, by including it in this halachah, the Rambam expresses his opinion that it was mentioned while the Temple was standing. Thus, at that time, five questions were recited.

3

At present, one does not recite [the question], "on this night, only roasted," for we do not have a sacrifice.

One begins [describing our people's] base [origins] and recites until one concludes expounding on the entire passage that begins "An Aramean sought to destroy my father."

ג

בזמן הזה אינו אומר והלילה הזה כולו צלי שאין לנו קרבן. ומתחיל בגנות וקורא עד שגומר דרש פרשת ארמי אובד אבי כולה:

At present -- until the sacrifices can be brought

one does not recite [the question], "on this night, only roasted," for we do not have a -- Paschal

sacrifice -- leaving us with the four questions customarily asked.

One begins [describing our people's] base [origins] -- See Halachah 7:4.

and recites until one concludes expounding on -- i.e., quoting other verses in explanation, using the text found in the Sifri.

the entire passage that begins "An Aramean sought to destroy my father." -- Deuteronomy 26:5-8. This is the main body of the Haggadah, as explained in Halachah 7:4.

4

The table is returned before him and he says: This Paschal sacrifice which we eat [is] because the Omnipresent passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt, as [Exodus 12:27] states: "And you shall say: 'It is a Paschal sacrifice unto God.'"

He lifts up the maror in his hands and says: This maror that we eat [is] because the Egyptians made the lives of our forefathers bitter in Egypt, as [Exodus 1:14] states: "and they embittered their lives."

And he lifts up the matzah in his hand and says:

This matzah which we eat [is] because the dough of our ancestors was not able to leaven before the Holy One, blessed be He, was revealed to them and redeemed them immediately, as [Exodus 12:39] states: "And they baked the dough which they took out of Egypt [as cakes of matzah]."

At present, he says: "This Paschal sacrifice, which our ancestors would eat when the Temple was standing, [is] because the Holy One, blessed be He, passed over the houses of our ancestors..."

ד

ומחזיר השלחן לפניו ואומר פסח זה שאנו אוכלין על שם שפסח המקום על בתי אבותינו במצרים שנאמר ואמרתם זבח פסח הוא לה'. ומגביה המרור בידו ואומר מרור זה שאנו אוכלין על שם שמררו המצריים את חיי אבותינו במצרים שנאמר וימררו את חייהם. ומגביה המצה בידו ואומר מצה זו שאנו אוכלין על שם שלא הספיק בצקם של אבותינו להחמיץ עד שנגלה עליהם הקדוש ברוך הוא וגאלם מיד שנאמר ויאפו את הבצק אשר הוציאו ממצרים וכו'. ובזמן הזה אומר פסח שהיו אבותינו אוכלין בזמן שבית המקדש קיים על שם שפסח הקדוש ברוך הוא על בתי אבותינו וכו':

The table is returned before him -- It is our custom that the Seder plate is returned immediately after it is taken away, and we recite the entire Haggadah while it is present.

and he says: -- This and the following two passages refer to the three elements of the Passover service which Rabban Gamliel (Pesachim 116) considers essential to be mentioned at the Seder. The Rambam mentions this requirement in Halachah 7:5.

This Paschal sacrifice which we eat -- This statement would be made during the time the Temple was standing and the Paschal sacrifice was actually placed on the table. (See Halachah 8:1.) Nevertheless, in contrast to the maror and the matzah, the Paschal sacrifice was not raised. Perhaps this was because it would be difficult to raise the entire body of the animal.

[is] because the Omnipresent passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt, as [Exodus 12:27] states: "And you shall say: 'It is a Paschal sacrifice unto God.'"

He lifts up the maror in his hands and says: This maror that we eat [is] because the Egyptians made the lives of our forefathers bitter in Egypt, as [Exodus 1:14] states: "and they embittered their lives." -- As mentioned in Halachah 7:5, it is questionable why the Rambam changes the order of matzah and maror from that which is mentioned in the Haggadah itself.

And he lifts up the matzah in his hand and says: This matzah which we eat [is] because the dough of our ancestors was not able to leaven before the Holy One, blessed be He, was revealed to them and redeemed them immediately, as [Exodus 12:39] states: "And they baked the dough which they took out of Egypt [as cakes of matzah]." -- The Zevach Pesach notes that although the Jews were commanded to eat matzot in Egypt before the exodus. However, he explains that this commandment was given in preparation for the miracle that would occur in the future.

At present, he says -- At present, we definitely should not lift up the shank-bone, lest it appear that it was designated as the Passover sacrifice.

This Paschal sacrifice which our ancestors would eat when the Temple was standing [is] because the Holy One, blessed be He -- it is questionable why the Rambam substitutes this appellation for God for "the Omnipresent" mentioned in the first clause.

passed over the houses of our ancestors...

5

And he says:

Therefore, we are obliged to thank, praise, laud, glorify, adore, exalt, magnify, and give eternal honor to the One who did all these miracles for us and took us out from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy, from deep darkness to great light. [Therefore,] let us recite before Him: Halleluyah!

[He continues, beginning the Hallel, reciting from] "Halleluyah! Servants of God - offer praise;" until "the flintstone into a stream of water." He concludes:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who redeemed us and redeemed our ancestors from Egypt and has enabled us to reach this night so that we may eat matzah and bitter herbs upon it."

At present, he adds:

So too, God, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, enable us to reach other festivals and holidays that will come to us in peace, celebrating in the rebuilding of Your city and rejoicing in Your service. Then, we shall eat of the sacrifices and of the Paschal offerings whose blood shall be sprinkled on the wall of Your altar to be graciously accepted. Then, we shall offer thanks to You [with] a new song for our redemption and for the deliverance of our souls. Blessed are You, God, who redeemed Israel.

He recites the blessing, בורא פרי הגפן, and drinks the second cup.

ה

ואומר לפיכך אנו חייבין להודות להלל לשבח לפאר להדר לרומם לגדל ולנצח למי שעשה לאבותינו ולנו את כל הנסים האלו והוציאנו מעבדות לחירות מיגון לשמחה ומאפלה לאור גדול ונאמר לפניו הללויה. הללויה הללו עבדי ה' וגו' עד חלמיש למעינו מים. וחותם ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר גאלנו וגאל את אבותינו ממצרים והגיענו ללילה הזה לאכול בו מצה ומרורים. ובזמן הזה מוסיף כן ה' אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו יגיענו למועדים ולרגלים אחרים הבאים לקראתנו לשלום שמחים בבנין עירך וששים בעבודתך ונאכל שם מן הזבחים ומן הפסחים שיגיע דמם על קיר מזבחך לרצון ונודה לך שיר חדש על גאולתנו ועל פדות נפשנו ברוך אתה ה' גאל ישראל. ומברך בורא פרי הגפן ושותה הכוס השני:

And he says: -- The following passage is also a quote (with some emendations) from the Mishnah, Pesachim 116b.

Therefore, we are obliged to thank, praise, laud, glorify, adore, exalt, magnify, and give eternal honor to the One who did all these miracles for us and took us out from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy, from deep darkness to great light. -- It must be noted that the phraseology used by the Rambam here differs from Pesachim, ibid., and also from the text of the Haggadah which he composed himself.

[Therefore,] let us recite before Him: Halleluyah!

[He continues, beginning the Hallel -- Psalms 113-118. The Hallel was recited while the Paschal sacrifice was being offered and while it was eaten during the Seder. Our Sages explain that the Jews recited these verses of praise as they left Egypt. The commentaries explain that since we interrupt the recitation of Hallel with the Seder meal, no blessing is recited beforehand.

reciting from] "Halleluyah! Servants of God - offer praise;" until "the flintstone into a stream of water." -- Only this portion of the Hallel is recited before eating. Pesachim 118a explains that these verses of praise refer to the miracles of the Exodus from Egypt, the splitting of the Red Sea, and the giving of the Torah. In contrast, the latter chapters of Hallel allude to the miracles that will precede the Messianic redemption.

He concludes -- The following blessing is also mentioned in the Mishnah (ibid.). It is recited while holding a raised cup of wine.

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who redeemed us and redeemed our ancestors from Egypt and has enabled us to reach this night so that we may eat matzah and bitter herbs upon it." -- It appears from the text of the Mishnah that while the Temple was standing, the blessing was concluded in this manner, without the final line: "Blessed are You, God, who redeemed Israel."

At present, he adds -- a prayer for redemption from the present exile and the rebuilding of the Temple. The text is quoted by the Mishnah in the name of Rabbi Akiva.

So too, God, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, enable us to reach other festivals and holidays that will come to us in peace, celebrating in the rebuilding of Your city -- Jerusalem

and rejoicing in Your service -- in the Temple.

Then, we shall eat of the sacrifices -- the festive offering which is eaten before the Paschal sacrifice, as explained in Halachah 8:7.

and of the Paschal offerings whose blood shall be sprinkled on the wall of Your altar to be graciously accepted. Then, we shall offer thanks to You [with] a new song for our redemption and for the deliverance of our souls. Blessed are You, God, who redeemed Israel.

He recites the blessing, בורא פרי הגפן — Even though he has not diverted his attention from drinking wine after making kiddush, he recites a new blessing. As mentioned in Halachah 7:10, each of the four cups of wine is given a unique importance of its own.

6

Afterwards, he recites the blessing, al netilat yadayim, and washes his hands a second time, for he diverted his attention [from his hands] during the time he was reciting the Haggadah.

He takes two cakes [of matzah], divides one of them, places the broken half inside the whole [cake] and recites the blessing, hamotzi lechem min ha'aretz.

Why does he not recite a blessing on two loaves, as on other festivals? because [Deuteronomy 16:3] states "the bread of poverty." Just as a poor man is accustomed to eating a broken [loaf], so, too, a broken loaf should be used.

Afterwards, he wraps matzah and maror together as one, dips it in charoset and recites the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of matzah and bitter herbs

and eats them. If he eats matzah separately and maror separately, he recites a blessing for the former in its own right and the latter in its own right.

ו

ואחר כך מברך על נטילת ידים ונוטל ידיו שנית שהרי הסיח דעתו בשעת קריאת ההגדה. ולוקח שני רקיקין וחולק אחד מהן ומניח פרוס לתוך שלם ומברך המוציא לחם מן הארץ. ומפני מה אינו מברך על שתי ככרות כשאר ימים טובים משום שנאמר לחם עוני מה דרכו של עני בפרוסה אף כאן בפרוסה. ואחר כך כורך מצה ומרור כאחת ומטבל בחרוסת ומברך ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על אכילת מצות ומרורים ואוכלן. ואם אכל מצה בפני עצמה ומרור בפני עצמו מברך על זה בפני עצמו ועל זה בפני עצמו:

Afterwards, he recites the blessing, al netilat yadayim -- Thus, according to the Rambam, this blessing is recited twice at the Seder.

and washes his hands a second time -- as is necessary before partaking of bread. Even though the hands were washed before partaking of the vegetable, a second washing is required

for he diverted his attention [from his hands] during the time he was reciting the Haggadah -- and accidentally touched an unclean portion of his body (Rashi, Pesachim 115b). In general, the Sages postulate הידים עסקניות, "a person's hands are constantly busy," and imply that a person is not necessarily conscious of what he touches. Hence, the possibility exists that, in their activity, the hands touched a portion of the body or another substance which requires one to wash.

He takes two cakes [of matzah] -- On Pesach, as on all Sabbaths and festivals, it is customary to have lechem mishneh, two loaves (Hilchot Shabbat 30:9).

divides one of them -- for the reason to be explained.

places the broken half inside with the whole [cake] -- for their matzot, like many Sephardic matzot today could be folded,

and recites the blessing, hamotzi lechem min ha'aretz -- but does not eat from the matzah until after reciting the second blessing.

Why does he not recite a blessing on two -- whole

loaves as on other festivals? -- See Hilchot Shabbat, ibid.

because [Deuteronomy 16:3] states "the bread of poverty." Just as a poor man is accustomed to eating a broken [loaf], so, too, a broken loaf should be used. -- Our custom is to use three loaves. One is broken for this purpose early in the Seder (yachatz), and the other two are kept for lechem mishneh.

There is an advantage to our practice; Pesachim 115b plays on the relationship between the words ענה (poverty) and עונה (answer), and describes matzah as the bread on which many answers are given. To emphasize this point, the broken matzah is exposed throughout most of the Seder.

Afterwards -- See Halachah 8:8 for the present custom.

he wraps matzah and maror together as one -- This halachah refers to a seder as it was conducted while the Temple was standing. Hence, the matzah and the bitter herbs are eaten together, as implied by Exodus 12:8: "eat it (the Paschal sacrifice) together with matzot and bitter herbs."

The above follows the opinion of the Sage, Hillel. Pesachim 115a mentions other opinions which did not require the matzah and maror to be wrapped together, but merely to be eaten at the same sitting. However, since the latter opinion also accepts Hillel's practice, when partaking of the Paschal sacrifice, it is preferable to eat them wrapped together.

dips it in charoset -- Pesachim 116a quotes an opinion which explains that dipping the maror in charoset was intended to kill any insects that might be present on it. However, as mentioned in Halachot 7:11 and 8:8, the Rambam considers the charoset a mitzvah in its own right; and, therefore, requires that it be included when the Paschal sacrifice or other foods associated with the mitzvot of the night are eaten.

and recites the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of matzah and bitter herbs," and eats them. If he eats matzah separately and maror separately -- as permitted by the Sages who differ with Hillel

he recites a blessing for the former -- the matzah

in its own right and the latter -- the maror

in its own right. -- The mention of a separate blessing for maror is slightly problematic in view of Halachah 7:11 (and in particular, in the light of Rav Chayim Soloveitchik's commentary mentioned there). If eating maror is not a mitzvah, why is a blessing recited for it?

7

Afterwards, he recites the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of the sacrifice

and first, partakes of the meat of the Chaggigah offering of the fourteenth [of Nisan].

[Then,] he recites the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of the Paschal sacrifice

and eats from the body of the Paschal sacrifice. The blessing for the Paschal sacrifice does not free one of [the obligation of the blessing for] the [Chaggigah] offering. [Conversely, the blessing for the Chaggigah] offering does not free one of [the obligation of the blessing for] the Paschal sacrifice.

ז

ואחר כך מברך ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על אכילת הזבח ואוכל מבשר חגיגת ארבעה עשר תחלה. ומברך ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על אכילת הפסח ואוכל מגופו של פסח. ולא ברכת הפסח פוטרת של זבח ולא של זבח פוטרת של פסח:

Afterwards, he recites the blessing -- because partaking of the Chaggigah offering is a mitzvah and requires a blessing.

"Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of the sacrifice" -- It must be noted that in his commentary on the Mishnah, Pesachim 10:9, the Rambam suggests a different text for this blessing: "who has... commanded us to eat the sacrifice."

and first -- The Chaggigah offering is eaten before the Paschal sacrifice, in order that the Paschal sacrifice be eaten when one is already satisfied.

partakes of the meat of the Chaggigah offering of the fourteenth [of Nisan] -- See Hilchot Korban Pesach, Chapter 8, for the details of this offering.

[Then,] he recites the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us regarding the eating of the Paschal sacrifice" -- In this instance as well, in his commentary on the Mishnah (ibid.), the Rambam offers a different version for this blessing: "who has... commanded us to eat the Paschal sacrifice."

and eats -- In contrast to Rashi (Pesachim 116a) and, similarly, in contrast to our text of the Haggadah, the Rambam does not explicitly state that the Paschal sacrifice was eaten as a sandwich with the matzah and the bitter herbs.

from the body of the Paschal sacrifice -- The Rambam uses the expression, "the body of the Paschal sacrifice" in contrast to the "meat of the Chaggigah" because, as stated in Halachah 8:1, the entire Paschal sacrifice is brought to the Seder table.

The blessing for the Paschal sacrifice does not free one of [the obligation of the blessing -- The commentaries question the need for this halachah, because the Chaggigah offering is eaten before the Paschal sacrifice. The Emek HaSh'eylah explains that if one forgot to recite a blessing over the Chaggigah, one might think that the blessing recited over the Paschal sacrifice would suffice for the previous mitzvah as well. Hence, this opinion must be negated.

for] the [Chaggigah] offering -- This follows the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Nevertheless, Pesachim 121a quotes Rabbi Yishmael, who offers an alternate opinion.

Pesachim (ibid.) explains these Sages' difference of opinion as follows: The blood of the Paschal sacrifice is to be poured out against the base of the Temple altar. In contrast, the blood of the Chaggigah should be sprinkled on the two opposite corners of the altar.

Rabbi Yishmael maintains that בדיעבד (after the fact), were a person to pour the blood of the Chaggigah offering on the base of the altar, he would be considered to have fulfilled his obligation. Hence, the blessing for the Pesach offering can apply to the Chaggigah as well.

In contrast, Rabbi Akiva maintains that even "after the fact," the Chaggigah offering is not acceptable if its blood is not sprinkled on the altar as prescribed. Accordingly, the blessing for the Pesach offering has no connection to the Chaggigah at all.

The Lechem Mishneh questions the Rambam's decision. In Hilchot P'sulei HaMukdashim 2:2, the Rambam writes: "Whenever [blood] is prescribed to be presented [on the altar] by sprinkling, and it was presented by pouring, one has fulfilled his obligation," accepting the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael. If so, his acceptance of Rabbi Akiva's opinion here appears to present a contradiction.

Rav Yechezkel Landau (Tz'lach, Pesachim ibid.) attempts to resolve the issue, explaining that the Rambam follows the interpretation of Rav Chayim HaCohen (Tosefot, Pesachim ibid.), who favored a different text of the Talmud and, accordingly, an alternate interpretation of the difference in opinion between the two Sages.

Rav Chayim maintains that Rabbi Yishmael considers the Chaggigah offering as secondary to the Paschal sacrifice. (See also Jerusalem Talmud, Pesachim 10:7.) Hence, reciting a blessing over the Paschal sacrifice, the essential element (עיקר) of the evening, also fulfills the requirement for the secondary element (טפל), the Chaggigah. Indeed, regarding the blessings recited over food, the Rambam writes (Hilchot Berachot 3:5) that whenever there are two foods, one essential and one secondary, it is only necessary to recite a blessing over the essential food. A blessing is not required for the secondary item.

This interpretation itself presents a question: Since the Chaggigah offering was instituted only for the sake of the Paschal sacrifice and is not an obligation in its own right, it can be considered as "secondary" to the Pesach sacrifice. If so, what is the rationale for Rabbi Akiva's opinion?

It can be explained that Rabbi Akiva never considers one mitzvah as secondary to another. We may use the labels "primary" and "secondary" in regard to matters dependent on our will, but not in regard to mitzvot which we fulfill in obedience to God's desires. Therefore, though the Chaggigah offering was instituted because of the Paschal sacrifice, once it has been instituted, it must be considered as a mitzvah in its own right, with its own importance. Hence, it requires a unique blessing of its own (R. Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the Lubavitch Haggadah).

[Conversely, the blessing for the Chaggigah] offering does not free one of [the obligation of the blessing for] the Paschal sacrifice. -- Both Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael agree with this decision.

This law can also be explained within the context of the discussion of "primary" and "secondary" mentioned above. Since the Paschal sacrifice follows the Chagigah offering, for the Paschal sacrifice should be eaten when satisfied, one might presume that it is considered as "secondary" to the Chagigah. Hence, the Sages must negate this presumption.

8

At present, when there is no [Paschal] sacrifice, after one recites the blessing, hamotzi lechem, one then recites the blessing, al achilat matzah, dips the matzah in charoset, and eats it.

Afterwards, one recites the blessing, al achilat maror, dips the maror in charoset and eats it. One should not leave [the bitter herbs] in the charoset for a prolonged period, lest their taste be negated, since [eating the maror] is a mitzvah ordained by the Sages.

Afterwards, one should wrap matzah and maror together, dip them in the charoset, and eat them without reciting a blessing, to recall the Temple.

ח

בזמן הזה שאין שם קרבן אחר שמברך המוציא לחם חוזר ומברך על אכילת מצה. ומטבל מצה בחרוסת ואוכל. וחוזר ומברך על אכילת מרור ומטבל מרור בחרוסת ואוכל. ולא ישהה אותו בחרוסת שמא יבטל טעמו. וזו מצוה מדברי סופרים. וחוזר וכורך מצה ומרור ומטבל בחרוסת ואוכלן בלא ברכה זכר למקדש:

At present, when there is no [Paschal] sacrifice, -- Note the opinions mentioned on p. 34 of the Moznaim edition of Hilchot Beit HaBechirah, which question whether the Paschal sacrifice can be offered on the Temple Mount even before the Temple is rebuilt.

after one recites the blessing, hamotzi lechem -- holding a complete matzah and the broken half, as explained in Halachah 6. According to our custom, this blessing is recited while holding three matzot: two complete ones, and the broken half.

then, -- According to our present custom, the lowest matzah is returned to the Seder plate at this point, so that the following blessing is recited when holding only one complete matzah and the broken half.

one recites the blessing, al achilat matzah, dips the matzah in charoset -- The Rambam's statements have aroused much question, because generally, the charoset is associated only with the maror. Though the Ra'avad curtly dismisses these words as "emptiness," the Tur and the Maggid Mishneh quote previous authorities, Rav Amram Gaon and Rav Yitzchak ibn Giat, who also require dipping the matzah in charoset.

The Tzafnat Paneach explains the difference between the Rambam and the Ra'avad as follows: As mentioned in Halachah 7:11, charoset is a mitzvah commemorating the mortar used by our ancestors. Hence, the Rambam maintains that it should be eaten together with both the matzah and the maror.

The Ra'avad maintains that matzah commemorates two different qualities: the "bread of poverty" eaten in Egypt and the matzot our ancestors carried out from Egypt after being redeemed. In contrast, maror and charoset are both symbols of slavery.

While the Temple was standing, the Ra'avad did not object to the matzah being dipped in charoset, because, as above, it also commemorates our ancestors' slavery. However, after the Temple's destruction and the negation of the mitzvah of maror, we may assume that the other symbols of the enslavement are also negated. Hence, the only mitzvah is the commemoration of the redemption associated with the matzah. Accordingly, it should not be mixed with charoset, which recalls the slavery.

and eats it. -- at least a כזית, while leaning on the left side, as prescribed above.

Afterwards -- All opinions agree that at present, the matzah is not to be eaten together with the maror. While the Temple was standing, they could be eaten together - since they were both mitzvot, partaking of one mitzvah could not negate another. However, even at present, matzah is a Torah command, while maror, in the present age, is only of Rabbinic origin. Hence, eating the maror will negate the taste of the matzah (Pesachim 115a).

one recites the blessing, al achilat maror, dips the maror in charoset and eats it -- without reclining.

One should not leave [the bitter herbs] in the charoset for a prolonged period, lest their -- bitter

taste be negated, since [eating the maror] is a mitzvah ordained by the Sages. -- For this reason, it is customary in many communities to shake the charoset off the maror after dipping.

Afterwards, one should wrap matzah and maror together -- as was the custom of Hillel,

dip them in the charoset, and eat them without reciting a blessing, to recall the Temple. -- We follow this practice by eating the korech at the Seder.

9

Afterwards, one continues the meal, eating whatever one desires to eat and drinking whatever one desires to drink. At its conclusion, one eats from the Paschal sacrifice, even [as small a portion as] a כזית, and does not taste anything afterwards.

At present, one eats a כזית of matzah and does not taste anything afterwards, so that, after the completion of the meal, the taste of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice or the matzah will [remain] in one's mouth, for eating them is the mitzvah.

ט

ואחר כך נמשך בסעודה ואוכל כל מה שהוא רוצה לאכול ושותה כל מה שהוא רוצה לשתות. ובאחרונה אוכל מבשר הפסח אפילו כזית ואינו טועם אחריו כלל. ובזמן הזה אוכל כזית מצה ואינו טועם אחריה כלום. כדי שיהיה הפסק סעודתו וטעם בשר הפסח או המצה בפיו שאכילתן היא המצוה:

Afterwards, one continues the meal, eating whatever one desires to eat and drinking whatever one desires to drink -- The Seder meal should be festive, with the finest foods being served.

At its conclusion, one eats from the Paschal sacrifice, -- a second time

even [as small a portion as] a

כזית — However, a כזית is required as in all requirements concerning eating. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 477:3) states that if possible, it is desirable to eat two portions of that size, one commemorating the Chagigah and one, the Paschal sacrifice.

and does not taste anything afterwards. -- It was customary to eat dessert (afikoman in Greek) after a meal. The Mishnah prohibits eating such dessert after eating from the Pesach sacrifice a second time (Pesachim 119b).

At present, one eats a

כזית of matzah — which we refer to as the afikoman. Shemurah matzah, matzah watched with the intention that it be eaten to fulfill the mitzvah, should be used. (See Halachah 8:13.) The afikoman must be eaten while leaning on the left side.

and does not taste anything -- with the exception of the remaining two cups of wine and water, as mentioned in the following halachah. Rabbenu Asher also allows nonalcoholic beverages to be consumed. When there is a great necessity, his opinion may be relied upon (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 478:1).

afterwards - so that, after the completion of the meal, the taste of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice or the matzah will [remain] in one's mouth -- See also Halachah 6:11.

10

Afterwards, he washes his hands and recites the grace after meals over a third cup [of wine] and drinks it.

Afterwards, he pours out a fourth cup and completes the Hallel over it, reciting upon it the blessing of song—i.e., "May all Your works praise You, God..." - recites the blessing, borey pri hagefen, [and drinks the wine]. Afterwards, he does not taste anything, with the exception of water, throughout the entire night.

It is permissible to mix a fifth cup and recite upon it "the great Hallel" - i.e., from "Give thanks to God, for He is good" until "By the rivers of Babylon." This cup is not an obligation like the other cups.

One may complete the Hallel wherever one desires, even though it is not the place where one ate.

י

ואחר כך נוטל ידיו ומברך ברכת המזון על כוס שלישי ושותהו. ואחר כך מוזג כוס רביעי וגומר עליו את ההלל. ואומר עליו ברכת השיר והיא יהללוך ה' כל מעשיך וכו'. ומברך בורא פרי הגפן ואינו טועם אחר כך כלום כל הלילה חוץ מן המים. ויש לו למזוג כוס חמישי ולומר עליו הלל הגדול מהודו לה' כי טוב עד על נהרות בבל. וכוס זה אינו חובה כמו ארבעה כוסות. ויש לו לגמור את ההלל בכל מקום שירצה אע"פ שאינו מקום סעודה:

Afterwards, he washes his hands -- After eating a meal, we are required to wash with water, mayim achronim, before reciting grace (Hilchot Berachot 6:1).

and recites the grace after meals over a third cup [of wine] -- as is customary for grace, Hilchot Berachot 7:14.

and drinks it -- after reciting the blessing, borey pri hagefen, as mentioned in Halachah 7:10. The cup is drunk while reclining on the left side.

Afterwards, he pours out a fourth cup and completes the Hallel -- begun before the meal

over it -- as our Sages commented: "Song is recited only over wine."

reciting upon it -- at the conclusion

the blessing of song i.e., "May all Your works praise You, God..." -- The Mishnah, Pesachim 10:7, quotes a difference of opinion on this matter. However, the Rambam chooses the blessing which is customarily recited after Hallel.

This represents a change from the Rambam's statements in his commentary on the Mishnah, where he writes:

"the blessing of song" - this is "Nishmat kol chay" until its conclusion. "May all Your works praise You, God..." until its conclusion is also called the blessing of song. If one joins the two together, it is praiseworthy.

At present, we follow the custom of joining both blessings together.

recites the blessing, borey pri hagefen, [and drinks the wine] -- reclining on the left side.

Afterwards, he does not taste anything -- neither food or drink. Note commentary on the previous halachah

with the exception of water -- for the water will not wash away the taste of the matzah or the wine.

throughout the entire night.

It is permissible to mix a fifth cup -- Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi quotes a version of Pesachim 118a, which states: "Rav Tarfon declares: 'On the fifth cup, he recites the great Hallel.'" (The accepted text of the Talmud states: "On the fourth cup...")

and recite upon it "the great Hallel" -- From this statement, Rabbenu Manoach derives that otherwise drinking additional cups of wine is forbidden.

i.e., -- Psalm 136, beginning

from "Give thanks to God, for He is good" until "By the rivers of Babylon." This cup is not an obligation like the other cups. -- Rabbenu Nissim writes that drinking a fifth cup fulfills the mitzvah in the most complete manner. However, the Ma'aseh Rokeach quotes the Rambam's son, Rav Avraham, as relating that his father would always recite Psalm 136 after the Hallel prayers, and then conclude with the blessing without drinking a fifth cup. Accordingly, the Ma'aseh Rokeach concludes that although it is permissible to drink a fifth cup, it is not proper to do so.

Likkutei Sichot, Vol. XXVII, suggests a different interpretation of this halachah, noting that the Rambam does not mention that the fifth cup is drunk. A fifth cup is mixed and placed on the table, and the "great Hallel" is recited over it. However, that cup should not be drunk. Thus, the fifth cup is not included as one of the four. Rather, it is a separate and independent obligation.

The Vilna Gaon (see Ta'amei HaMinhagim 551) associates the fifth cup with the cup of Elijah. The Talmud concludes the discussion of many unresolved questions with the statement: תיקו. Literally, the term is a shortened form of the word תיקום, "let it remain". However, it is also interpreted as an acrostic for the expression תשבי יתרץ קושיות ואביעות - "The Tishbite (Elijah) will answer all questions and difficulties."

Since the requirement of the fifth cup remains an unresolved question, the fifth cup is left for Elijah in the hope that he will come soon and resolve this question as well.

The homiletic aspects of this comment notwithstanding, from a halachic perspective a differentiation must be made between the two. The fifth cup is of Talmudic origin and may be poured for each individual. In contrast, Elijah's cup is an Ashkenazic custom of later origin, and a single cup is used for the whole family. Indeed, they are mentioned by halachists in different chapters of the Shulchan Aruch: the fifth cup by the Ramah in Chapter 481 and Elijah's cup by the Chok Ya'akov in Chapter 480.

One may complete the Hallel wherever one desires, even though it is not the place where one ate. -- A number of different halachic questions would arise should a person decide to leave the home in which he is holding the Seder from the kiddush until the conclusion of the grace after meals. However, once grace is concluded, no such problems exist.

The Ra'avad does not accept this opinion and maintains that all four cups should be drunk in the same place. Hence, he does not allow a person to leave the home in which he begins the Seder until its conclusion. Nevertheless, the Ramah quotes the Rambam's view as halachah in Orach Chayim 481:1.

11

In a place where it is customary to eat roasted meat on Pesach night, one may eat. [However,] in a place where it is customary not to eat [roasted meat], one should not eat it, lest it be said: "this is the meat of the Paschal sacrifice."

In all places, it is forbidden to eat a whole sheep that has been roasted in its entirety on this night, for it would appear as though one were eating sacrificial animals outside [the area prescribed for them]. If it has been cut in pieces, is lacking a limb, or one of the limbs attached to it has been boiled, it is permitted in a place where [roasted meat] is customarily [eaten].

יא

מקום שנהגו לאכול צלי בלילי פסחים אוכלים. מקום שנהגו שלא לאכול אין אוכלין גזירה שמא יאמרו בשר פסח הוא. ובכל מקום אסור לאכול שה צלוי כולו כאחד בליל זה מפני שנראה כאוכל קדשים בחוץ. ואם היה מחותך או שחסר ממנו אבר או שלק בו אבר והוא מחובר הרי זה מותר במקום שנהגו:

In a place where it is customary to eat roasted meat on Pesach night, one may eat. [However,] in a place where it is customary not to eat [roasted meat] -- The Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Orach Chayim 476:1 states that the accepted Ashkenazi custom is not to eat roasted meat on Pesach night.

one should not eat it -- The Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 476:2 states that this prohibition refers even to the meat of calves or fowl, "any creature that requires slaughter."

lest it be said: "this is the meat of the Paschal sacrifice." -- for the meat resembles the Paschal sacrifice which had to be roasted. As mentioned above, for this reason the Zeroa is not lifted up while the passage concerning the Paschal sacrifice is recited, and, in some communities, certain restrictions are made concerning its preparation.

In all places -- whether the custom of eating other roasted meat is accepted or not

it is forbidden to eat a whole sheep -- the animal used for the Paschal sacrifice

that has been roasted in its entirety -- as was the Paschal sacrifice, see Halachah 8:1.

on this night, for it would appear as though one were eating sacrificial animals outside [the area prescribed for them] -- The Paschal sacrifice must be slaughtered in the Temple and eaten within Jerusalem.

If it has been cut in pieces, is lacking a limb -- for the Pesach sacrifice was served all as one

or one of the limbs attached to it has been boiled -- it is forbidden to eat any portion of the Paschal sacrifice prepared in this fashion, see Hilchot Korban Pesach 8:4.

it is permitted in a place where [roasted meat] is customarily [eaten].

12

A person who does not have any wine on the nights of Pesach recites the kiddush on bread, as he would do on the Sabbath. [Afterwards,] he carries out all the [above] matters according to this order.

A person who has no other vegetable besides bitter herbs: At the outset, he recites two blessings over the bitter herbs: borey pri ha'adamah and al achilat maror, and partakes of them. When he concludes the Haggadah, he recites the blessing over the matzah and eats it. Afterwards, he eats from the bitter herbs without reciting a blessing.

יב

מי שאין לו יין בלילי הפסח מקדש על הפת כדרך שעושה בשבת ועושה כל הדברים על הסדר הזה. מי שאין לו ירק אלא מרור בלבד. בתחלה מברך על המרור שתי ברכות בורא פרי האדמה ועל אכילת מרור ואוכל. וכשיגמור ההגדה מברך על המצה ואוכל וחוזר ואוכל מן המרור בלא ברכה:

A person who does not have any wine -- However, if he has only one cup, he should use it for kiddush (Magen Avraham 483:1).

on the nights -- the plural usage of this term could be employed to include the second seder, held outside Eretz Yisrael.

of Pesach recites the kiddush on bread -- i.e., matzah

as he would do on the Sabbath. — Rav Yitzchak Alfasi and the Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 483:1 state that one must recite the al achilat matzah blessing before partaking of the matzah.

The Ramah (and the other Ashkenazic authorities) suggest that in such an eventuality, one should use mead or other highly regarded beverages (חמר מדינה) for kiddush and the other three cups.

[Afterwards,] he carries out all the [above] matters according to this order. -- Thus, matzah is eaten a second time. However, a blessing is not recited for it. The hands need not be washed for Urchatz. The commentators question whether the hands are washed a second time before partaking of the matzah again.

A person who has no other vegetable besides bitter herbs: At the outset -- for Karpas. See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 475:2.

he recites two blessings over the bitter herbs: borey pri ha'adamah and al achilat maror" -- Though this is not the place to eat maror, one must recite the blessing and eat the maror with the intention of fulfilling the mitzvah. There is no way one could eat a full portion of maror now and recite the blessing afterward.

and partakes of them -- after dipping them in vinegar or salt water, as mentioned in Halachah 8:2.

When he concludes the Haggadah -- The Rambam defines the Haggadah as the text beginning with Hah lachmah anya and ending with the blessing, asher ge'alanu.

he recites the blessing over the matzah and eats it. Afterwards, he eats from the bitter herbs -- dipping them in charoset

without reciting a -- second

blessing -- to fulfill the mitzvah of maror. The Mishnah Berurah (475:28) mentions other opinions which suggest reversing the order and first dipping the maror in charoset, and the second time in salt water. The Shulchan Aruch HaRav states that there is much controversy over this matter. Hence, one should try hard to find other vegetables to use for karpas and thus, avoid the issue.

13

A person who has only a single כזית of shemurah matzah: When he concludes [eating] his meal from matzah which was not watched, he recites the blessing, al achilat matzah, eats that כזית and does not taste anything afterward.

יג

מי שאין לו מצה משומרת אלא כזית כשגומר סעודתו ממצה שאינה משומרת מברך על אכילת מצה ואוכל אותו כזית ואינו טועם אחריו כלום:

A person who has only a single כזית -- the minimum measure necessary to fulfill the mitzvah. See Halachah 6:1.

of shemurah -- matzah that has been watched to ensure it has not become chametz and has been prepared for the purpose of being used to fulfill the mitzvah. See Halachot 5:8 and 6:5.

matzah -- should begin his meal by reciting hamotzi over matzah that has not been watched. The Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 482:1, states that after the meal is begun, the maror should be eaten.

When he concludes [eating] his meal from matzah which was not watched, -- Rabbenu Manoach emphasizes that one should not overeat in order that eating the shemurah matzah will not be גסה אכילה, undignified eating.

he recites the blessing, al achilat matzah, eats that כזית — as the afikoman

and does not taste anything afterward -- in order that the taste of matzah, a food that is a mitzvah, will remain in his mouth, as stated in Halachah 8:9. This reason is important enough to take prominence over the importance of eating the matzah designated for the mitzvah at the beginning of the meal.

14

A person who slept in the midst of the meal and then woke up, does not begin to eat again. [However,] if some members of a company slept in the middle of a meal, they may eat again. If they all fell into a sound slumber and then awoke, they should not eat. If they all [merely] dozed, they may eat.

יד

מי שישן בתוך הסעודה והקיץ אינו חוזר ואוכל. בני חבורה שישנו מקצתן בתוך הסעודה חוזרין ואוכלין. נרדמו כולן ונעורו לא יאכלו. נתנמנמו כולן יאכלו: סליקו להו הלכות חמץ ומצה

A person -- holding a Seder alone

who slept in the midst of the meal and then woke up, does not begin to eat again. -- This law is derived as follows: The Paschal sacrifice must be eaten together with a company of people (חבורה), organized before the sacrifice was slaughtered. It is forbidden to take the meat outside of this company. A person who eats the Paschal sacrifice alone is considered as the sole member of his company. Should he fall asleep in the midst of eating, it is considered as if he has changed from one company to another and he is forbidden to eat again.

Since the afikoman was instituted as a commemoration of the Paschal sacrifice, similar laws apply to it. Accordingly, Pesachim 120b records a discussion between Abaye and Rabbah concerning this law.

The Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 478:2 quotes the Rambam's statements verbatim. The Ramah states that since the law is derived from the laws of the Paschal sacrifice, it applies only with regard to the consumption of the afikoman. However, if a person fell asleep in the midst of the meal beforehand, he may resume eating. This opinion is accepted by the later Ashkenazic authorities.

[However,] if some members of a company slept in the middle of the meal -- Since the other members of the company remained awake,

they may eat again -- They need not recite new blessings over the food, as explained in the Shulchan Aruch, Chapter 178.

If they all fell into a sound slumber -- and hence the eating of the entire company has been interrupted.

and then awoke, they should not eat -- for the reasons explained above.

If they all [merely] dozed -- i.e., though drowsy, they would be able to respond to questions, the eating of the company is not considered to have been interrupted, and

they may eat.