The Text of the Haggadah

customarily recited by the Jews in the time of exile.

One begins, [pouring out] the second cup and recites:

In haste, we left Egypt.

This is the bread of affliction eaten by our ancestors in the land of Egypt. Whoever is hungry, let him come and eat. Whoever is needy, let him come and join in the observance of Passover. This year we are here. Next year, may we be in Eretz Yisrael. Now we are slaves. Next year, may we be free men.

נוסח ההגדה שנהגו בה ישראל בזמן הגלות, כך הוא: מתחיל על כוס שני ואומר, בבהילו יצאנו ממצריים. הא לחמא עניא, דאכלו אבהתנא דנפקו מארעא דמצריים. כל דכפין, ייתי וייכול; וכל דצריך לפסח, ייתי ויפסח. שתא הכא, לשנה הבאה בארעא דישראל; שתא הדא עבדי, לשתא דאתיא בני חורי.

The text -- As mentioned in the introduction, the Rambam composed the Mishneh Torah with the intention of providing our people with clear directives concerning the performance of all the mitzvot. Hence, he also includes in this work the text of all necessary prayers and legal documents.

the Haggadah -- The main body of the Haggadah was composed early in our nation's history. Some authorities attribute it to the Anshei Knesset HaGedolah, who composed it together with the other prayers and blessings they authored. Large portions of the Haggadah are found verbatim in the Mishnah, Pesachim, Chapter Ten, and reference is made there to other sections that are not explicitly quoted.

However, as obvious from the discussion in that chapter, the precise text of the Haggadah was a matter of debate and question throughout the Talmudic period. A few centuries after the completion of the Talmud, Rav Amram Gaon composed a text of the Haggadah that was accepted internationally, throughout all Jewish communities. Approximately sixty years later, his successor, Rav Saadia Gaon, composed a Haggadah with some changes and emendations. These two texts served as the basis for the Rambam's Haggadah and for the subsequent texts published by other Sages. Only minor differences exist between the Haggadah we use today and that composed by Rav Amram Gaon.

customarily the time of exile -- as stated in Halachot 8:3-5, there are certain differences between the text we recite and that recited when the Paschal sacrifice may be offered.

One begins, [pouring out] the second cup -- After reciting kiddush, washing one's hands, and partaking of the karpas, as mentioned in Halachah 8:1-2.

It must be noted that the Rambam prescribes that yachatz, the breaking of the afikoman, be performed directly before eating the matzah and not before beginning the recitation of the Haggadah, as is our custom.

In haste, we left Egypt -- This statement, half in Hebrew and half in Aramaic, refers to Deuteronomy 16:3. This line is not included in the Haggadot of Rav Amram or Rav Saadia Gaon, nor is it found in most subsequent Haggadot.

This is the bread of affliction -- This passage is not explicitly mentioned in the Talmud. However, Ta'anit 20b records that before the Seder, Rav Huna would open his door and announce: "Whoever is needy, let him come and eat."

In contrast to the rest of the Haggadah, this passage is recited in Aramaic. Among the explanations for this practice are:

a) This enabled the passage to be understood by all participants, since Aramaic was the common language of the time (Tosefot Rid, Manhig). Accordingly, the Ramah (Orach Chayim 473:6) relates that he would translate the passage into Yiddish at his Seder.

b) The angels do not understand Aramaic, and hence they will not accuse us of being unworthy of redemption (Ritbah).

c) The demons do not understand Aramaic, and thus they will not accept our invitation to the Seder (Rashi, HaPardes). This reason is questioned, because Pesach is a ליל שימורים (a protected night), on which the demons have no power to harm a Jew.

This year -- Our Haggadot (and that of Rav Amram Gaon) state השתא, "now." However, Rav Saadia Gaon's Haggadah also uses the Hebrew הא שתא, "this year." However, unlike the Rambam, he employs that expression for both clauses.

Why is this night different from all other nights? -- The practice of asking the four questions is explicitly mentioned in the Mishnah, Pesachim 116a.

On all other nights, we are not required to dip even once -- Note the commentary on Halachah 8:2 regarding the order of the questions.

On all other nights, we eat either sitting upright or reclining -- As explained in the commentary on Halachah 2, this question is not mentioned in the Talmud. Hence, some commentaries maintain that it was added in later generations. Nevertheless, the fact that the Rambam includes it together with the question concerning roasted meat appears to indicate that he maintains that this question had been asked during the time the Temple was standing.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt -- Pesachim 115a mentions the beginning of this passage within the context of the discussion of the requirement to begin the description of the Exodus by telling of our people's roots. See also the commentary on Halachah 7:4.

elders -- This expression is not included in the text of the Haggadah quoted by many authorities, including the Shibolei HaLeket and the Avudraham. Some manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah also omit it. Similarly, in Sefer HaMitzvot, Mitzvah 157, the Rambam makes statements similar to those of this passage without mentioning this expression.

Once Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah, Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Tarfon -- There is no explicit mention of this passage in the Talmud, although a somewhat parallel story is related in the Tosefta, Pesachim, Chapter 10.

Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah -- Berachot 12b quotes these statements without any reference to the gathering in Bnei Brak.

said to them -- This phrase is not mentioned in our text of the Haggadah. Its inclusion answers a question frequently raised: Why does the Haggadah mention this concept, which deals with the mitzvah to recall the Exodus from Egypt each day, on the Seder night? The recollection of the Exodus at the Seder is of a different nature entirely.

However, this addition clarifies the issue: This was one of the subjects discussed by the Sages in Bnei Brak.

Blessed be the Omnipresent -- The use of the word מקום as a name for God is based on Bereshit Rabbah 68:9: "He is the place of the world and the world is not His place."

who has given the Torah to Israel; blessed be He -- Our text of the Haggadah employs a slightly different version, mentioning four expressions of blessing to parallel the four sons.

The Torah speaks of four sons -- This passage is found with certain emendations in the Jerusalem Talmud and in the Mechiltah.

that God, our Lord, has commanded you -- Both the aforementioned sources state "has commanded us," preventing comparison between the wise and wicked sons. Nevertheless, the Rambam (as well as Rav Amram Gaon and Rav Saadia Gaon) found it more appropriate to quote the verse from the Torah verbatim.

reply to him, [teaching him] the laws of Pesach... -- Our text of the Jerusalem Talmud includes this as the answer to the simple son. Other commentaries (See P'nei David, Simchat HaRegel) give this as the answer to the wicked son.

dessert -- The literal meaning of the Greek word afikoman--see the Rambam's commentary on the Mishnah, Pesachim 10:8.

you should blunt his teeth and tell him...- Exodus 12:27 states that the question asked by the wicked son should be answered differently: "It is the Passover service to God..." The Zevach Pesach explains that the Haggadah implies, in addition to the reply given in the Torah, that he be reprimanded strongly, "blunt his teeth..."

The simple son -- the Jerusalem Talmud uses the expression: "the foolish son."

"You shall tell your son on that day." -- This verse, both the answer to the son who does not know how to ask and the source for the mitzvah to relate the story of the Exodus, serves as a transition between the passage of the four sons and the narrative of our redemption. (See also Halachah 7:1.)

"it is because of this." -- The word זה (this) is always used to refer to a clearly visible entity, as Menachot 29a comments on Exodus 12:2. Similarly, in this context, "this" refers to a situation where symbols of the Exodus, the matzah and the maror, are visibly present before us.

In the beginning, our ancestors were worshipers of other gods -- Pesachim 115a quotes this passage as reflecting the principle that the narrative of the Exodus must begin by relating our people's roots. (See Halachah 7:4.) It must be noted that the Rambam chooses slightly different phraseology from that employed in other Haggadot.

Blessed be He Who keeps His promise to Israel -- This passage is found in the Haggadot of Rav Amram Gaon and Rav Saadia Gaon. However, its origins are unknown.

the Holy One, blessed be He, calculated the end of [our bondage] -- i.e. counting the 400 years of oppression from the birth of Isaac, for during that entire time, the Jews were "strangers in a land that is not their own." The Egyptian exile itself lasted only 210 years. See Rashi, Exodus 12:40.

"An Aramean sought to destroy my father..." -- This and the verses that follow are part of the וידוי ביכורים recited when the Jews would bring their first fruits to Jerusalem. Pesachim 116a requires the person reciting the Haggadah to "expound from 'An Aramean sought to destroy my father' until he completes the entire passage." This implies that the exegesis of the verses found in the Haggadah was already extant at that time.

The commentaries quote the Sifri as the source for these interpretations though our text of the Sifri contains only portions of this passage. [The passage is found in the Mechiltah d'Rashbi in its entirety. However, some authorities maintain that it was a later addition.] Nevertheless, other early collections of Midrashim, such as Lekach Tov, Midrash HaGadol, and the Yalkut Shimoni, include the complete text.

"I made you as numerous as the plants of the field..." -- Though the verse has no explicit connection to the Exodus, the commentaries explain that it describes the situation of the Jews in Egypt in metaphoric terms.

Many texts of the Haggadah also include the previous verse from Ezekiel: "And when I passed by you, I saw you weltering in your blood..." Rav Ya'akov Emden relates that he and his father, the Chacham Tzvi, would recite this verse even though he did not find it in other texts. (His statement is slightly questionable. There are some earlier texts of the Haggadah, such as Siddur HaAri zal, which do include it.)

"I will pass through... and I will slay... I will execute... I, God." -- Our text of the Haggadah contains a further elaboration of this verse, showing how each use of the word "I" is intended to exclude God's use of an intermediary to execute judgement.

Rabbi Yehudah coined abbreviations for them: detzach, adash, b'achav. -- This concludes the exegesis of the verses of the וידוי ביכורים in the Sifri.

Our Haggadot (and similarly, those of Rav Amram Gaon and Rav Saadia Gaon) continue with a number of other passages:

a) Statements by Rabbi Yossi HaG'lili, Rabbi Eliezer, and Rabbi Akiva concerning the number of plagues with which the Egyptians were punished;

b) Passages recounting the extent of God's generosity to the Jewish people.

The first group of statements have their source in the Mechiltah. Rav Avraham, the Rambam's son, relates that his father did not include them in his text of the Haggadah because they were not popularly known. Nevertheless, it was his custom to recite them at the Seder.

The source for the second grouping of passages is less clear. They are not explicitly found in any Midrash.

Rabban Gamliel would say -- This passage and the remaining passages until the blessing, asher ge'alanu, are explicitly mentioned in the Mishnah, Pesachim 116a,b. (See also Halachot 7:5, 8:4 and the commentary, which mentions the change in the order there.)

has not fulfilled his obligation -- to relate the story of the Exodus. See Halachah 7:5.

In every generation -- This passage is found in Pesachim 116b. However, in contrast to the Talmud and our text of the Haggadah, the Rambam's text omits quoting Exodus 13:8: "And you shall tell your son..." Apparently, the Rambam had a different text of the Mishnah, which omitted this verse. This difference in texts is also the source for the Rambam's statements, Halachah 7:6: "In every generation, a person is obligated to present himself..." See the commentary on that halachah.

He brought us out from there -- Ravvah, Pesachim, ibid., requires reciting this verse.

Therefore, we are obliged to thank, praise, laud, glorify, exalt, magnify, adore, and give eternal praise -- With slight textual differences, this entire passage is found in Pesachim 116b. (See also Halachah 8:5).

Halleluyah! Servants of God,... [one continues reciting the Psalms] until... the flintstone into a stream of water — The Hallel was recited both while slaughtering the Paschal sacrifice and while eating it. To commemorate the latter recitation, we recite the Hallel at the Seder.

We divide the Hallel into two portions (see Pesachim, ibid. and Halachah 8:5):

the first, containing Psalms referring to the Exodus from Egypt, we recite before the meal;

the second, containing Psalms referring to the Messianic redemption (see Pesachim 118a), is recited after the meal.

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who redeemed us and redeemed our ancestors... -- This blessing is quoted from Pesachim 116b. The first portion was also recited while the Temple was standing.

So too, God, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, enable us to reach --This portion of the blessing, composed by Rabbi Akiva, represents a prayer for our redemption and the rebuilding of the Temple. (See Pesachim, ibid., Halachah 8:5.)

other festivals -- The word "other" can also imply "of a different nature"--i.e., we pray for the Messianic redemption, when our festivals will be of an entirely different nature.

we shall eat of the sacrifices -- the Chaggigah offering

and of the Paschal offerings -- The Chaggigah offering was not sacrificed when Pesach began on Saturday night. Accordingly, it is our custom to reverse the order of these sacrifices on such an occasion. However, the Rambam does not mention such a practice.

Then, we shall sing a new song for our redemption -- The Mechiltah (see also Tosefot, Pesachim, ibid.) notes that the Bible mentions nine songs sang by the Jewish people as a collective entity. In each case, the Hebrew for song, שירה, is used in the feminine gender, for our redemption was not complete. In contrast, the song to be sung to greet Mashiach will be a

שיר חדש, a new song. The masculine gender is used because the Messianic redemption will represent the complete and ultimate liberation of our people. May it come speedily in our days.

Why is this night different from all other nights?

On all other nights, we are not required to dip even once. On this night, we dip twice?

On all other nights, we eat chametz (leaven) or matzah. On this night, only matzah?

On all other nights, we eat any type of vegetables. On this night, we eat maror (bitter herbs)?

On all other nights, we eat either sitting upright or reclining. On this night, we all recline?

מה נשתנה הלילה הזה, מכל הלילות. שבכל הלילות, אין אנו מטבילין אפילו פעם אחת; והלילה הזה, שתי פעמים. שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלים חמץ ומצה; והלילה הזה, כולו מצה. שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלים שאר ירקות; והלילה הזה, מרורים. שבכל הלילות, אנו אוכלין בין יושבין ובין מסובין; והלילה הזה, כולנו מסובין.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt,1 but God, our Lord, brought us out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. If the Holy One, blessed be He, had not taken our ancestors out of Egypt, then we, our children, and our grandchildren, would still be enslaved to Pharaoh in Egypt.

[Therefore,] even if we were all wise, all men of understanding, all elders, all well-versed in Torah, we would still be commanded to tell about the Exodus from Egypt, for whoever tells about it at length, behold, he is worthy of praise.

עבדים היינו, לפרעה במצריים; ויוציאנו ה' אלוהינו משם, ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה. ואילו לא גאל הקדוש ברוך הוא את אבותינו ממצריים, עדיין אנו ובנינו ובני בנינו משועבדים היינו לפרעה במצריים. ואפילו כולנו חכמים, כולנו נבונים, כולנו זקנים, כולנו יודעים את התורה—מצוה עלינו לספר ביציאת מצריים; וכל המאריך ביציאת מצריים, הרי זה משובח.

Once Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah, Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Tarfon dined together [at the Seder] in Bnei Brak. They discussed the Exodus from Egypt throughout the entire night until their students came and told them: "Teachers, the time for reciting the Shemah in the morning has arrived."

מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושוע ורבי אלעזר בן עזריה ורבי עקיבה ורבי טרפון, שהיו מסובין בבני ברק; והיו מספרין ביציאת מצריים כל אותו הלילה, עד שבאו תלמידיהם ואמרו להם, רבותינו, הגיע זמן קרית שמע של שחרית.

Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to them:2 I am like a seventy-year-old man. Nevertheless, I did not merit [to understand the reason for the obligation] to recall the Exodus from Egypt at night until ben Zoma interpreted the verse:3 "In order that you remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life."

[The phrase] "the days of your life" refers to the days; [adding the word] "all" includes the nights.

The Sages interpreted [the verse]: "the days of your life" refers to the present world; "all the days of your life" indicates the Messianic era.

אמר להם רבי אלעזר בן עזריה, הרי אני כבן שבעים שנה, ולא זכיתי שתיאמר יציאת מצריים בלילות, עד שדרשה בן זומא: שנאמר "למען תזכור את יום צאתך מארץ מצריים, כול ימי חייך" (דברים טז,ג)--"ימי חייך", הימים; "כול ימי חייך", הלילות. וחכמים אומרים "ימי חייך", העולם הזה; "כול ימי חייך", להביא את ימות המשיח.

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.

Blessed be the Omnipresent, who has given the Torah to Israel; blessed be He.

The Torah speaks of four sons:4 one wise, one wicked, one simple, and one who does not know how to ask.

ברוך המקום שנתן תורה לישראל עמו, ברוך הוא. כנגד ארבעה בנים דיברה תורה—אחד חכם, ואחד רשע, ואחד תם, ואחד שאינו יודע לשאול.

The wise son, what does he say? "What are the testimonies, statutes, and laws that God, our Lord, has commanded you?"5

You should thus reply to him, [teaching him] the laws of Pesach [until the final concept]: one may not eat any dessert after the Paschal sacrifice.6

חכם, מה הוא אומר--"מה העדות, והחוקים והמשפטים, אשר ציווה ה' אלוהינו, אתכם" (דברים ו,כ). אף אתה אמור לו כהלכת הפסח, אין מפטירין אחר הפסח אפיקימון.

The wicked son, what does he say? "What is this service to you?"7 [By saying,] "to you," [he implies]: "but not to himself." Since he has excluded himself from the people at large, he denies the foundation of our faith.

Therefore, you should blunt his teeth and tell him: "It is because of this, what God did for me when I went out of Egypt."8 [By saying] "for me," [you imply]: "but not him." Had he been there, he would not have been redeemed.

רשע, מה הוא אומר--"מה העבודה הזאת, לכם" (שמות יב,כו). "לכם", ולא לו. ולפי שהוציא את עצמו מן הכלל וכפר בעיקר, אף אתה הקהה את שיניו ואמור לו: "בעבור זה, עשה ה' לי, בצאתי, ממצריים" (שמות יג,ח)--"לי", ולא לו; אילו היה שם, לא היה נגאל.

The simple son, what does he say? "What is this?"

You should tell him: "With a strong hand, God brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage."9

תם, מה הוא אומר--"מה זאת" (שמות יג,יד). "ואמרת אליו—בחוזק יד הוציאנו ה' ממצריים, מבית עבדים" (שם).

The son who does not know how to ask, you must open him up, as the verse states: "You shall tell your son on that day: 'It is because of this, what God did for me when I went out of Egypt.'"10

"You shall tell your son on that day." Does [the obligation11 to relate the narrative of Pesach begin] on the first of the month? The Torah teaches [ibid.]: "[You shall tell your son] on that day," [-i.e., on the day of the Exodus].

From the phrase "on that day," one might infer "while it is still day." [Hence,] the Torah adds "it is because of this." Thus, [the obligation begins only] when matzah and maror are placed before you.

ושאינו יודע לשאול, את פתח לו—שנאמר "והגדת לבנך, ביום ההוא לאמור: בעבור זה, עשה ה' לי, בצאתי, ממצריים" (שמות יג,ח). "והגדת לבנך", יכול מראש החודש—תלמוד לומר "ביום ההוא". אי ביום ההוא, יכול מבעוד יום—תלמוד לומר "בעבור זה", לא אמרתי אלא בשעה שיש מצה ומרור מונחים לפניך.

In the beginning, our ancestors were worshipers of other gods,12 but now the Omnipresent has drawn us close to His service, as it is stated:13 "So God, the Lord of Israel, says: 'Your ancestors had always lived beyond the [Euphrates] River, Terach, the father of Abraham and Nachor, and they served other gods.'"

"'And I took your Patriarch, Abraham, from beyond the river and led him through the land of Canaan. I multiplied his descendants and I gave him Isaac.'"

"'To Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau. To Esau, I gave Mount Seir to inherit, but Jacob and his children went down to Egypt.'"

מתחילה, עובדי עבודה זרה היו אבותינו; ועכשיו, קירבנו המקום ברוך הוא לעבודתו, שנאמר "ויאמר יהושוע אל כל העם, כה אמר ה' אלוהי ישראל, בעבר הנהר ישבו אבותיכם מעולם, תרח אבי אברהם ואבי נחור; ויעבדו, אלוהים אחרים. ואקח את אביכם את אברהם, מעבר הנהר, ואולך אותו, בכל ארץ כנען; וארבה, את זרעו, ואתן לו, את יצחק. ואתן ליצחק, את יעקוב ואת עשיו; ואתן לעשיו את הר שעיר, לרשת אותו, ויעקוב ובניו, ירדו מצריים" (יהושוע כד,ב-ד).

Blessed be He Who keeps His promise to Israel, blessed be He, for the Holy One, blessed be He, calculated the end of [our bondage] in order to fulfill His pledge to Abraham [made] in the covenant bayn habetarim, as it is stated:14

"And He said to Abram: 'Know with certainty that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not their own. [The natives] will enslave them and oppress them for 400 years. But, ultimately, I will execute judgement upon the nation they shall serve and, afterwards, they shall leave with great wealth.'"

ברוך שומר הבטחתו לישראל עמו, ברוך הוא: שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחשב את הקץ, לעשות כמה שאמר לאברהם אבינו בין הבתרים, שנאמר "ויאמר לאברם, ידוע תדע כי גר יהיה זרעך בארץ לא להם, ועבדום, ועינו אותם—ארבע מאות, שנה. וגם את הגוי אשר יעבודו, דן אנוכי; ואחרי כן ייצאו, ברכוש גדול" (בראשית טו,יג-יד).

It is this that has stood by our ancestors and us. It is not only one that has risen up against us to destroy us. Rather, in every generation, they rise against us to annihilate us. However, the Holy One, blessed be He, saves us from their hand.

היא שעמדה לאבותינו, ולנו—שלא אחד בלבד עמד עלינו, אלא בכל דור ודור עומדים עלינו לכלותנו; והקדוש ברוך הוא, מצילנו מידם.

Go and learn what Laban attempted to do to our Patriarch, Jacob. Pharaoh decreed only against the males, but Laban attempted to uproot everything, as it is stated:15

"An Aramean sought to destroy my father; he descended to Egypt and sojourned there16 - This teaches that our Patriarch, Jacob, did not go down to Egypt with the intention of settling there, but merely to sojourn there, as it is stated:17

"And they told Pharaoh: We have come to sojourn in this land, for there is no pasture for the flocks of your servants, since there is a severe famine in the land of Canaan. Now, please let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen."

צא ולמד, מה ביקש לבן הארמי לעשות ליעקוב אבינו—שפרעה הרשע, לא גזר אלא על הזכרים; ולבן ביקש לעקור את הכול, שנאמר "ארמי אובד אבי, ויירד מצריימה, ויגר שם" (דברים כו,ה). מלמד שלא ירד להשתקע אלא לגור שם, שנאמר "ויאמרו אל פרעה, לגור בארץ באנו, כי אין מרעה לצאן אשר לעבדיך, כי כבד הרעב בארץ כנען; ועתה יישבו נא עבדיך, בארץ גושן" (בראשית מז,ד).

with a small number of people--as it is stated:18 "Your ancestors went down to Egypt with seventy persons. Now, God has made you as numerous as the stars of the heaven."

במתי מעט—כמו שנאמר "בשבעים נפש, ירדו אבותיך מצריימה; ועתה, שמך ה' אלוהיך, ככוכבי השמיים, לרוב" (דברים י,כב).

There, he became a nation--This teaches that Israel were distinct there.

great, powerful,-- as it is stated:19 "and the children of Israel were fruitful, became prolific, multiplied, and became very, very powerful. The land became full with them."

ויהי שם לגוי—מלמד שהיו ישראל מצויינין שם. גדול ועצום—כמו שנאמר "ובני ישראל, פרו וישרצו וירבו ויעצמו—במאוד מאוד; ותימלא הארץ, אותם" (שמות א,ז).

and populous-- as it is stated:20 "I made you as numerous as the plants of the field. You grew and developed, becoming very attractive, your breasts firm and your hair grown long; but you were naked and bare."

ורב—כמו שנאמר "רבבה, כצמח השדה נתתיך, ותרבי ותגדלי, ותבואי בעדי עדיים: שדיים נכונו ושיערך צימח, ואת עירום ועריה" (יחזקאל טז,ז).

And the Egyptians were cruel to us.21--as it is stated:22 "Come, let us deal cleverly with them, lest they multiply. Then, if there were a war, they might join our enemies and drive [us] out of the land."

וירעו אותנו המצרים—כמו שנאמר "הבה נתחכמה, לו: פן ירבה, והיה כי תקראנה מלחמה ונוסף גם הוא על שונאינו, ונלחם בנו, ועלה מן הארץ" (שמות א,י).

They made us suffer-- as it is stated:23 "They placed task masters over them to oppress them with hard labor. And they built Pitom and Ra'amses as supply centers for Pharaoh."

ויענונו—כמו שנאמר "וישימו עליו שרי מיסים, למען ענותו בסבלותם; וייבן ערי מסכנות, לפרעה—את פיתום, ואת רעמסס" (שמות א,יא).

and imposed harsh slavery upon us-- as it is stated:24 "And the Egyptians made the children of Israel do backbreaking labor."

וייתנו עלינו עבודה קשה—כמו שנאמר "ויעבידו מצריים את בני ישראל, בפרך" (שמות א,יג).

We cried out to God, the Lord of our fathers25-- as it is stated:26 "After those many days, the king of Egypt died. The children of Israel groaned because of the work. When they cried out over their slavery, their pleas rose up before God."

ונצעק אל ה' אלוהי אבותינו—כמו שנאמר "ויהי בימים הרבים ההם, וימת מלך מצריים, וייאנחו בני ישראל מן העבודה, ויזעקו; ותעל שוועתם אל האלוהים, מן העבודה" (שמות ב,כג).

God heard our voice.-- as it is stated:27 "God heard our cries and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

וישמע ה' את קולנו—כמו שנאמר "וישמע אלוהים, את נאקתם; ויזכור אלוהים את בריתו, את אברהם את יצחק ואת יעקוב" (שמות ב,כד).

He saw our suffering,-- This refers to the disruption of family life, as it is stated:28 "God saw the children of Israel and God took note."

וירא את עוניינו—זו פרישות דרך ארץ, כמו שנאמר "וירא אלוהים, את בני ישראל; ויידע, אלוהים" (שמות ב,כה).

our difficult labor,-- This refers to the children, as it is stated:29 "Every boy who is born must be cast into the river, but every girl shall be allowed to live."

ואת עמלנו—אלו הבנים, כמו שנאמר "כל הבן היילוד, היאורה תשליכוהו, וכל הבת, תחייון" (שמות א,כב).

and our distress-- this refers to the pressure [applied by the Egyptians], as it is stated:30 "I have also seen the oppression which the Egyptians are applying to them."

ואת לחצנו—זה הדוחק, כמו שנאמר "וגם ראיתי, את הלחץ, אשר מצריים, לוחצים אותם" (שמות ג,ט).

God brought us out of Egypt31-- not by the medium of an angel, not by the medium of a seraph, nor by the medium of any agent. Rather, [it was] the Holy One, blessed be He; He, Himself, in His glory, as it is stated:32

"I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will slay every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man to beast. I will execute judgements against all the gods of Egypt. I, God."

ויוציאנו ה' ממצריים—לא על ידי מלאך, לא על ידי שרף, לא על ידי שליח, אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא בכבודו: כמו שנאמר "ועברתי בארץ מצריים, בלילה הזה, והכיתי כל בכור בארץ מצריים, מאדם ועד בהמה; ובכל אלוהי מצריים אעשה שפטים, אני ה'" (שמות יב,יב).

with a mighty hand-- This refers to the epidemic, as it is stated:33 "Behold, the hand of God will be directed against your cattle in the field, against the horses, the asses and camels, the oxen and the sheep, with a very severe epidemic."

ביד חזקה—זה הדבר, כמו שנאמר "הנה יד ה' הויה, במקנך אשר בשדה, בסוסים בחמורים בגמלים, בבקר ובצאן—דבר, כבד מאוד" (שמות ט,ג).

with an outstretched arm-- This refers to the sword, as it is stated:34 "His unsheathed sword is in his hand, stretched out over Jerusalem."

ובזרוע נטויה—זו החרב, כמו שנאמר "וחרבו שלופה בידו, נטויה על ירושלים" (דברי הימים א כא,טז).

with great visions-- This refers to the revelation of the Divine Presence, as it is stated:35 "Has God ever performed miracles, coming to take one nation out of the midst of another nation with miracles, signs, wonders, war, a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, and with terrifying phenomena, as God did for you in Egypt before your very eyes?"

ובמורא גדול—זה גילוי שכינה, כמו שנאמר "או הניסה אלוהים, לבוא לקחת לו גוי מקרב גוי, במסות באותות ובמופתים ובמלחמה וביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה, ובמוראים גדולים: ככול אשר עשה לכם ה' אלוהיכם, במצריים—לעיניך" (דברים ד,לד).

signs-- This refers to the staff, as it is stated:36 "Take this staff in your hand, with which you shall perform the signs."

ובאותות—זה המטה, שנאמר "ואת המטה הזה, תיקח בידך, אשר תעשה בו, את האותות" (שמות ד,יז).

and wonders-- This refers to the blood, as it is stated:37 "I will reveal wonders in heaven and earth: Blood, fire, and columns of smoke."

ובמופתים—זה הדם, כמו שנאמר "ונתתי, מופתים, בשמיים, ובארץ: דם ואש, ותימרות עשן" (יואל ג,ג).

Another interpretation: [of the above verse: Each phrase is associated with two plagues:]

with a mighty hand: two;

and with an outstretched arm: two;

and with great visions: two;

and with signs: two;

and with wonders: two.

These are the ten plagues which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt: They are:

Blood, frogs, lice, wild beasts, epidemic,

boils, hail, locusts, darkness, slaying of the firstborn.

Rabbi Yehudah coined an abbreviation for them:

detzach, adash, b'achav

דבר אחר: ביד חזקה, שתיים; ובזרוע נטויה, שתיים; ובמורא גדול, שתיים; ובאותות, שתיים; ובמופתים, שתיים. אלו עשר מכות, שהביא הקדוש ברוך הוא על המצריים במצריים; ואלו הן: דם, צפרדע, כינים, ערוב, דבר, שחין, ברד, ארבה, חושך, מכת בכורות. רבי יהודה היה נותן בהם סימן, דצ"ך עד"ש באח"ב.

Rabban Gamliel would say:38 Whoever does not discuss the following three things on Pesach has not fulfilled his obligation. They are: the Paschal sacrifice, matzah, and maror.

רבן גמליאל אומר, כל שלא אמר שלושה דברים אלו בפסח, לא יצא ידי חובתו—פסח, מצה, ומרורים.

The Paschal sacrifice that our ancestors would eat during the time the Temple was standing—what is its reason?

Because the Holy One, blessed be He, passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt, as it is stated:39 "You shall say, 'It is a Pesach sacrifice for God, because He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, striking the Egyptians and saving our homes.' The people bowed down and prostrated themselves."

פסח שהיו אבותינו אוכלין בזמן שבית המקדש קיים, על שם מה—על שם שפסח המקום על בתי אבותינו במצריים, שנאמר "ואמרתם זבח פסח הוא לה', אשר פסח על בתי בני ישראל במצריים, בנוגפו את מצריים, ואת בתינו הציל; וייקוד העם, וישתחוו" (שמות יב,כז).

This matzah we eat—what is its reason?

Because the dough of our ancestors did not have time to become leavened before the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed Himself to them and redeemed them, as it is stated:40 "They baked matzah cakes from the dough that they had brought out of Egypt, because it had not risen; for they had been driven out of Egypt and could not delay; nor had they prepared any [other] provisions for themselves."

מצה זו שאנחנו אוכלין, על שם מה—על שם שלא הספיק בצקם של אבותינו להחמיץ, עד שנגלה עליהם מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא, וגאלם מיד: שנאמר "ויאפו את הבצק אשר הוציאו ממצריים, עוגות מצות—כי לא חמץ: כי גורשו ממצריים, ולא יכלו להתמהמה, וגם צידה, לא עשו להם" (שמות יב,לט).

This maror we eat—what is its reason?

Because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt, as it is stated:41 They made the Jews' lives bitter with hard service, with mortar and with bricks, and with all manner of service in the field; their entire service at which they made them slave vigorously.

מרורים אלו שאנחנו אוכלין, על שם מה—על שם שמיררו המצריים את חיי אבותינו במצריים, שנאמר "וימררו את חייהם בעבודה קשה, בחומר ובלבינים, ובכל עבודה, בשדה—את, כל עבודתם, אשר עבדו בהם, בפרך" (שמות א,יד).

In every generation42, a person is obligated to regard himself as if he had left Egypt. It was not only our ancestors whom the Holy One, blessed be He, redeemed from Egypt; rather, He redeemed us, as it is stated:43 "He brought us out from there, so that He might bring us to the land He promised our fathers, and give it to us."

ובכל דור ודור, חייב אדם להראות את עצמו כאילו הוא יצא ממצריים, שלא את אבותינו בלבד גאל, אלא אף אותנו גאל—שנאמר "ואותנו, הוציא משם—למען, הביא אותנו, לתת לנו את הארץ, אשר נשבע לאבותינו" (דברים ו,כג).

Therefore, we are obliged44 to thank, praise, laud, glorify, exalt, magnify, adore, and give eternal honor to the One who did all these miracles for us and for our ancestors. He took us out from slavery to freedom, from servitude to redemption, from sorrow to joy, from mourning to festivity, and from deep darkness to great light. [Therefore,] let us recite before Him: Halleluyah!

לפיכך אנו חייבים להודות להלל לשבח לפאר לרומם לגדל ולהדר, ולנצח ולברך למי שעשה לנו ולאבותינו את כל הניסים האלו, והוציאנו מעבדות לחירות, ומשיעבוד לגאולה, ומיגון לשמחה, ומאבל ליום טוב, ומאפילה לאור גדול; ונאמר לפניו, הללו יה.

Halleluyah! Servants of God—offer praise;45 praise the name of God. May God's name be blessed...

[one continues reciting the Psalms] until

the flint-stone into a stream of water.46

"הללו יה: הללו, עבדי ה'; הללו, את שם ה'. יהי שם ה', מבורך . . ." (תהילים קיג,א-ב) עד "חלמיש, למעיינו מים" (תהילים קיד,ח).

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the Universe47 who redeemed us and redeemed our ancestors from Egypt and has enabled us to reach this night so that we may eat matzah and maror upon it. So too, God, our Lord and Lord of our fathers, enable us to reach other festivals and holidays that will come to us in peace, celebrating in the rebuilding of Your city and rejoicing in Your service. Then, we shall eat of the sacrifices and of the Paschal offerings whose blood shall reach the wall of Your altar to be graciously accepted. Then, we shall offer thanks to You [with] a new song for our redemption and for the deliverance of our souls. Blessed are You, God, who redeemed Israel.

ברוך אתה ה' אלוהינו מלך העולם, אשר גאלנו וגאל את אבותינו ממצריים, והגיענו ללילה הזה לאכול בו מצה ומרורים. כן ה' אלוהינו ואלוהי אבותינו, יגיענו למועדים ולרגלים אחרים הבאים לקראתנו לשלום, שמחים בבניין עירך וששים בעבודתך, ונאכל שם מן הזבחים ומן הפסחים שיגיע דמם על קיר מזבחך לרצון, ונודה לך שיר חדש על גאולתנו ועל פדות נפשנו. ברוך אתה ה', גאל ישראל.

According to the order with which one recites the blessings and the Haggadah on the first night of Pesach, one recites the blessings and the Haggadah on the second night, which was [instituted because of] the exile. Similarly, on the second night, we are obligated in the four cups [of wine] and the other practices of the first night.

With the help of heaven, this concludes the text of the Haggadah and concludes the halachot of the Pesach Seder and the laws pertaining to chametz and matzah.

כסדר שמברכין וקוראים ההגדה בליל יום טוב ראשון של פסח, כך מברכים וקוראים בליל השני של גלייות; וכן חייבין בליל השני בארבעה כוסות, ובשאר הדברים שנעשו בלילה הראשון.

Blessed be God who grants assistance.

בְּרִיךְ רַחֲמָנָא דְּסַיְּעָן