1

The prohibition against chametz applies only to the five species of grain. They include two species of wheat: wheat and rye; and three species of barley: barley, oats, and spelt.

However, kitniyot - e.g., rice, millet, beans, lentils and the like - do not become leavened. Even if one kneads rice flour or the like with boiling water and covers it with fabric until it rises like dough that has become leavened, it is permitted to be eaten. This is not leavening, but rather the decay [of the flour].

א

אין אסור משום חמץ בפסח אלא חמשת מיני דגן בלבד. והם שני מיני חטים שהן החטה והכוסמת. ושלשה מיני השעורים שהן השעורה ושבולת שועל והשיפון. אבל הקטניות כגון אורז ודוחן ופולים ועדשים וכיוצא בהן אין בהן משום חמץ אלא אפילו לש קמח אורז וכיוצא בו ברותחין וכסהו בבגדים עד שנתפח כמו בצק שהחמיץ הרי זה מותר באכילה שאין זה חמוץ אלא סרחון:

in water on Pesach [to remove its husks] -- Rabbenu Manoach explains that the kernels of grain were placed in hot water, stirred vigorously, and then crushed to remove the husks.

because [the kernels] are soft and become leavened rapidly. If one did stir [barley] in water and [the kernels] softened to the point -- The cracking open of the kernels would be the clearest sign that the grain had become leavened. However, even if the leavening process has reached the point

that if they were placed at the opening to a roasting pan -- Our translation of ביב follows Rav Yitzchak Alfasi and Rabbenu Chanan'el. See also Halachah 22. However, Rashi (Pesachim 40a) provides a different and more lenient interpretation.

upon which loaves were usually baked, they would burst open - behold, they are forbidden -- This is a very stringent measure. Once barley kernels are exposed to water, they will burst open shortly after being exposed to heat of this nature.

If they have not reached this degree of softness, they are permitted.

2

With regard to these five species of grain: If [flour from these species] is kneaded with fruit juice alone without any water, it will never become leavened. Even if [flour] is placed in [these juices] the entire day until the dough rises, it is permitted to be eaten [on Pesach], for fruit juice does not cause [dough] to become leavened. It merely causes [the flour] to decay.

The following are [included in the category] of fruit juice: wine, milk, honey, olive oil, apple juice, pomegranate juice and all other similar wines, oils, and beverages.

This applies so long as no water whatsoever is mixed with them. If any water is mixed with them, they cause [the flour] to become leavened.

ב

חמשת מיני דגן אלו אם לשן במי פירות בלבד בלא שום מים לעולם אין באין לידי חמוץ אלא אפילו הניחן כל היום עד שנתפח הבצק מותר באכילה). שאין מי פירות מחמיצין אלא מסריחין. ומי פירות הן כגון יין וחלב ודבש ושמן זית ומי תפוחים ומי רמונים וכל כיוצא בהן משאר יינות ושמנים ומשקין. והוא שלא יתערב בהן שום מים בעולם. ואם נתערב בהן מים כל שהוא הרי אלו מחמיצין:

With regard to these five species of grain: If [flour from these species] is kneaded with fruit juice alone — מי פירות literally means "the water of fruit." However, as the halachah explains, the practical application of the term is much broader.

without any water, it will never become leavened. Even if [flour] is placed in [these juices] the entire day until the dough rises, it is permitted to be eaten [on Pesach] -- This halachah is a matter of controversy among the commentators. In his commentary on the Mishnah (Pesachim 3:1), the Rambam makes similar statements. However, in the Oxford manuscript of that text, the words "permitted to be eaten" are crossed out and replaced with the words "one is not obligated for כרת." However, it appears that this emendation was made by Rav Avraham, the Rambam's son, and not the Rambam himself.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 462:1) permits the use of fruit juice. However, the Ramah (462:4) states that it is Ashkenazic custom not to use fruit juice for matzah on Pesach out of the fear that some water might perhaps be mixed together with it (see below). Nevertheless, he does allow leniency for people who are ill or sick and have difficulty eating normal matzah.

Among the present day applications of this concept is commercially produced "egg matzah." According to the above guidelines, in the Ashkenazic community, such matzah:

a) cannot be used in the Seder, as explained in the commentary to Halachah 6:2;

b) must contain only eggs and fruit juice, with no water whatsoever;

c) even so, should be eaten only by those with medical problems that prevent them from eating normal matzah.

for fruit juice does not cause [dough] to become leavened -- and thus become chametz. Rather,

it merely causes [the flour] to decay. -- Nevertheless, dried out wine dregs which have fermented do cause the dough to become leavened (Tosefot, Pesachim 28b).

The following are [included in the category] of fruit juice: wine, milk, honey -- The Hagahot Maimoni explains that this applies to both bee and date honey.

olive oil, apple juice -- The dough is permitted even if the apple juice has begun to ferment.

pomegranate juice and all other similar wines, oils, and beverages -- Shulchan Aruch HaRav (Orach Chayim 462:2) defines

מי פירות as: "any liquid that is not derived from water... even if it does not come from produce."

This applies so long as no water whatsoever is mixed with them. If any water is mixed with them, they cause [the flour] to become leavened -- Indeed, when water is mixed with these juices, the dough becomes leavened much faster than if it had been mixed with water alone. Generally, dough can be left eighteen minutes before it becomes leavened, but the limit for dough made from a mixture of these liquids and water is much less (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 462:2). See commentary to Halachah 20.

3

[On Pesach,] we should not cook wheat in water - for example, cracked wheat - or flour [in water] - for example, dough balls. If one cooks [either of the above] - behold, it is absolutely chametz. This applies if [the kernels] crack open within the dish.

We may not fry dough in oil in a frying pan. However, we may cook a loaf [of matzah] or roasted flour. If one boiled a lot of water and, afterwards, placed flour into it - behold, it is permitted, because it is cooked immediately, before it could become leaven. [Nevertheless,] it is accepted custom in Babylonia, Spain, and the entire western [diaspora] to forbid this practice. This has been decreed lest one not boil the water well enough.

ג

אין מבשלין חטים במים כגון ריפות ולא קמח כגון לביבות. ואם בישל הרי זה חמץ גמור והוא שיתבקעו בתבשיל. אין קולין את הבצק בשמן על המחבת. אבל מבשלין את הפת ואת הקמח הקלוי. ואם הרתיח המים הרבה ואחר כך השליך לתוכן הקמח הרי זה מותר מפני שהוא מתבשל מיד קודם שיחמיץ. וכבר נהגו בשנער ובספרד ובכל המערב לאסור דבר זה גזרה שמא לא ירתיח המים יפה יפה:

[On Pesach,] we should not cook wheat in water -- Though raw wheat itself is not chametz, once wheat or flour is mixed with water, it becomes leavened within eighteen to twenty-four minutes. (See Halachah 12.) Less time is required when heat is applied to it. Hence, cooking or baking with wheat or flour on Pesach must be carried out under careful guidelines.

for example, cracked wheat -- wheat served as a grain.

or flour [in water], for example, dough balls -- A dish resembling kneidlach, but made with regular flour rather than matzah meal.

If one cooks [either of the above] - behold, it is absolutely chametz - for the wheat or flour has become leavened.

This applies -- This clause obviously refers only to cooking wheat.

if [the kernels] crack open within the dish -- the cracking open of the kernels is a sign that the wheat has expanded because of leavening.

We may not fry dough -- made with water

in oil in a frying pan -- The Maggid Mishneh explains that oil is considered מי פירות and, hence, will cause the dough to become leavened. (See also Nodah BiYhudah, Vol. II, Responsum 57.)

However, we may cook a loaf [of matzah] -- Pesachim 39b states that once matzah has been baked, it can be cooked again without the fear of leavening. Similarly, it can be ground into meal, and then used as flour without the fear of becoming chametz. (See also Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 463:3.)

This law is the basis of the widely practiced leniency of cooking and baking with matzah meal. Nevertheless, certain Ashkenazic communities refrain from using matzah meal because of the custom of שרויה, gebruks. Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi (Responsum VI; see also Sha'arei Teshuvah, Orach Chayim 460:10) writes that it is possible that some of the dough was not baked thoroughly and some flour remaining in it could become chametz when cooked again.

or roasted flour -- Once flour has become roasted, it will not become leavened. However, we must differentiate between roasted flour and flour made from roasted wheat; the latter flour may not be used on Pesach. (See Halachah 5.) The Pri Chadash even questions the leniency of using roasted flour.

If one boiled a lot of water and, afterwards, placed flour into it - behold, it is permitted because it -- the flour

is cooked immediately, before it could become leaven -- This practice was permitted only when the water was absolutely boiling at the time the flour was placed in it.

[Nevertheless,] it is accepted custom in Babylonia, Spain, and the entire western [diaspora] to forbid this practice. This was decreed lest one not boil the water well enough. -- The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 454:3) states: "At present, there are none who know how to boil foods in this manner. Hence, all boiling is forbidden."

4

It is permissible to cook grain or flour in fruit juice. Thus, dough which was kneaded with fruit juice, cooked with fruit juice, or fried with oil in a frying pan is permitted, for fruit juice does not cause leavening.

ד

מותר לבשל הדגן או הקמח במי פירות. וכן בצק שלשו במי פירות אם בשלו במי פירות או קלהו על המחבת בשמן הרי זה מותר שמי פירות אינן מחמיצין:

It is permissible to cook grain or flour in fruit juice -- Baking dough kneaded with מי פירות was discussed in Halachah 2. The present halachah explains that flour mixed with those liquids will not become leavened even when cooked or fried.

Thus, dough which was kneaded with fruit juice, cooked with fruit juice or fried with oil in a frying pan is permitted, for fruit juice does not cause leavening -- As explained above, it is Ashkenazic custom not to use dough or flour cooked with these liquids.

5

Roasted grain which is singed in fire and then ground [into flour]: That flour should not be cooked with water, lest it has not been roasted well in the fire, and thus will become leavened when cooked.

Similarly, when preparing new pots, we should not cook in them anything other than matzah that was baked and then ground into flour. It is forbidden to do so with roasted flour, for perhaps it will not be roasted well, and thus may become leaven.

ה

כרמל שמהבהבין אותו באור וטוחנין אותו אין מבשלין את הקמח שלו במים שמא לא נקלה באור יפה ונמצא מחמיץ כשמבשלין אותו. וכן כשמוללין הקדרות החדשות אין מבשלין בהן אלא מצה אפויה שחזרו וטחנו אותה אבל קמח קלי אסור שמא לא קלהו יפה ויבוא לידי חמוץ:

Roasted grain -- Once wheat is roasted, flour that is made from it will never become leavened.

which is singed in fire -- lightly roasted in order to dry out any moisture.

and then ground [into flour]: That flour should not be cooked with water lest it has not been roasted well in the fire and thus will become leavened when cooked -- Rabbenu Manoach explains that this law applies only to light roasting. If grain is roasted thoroughly, its flour may be used. However, in instances of this nature, the Rabbis would rather forbid such practices entirely than allow a loosely defined leniency. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 463:3.)

Similarly, when preparing new pots --

מלל, the word used by the Rambam, means "husk." In his dictionary, Rabbenu Tanchum of Jerusalem explains the derivation of this term:

They take fresh barley, singe it, dry it, and grind it into flour. Afterwards, it is cooked until it is soft... and then, it is poured into new pots to reduce their porosity.

In his commentary on the Mishneh Torah, Rav Kapach notes that such practices are still followed in Yemen today.

we should not cook in them anything other than matzah that was baked and then ground into flour -- matzah meal. As explained in Halachah 4, once matzah has been baked, it will never become leavened.

It is forbidden to do so with roasted flour, for perhaps it will not be roasted well and thus may become leaven -- This statement is slightly problematic, for Halachah 4 mentioned that we may cook with roasted flour.

6

We do not stir barley in water on Pesach [to remove its husks], because [the kernels] are soft and become leavened rapidly. If one did stir [barley] in water and [the kernels] softened to the point that if they were placed at the opening to a roasting pan upon which loaves were usually baked, they would burst open - behold, they are forbidden. If they have not reached this degree of softness, they are permitted.

ו

אין בוללין את השעורין במים בפסח מפני שהן רפין ומחמיצין במהרה. ואם בלל אם רפו כדי שאם הניחן על פי הביב שאופין עליו החלות יתבקעו הרי אלו אסורין. ואם לא הגיעו לרפיון זה הרי אלו מותרין:

7

It is permissible to stir wheat [kernels] in water to remove the bran, and then immediately grind them, as is done when grinding fine flour. [Nevertheless,] all Jews in Babylonia, Eretz Yisrael, Spain, and the cities of the western [diaspora] have accepted the custom of not stirring wheat in water. This decree [was instituted] lest [the kernels] be left aside and become leavened.

ז

החטים מותר לבלול אותן במים כדי להסיר סובן וטוחנין אותם מיד כדרך שטוחנין הסולת. וכבר נהגו כל ישראל בשנער ובארץ הצבי ובספרד ובערי המערב שלא יבללו החטים במים גזירה שמא ישהו ויחמיצו:

It is permissible to stir wheat [kernels] in water to remove the bran -- Wheat kernels are firmer than barley kernels.

and then immediately -- Once the grain has come in contact with water and it is left untended for the time it takes a person to walk a mil, it will become leavened. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 467:2.)

grind them, as is done when grinding fine flour. -- The commentaries note that in Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:20, the Rambam states that the grain used for the meal offerings was not stirred in water, lest it become leavened. Among the resolutions offered to this difficulty is that chametz is a severe prohibition, and greater care would be taken.

[Nevertheless,] all Jews in Babylonia, Eretz Yisrael -- Gittin 57a explains why the term ארץ צבי is used as a reference for Eretz Yisrael.

Spain, and the cities of the western [diaspora] have accepted the custom of not stirring wheat in water -- Rabbenu Manoach mentions that this custom was several hundred years old in his time (approx. 1200 CE). Pesachim 40a mentions that even in Talmudic times, a בעל נפש (a person precise in the observance of the commandments) would not use wheat that had been stirred. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 453:5) states that stirring wheat is "prohibited."

This decree [was instituted] lest [the kernels] be left aside and become leavened -- i.e., the fear is not that the wheat will become leavened while the bran is being removed, but rather, that after it has been removed, it will be left to become leavened.

8

A dish that was cooked, and barley or wheat was discovered inside it: If the grains have cracked open, the entire dish is forbidden, for chametz has become mixed together with it. If they have not cracked open, they must be removed and burned, but the remainder of the dish may be eaten. [This ruling was given] because grain that has been stirred in water without cracking open is not actual leaven as forbidden by the Torah. It is only a Rabbinic [ordinance].

ח

תבשיל שנתבשל ונמצאו בו שעורים או חטים אם נתבקעו הרי כל התבשיל אסור שהרי נתערב בו החמץ. ואם לא נתבקעו מוציאין אותן ושורפין ואוכלין שאר התבשיל. שאין הדגן שנבלל ולא נתבקע חמץ גמור של תורה. ואינו אלא מדברי סופרים:

A dish that was cooked and barley or wheat -- Some authorities recommend more severe laws for wheat than for barley, but the Rambam equates the two.

was discovered inside of it -- One kernel of grain can create difficulties, for even the slightest amount of chametz that is mixed together with other foods causes them to be forbidden (Halachah 5 above).

If the grains have cracked open -- they have surely become chametz. Hence,

the entire dish is forbidden, for chametz has become mixed together with it -- Furthermore, the pot and utensils with which it was cooked are also forbidden during Pesach.

If they have not cracked open -- Halachah 6 above mentions a more severe measure. However, that ruling concerns the kernels of grain themselves, while our law deals with their effect on another dish, which is merely a Rabbinic ordinance. Hence, greater leniency is shown (Maggid Mishneh).

they -- the barley or wheat itself

must be removed and burned -- as if they were chametz

but the remainder of the dish may be eaten. -- The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 467:9) accepts this ruling. However, the Ramah and the other major Ashkenazic authorities forbid use of this dish. However, the Taz allows the dish to be sold to a gentile.

9

[Exodus 12:17] states: "Keep watch over the matzot" - i.e., be careful of the matzot and protect them from any possibility of becoming chametz. Therefore, our Sages declared: A person must be careful regarding the grain which he eats on Pesach and [make sure] that no water has come in contact with it after it has been harvested, so that it will not have become chametz at all.

Grain which sunk in a river or came in contact with water, just as it is forbidden to eat from it [on Pesach], it is forbidden to keep [possession of] it. Rather, he should sell it to a Jew [before it becomes prohibited] and inform him [about its nature], so that he can eat it before Pesach. If he sells it to a gentile before Pesach, he should sell a small amount to a number of individuals, so that it will be finished before Pesach, lest the gentile go and sell it to [another] Jew.

ט

משום שנאמר ושמרתם את המצות כלומר הזהרו במצה ושמרו אותה מכל צד חמוץ. לפיכך אמרו חכמים צריך אדם ליזהר בדגן שאוכל ממנו בפסח שלא יבוא עליו מים אחר שנקצר עד שלא יהיה בו שום חמוץ. דגן שנטבע בנהר או שנפל עליו מים כשם שאסור לאוכלו כך אסור לקיימו אלא מוכרו לישראל ומודיעו כדי שיאכלנו קודם הפסח. ואם מוכרו לנכרי קודם הפסח מוכר מעט לכל אחד ואחד כדי שיכלה קודם הפסח שמא יחזור הנכרי וימכרנו לישראל:

[Exodus 12:17] states: "Keep watch over the matzot" -- Some ancient manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah include these two lines in the previous halachah, but all published texts follow this division.

i.e., be careful of the matzot and protect them from any possibility of becoming chametz. -- Furthermore, as evident from Halachah 6:5, this verse also implies that the flour and the matzot made from it must be watched with the specific intent that they be used for the mitzvah of eating matzah on Pesach.

The above is the source for the practice of eating shemurah matzah, matzah made from grain which has been watched to ensure that it did not become chametz and prepared with the intent that it be used for the mitzvah of eating matzah. The use of such matzah during the Seder is an absolute requirement (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 460), and it is advisable to use it throughout the holiday.

Therefore, our Sages declared: A person must be careful regarding the grain which he eats on Pesach -- Pesachim 40a relates that Ravvah would tell the harvesters cutting wheat for Pesach: "Have the intent that this grain be used for the mitzvah of matzah."

and [make sure] that no water has come in contact with it -- The chronicles of Jewish community life in both Eastern Europe and North Africa relate how the harvest of the wheat used for matzah was always begun at noontime, long after the morning dew had risen.

after it has been harvested -- Based on the above passage from Pesachim, Rav Yitzchak Alfasi and the Rambam require that the grain be watched from the time of harvesting onward. Nevertheless, Rabbenu Asher follows a more lenient policy and does not require the wheat to be watched until it is ground. [Rabbenu Nissim explains that even Rav Yitzchak Alfasi only recommended watching the matzah from harvesting as a pious measure, and not as an absolute rule.]

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 453:4) explains that it is preferable to use grain that has been watched from harvesting; as a minimum requirement, one must use grain that has been watched from the time it has been ground into flour. If there is no other alternative, one may buy flour in the marketplace and begin watching from the time the dough is kneaded.

The Mishnah Berurah clarifies the latter point explaining that where grain is washed or submerged in water before grinding it into flour, such grain may not be used for matzah. (This practice is still common in many communities.) In practice, most shemurah matzah made at present is watched from the time the grain was harvested.

so that it will not have become chametz at all -- However, before the grain is cut, no precautions are ordinarily necessary. Nevertheless, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 467:5) mentions that if the wheat kernels have dried out and no longer need nurture from the land, they can become chametz.

Grain which sunk in a river or -- Pesachim 40b mentions a ship which sank carrying a cargo of wheat. After the ship was recovered, Ravvah allowed the wheat to be sold. From that example, we can derive concepts governing all instances where grain

came in contact with water -- Rabbenu Manoach emphasizes that this halachah applies to wheat kernels that have not split open. Had they split open, a Jewish purchaser would immediately notice the fact and there would be no need to inform him.

just as it is forbidden to eat from it [on Pesach], it is forbidden to keep [possession of] it -- Halachah 7 mentioned that one could stir wheat in water to remove the husks without it becoming chametz. Since the wheat was constantly being agitated, it would not become leavened. In contrast, this halachah contains a more stringent ruling, for the grain was left at rest (Tzafnat Paneach).

Rather, he should -- preferably

sell it to a Jew -- and not a gentile

[before it becomes prohibited] -- after the fifth hour on the fourteenth of Nisan

and inform him [about its nature] so that he can eat it before Pesach -- If he does not inform him, it would be forbidden to sell the chametz to him, lest he keep possession of it on Pesach, and thus violate the commandment against owning chametz.

If he sells it to a gentile before Pesach, he should sell a small amount to a number of individuals -- Most texts of Pesachim (ibid.) read: "He should sell small amounts to Jews." Apparently, the Rambam's text of the Talmud did not contain that phrase. If a Jew knows that the grain has become leavened, he will surely take the necessary precautions so that it will not remain in his possession on Pesach.

so that it will be finished before Pesach, lest the gentile go and sell it to [another] Jew -- The later authorities (see Mishnah Berurah 467:3) question what to do if large amounts of grain come into contact with water on Erev Pesach, when it is not possible for the gentile to consume the entire amount before Pesach. They advise that it be sold to a gentile who will surely sell it back to the Jew after the holiday.

10

Grain upon which [water] leaking [from the roof] has fallen: As long as [the leak] continues, drop after drop, it will not become chametz even if [the leak continues] the entire day. However, if [the leak] stops, if it remains [untouched] for the standard measure [of time] - behold, it becomes chametz.

י

דגן שנפל עליו דלף כל זמן שהוא טורד טיפה אחר טיפה אפילו כל היום כולו אינו בא לידי חמוץ. אבל כשיפסק אם נשתהה כשיעור הרי זה אסור:

Grain -- Most texts of Pesachim 39b, the source for this law, read "flour" instead of "grain." Similarly, when quoting this law, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 466:6) also states "flour."

upon which [water] leaking [from the roof] has fallen: As long as [the leak] continues, drop after drop, it will not become chametz. -- The dripping of the water agitates the grain and prevents it from becoming chametz.

even if [the leak continues] the entire day -- However, the grain must be made into flour and baked immediately after being taken from under the leak. Otherwise, it will become leavened (Shulchan Aruch).

However, if [the leak] stops -- or the grain is moved

if it remains [untouched] for the standard measure [of time] -- the time it takes a person to walk a mil, as explained in Halachah 13

behold, it becomes chametz.

11

We do not knead a large dough on Pesach, lest it become chametz. Rather, [the size of the dough] is confined to the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah.

We do not knead with hot water, with water heated in the sun, or with water that was drawn on the present day, only with water that has rested for a day. A person who violates [this requirement] and kneads using one of the above - behold, the [baked] loaf becomes forbidden.

יא

אין לשין בפסח עיסה גדולה שמא תחמיץ אלא כשיעור חלה בלבד. ואין לשין לא בחמין ולא בחמי חמה. ולא במים שנשאבו בו ביום אלא במים שלנו. ואם עבר ולש באחד מכל אלו הרי הפת אסורה:

We do not knead a large dough on Pesach, lest it become chametz -- Pesachim 48b relates that dough will not become chametz as long as it is being kneaded. However, a large dough is hard to manage. Hence, our Sages restricted a dough's size to insure that women kneading it will be able to continually agitate the entire dough.

The Rokeach mentioned that in his age, baking conditions had changed from Talmudic times. More people were involved in the process and the ovens were larger and baked matzot more quickly. Therefore, leniency was taken as regards the restriction of the size of the dough. However, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav and the Mishnah Berurah both recommend adhering to the former practice.

Rather, [the size of the dough] is confined to the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah -- 43 and a fifth eggs, as stated in the following halachah; approximately 73 fluid ounces, 9.125 cups, or 131.8 cubic inches in contemporary measure.

We do not knead with hot water, with water heated in the sun, or with water that was drawn on the present day -- Rashi (Pesachim 42a) relates that the position of the sun in the spring causes the temperature of well and spring water to rise. Hence, matzah may be kneaded

only with water that has -- been drawn [preferably, either slightly before or directly after sunset on the day before the matzot are to be baked (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 455:1)], and

rested for a day. A person who violates [this requirement] and kneads using one of the above -- types of water whose use the Sages forbade;

behold, the [baked] loaf becomes forbidden -- There is no debate about the prohibition against using hot water. However, with regard to the prohibition against using water drawn that day, the Shulchan Aruch (455:3) quotes the Rambam's opinion, but states that in a difficult situation, one may use matzah that was inadvertently kneaded with water that was not drawn on the previous day. The Ramah and the Ashkenazic authorities are more lenient and allow the use of such matzah in all situations.

12

A woman should not sit in the sun and knead, nor [should she knead] under the open sky on a cloudy day, even in a place where the sun is not shining. [She should not] leave the dough and become involved in another matter. If she both kneads and bakes, she must have two containers of water, one to smooth [the matzot] and one to cool off her hands.

If she violated [these instructions] and kneaded dough in the sun, or did not cool off her hands, or made a dough larger than the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah, the loaf is permitted. What is the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah? Forty-three and a fifth eggs of average size - by volume and not by weight.

יב

לא תשב אשה תחת השמש ותלוש. ולא תחת הרקיע ביום העבים אפילו במקום שאין השמש זורחת בו. ולא תניח את העיסה ותתעסק בדבר אחר. ואם היתה לשה ואופה צריכה שני כלים של מים. אחד שמקטפת בו ואחד שמצננת בו ידיה. ואם עברה ולשה תחת השמש או שלא צננה ידיה או שעשתה עיסה יתר משיעור חלה הפת מותרת. וכמה שיעור חלה כמו שלש וארבעים ביצים וחומש ביצה כגוף הביצה הבינונית לא כמשקלה:

A woman should not sit in the sun and knead -- lest the sun's heat speed up the leavening process.

nor [should she knead] under the open sky on a cloudy day, even in a place where the sun is not shining -- Yoma 28b states: "a cloudy day is all sun; the heat of a cloudy day is more severe than that of a sunny day."

The Ramah (Orach Chayim 459:1) mentions that it is customary not to knead near a window. The Shulchan Aruch states that the kneading area of a bakery should be distant from the baking area, so that the heat of the oven should not affect the dough.

[She should not] leave the dough -- The Shulchan Aruch adds "even for a moment."

and become involved in another matter -- the dough should not be left unattended. In his commentary on the Mishnah (Pesachim 3:4), the Rambam explains that preferably the preparation and baking of the matzah should be a speedy and uninterrupted process. See also the following halachah.

If she both kneads and bakes -- The Sages feared that her hands would become hot from the oven, and thus speed up the leavening process when she kneads the dough. Hence, they required that

she must have two containers of water -- the same water should not be used for both activities.

one to smooth [the matzot] -- Before the matzot are placed in the oven, the woman baking them would dip her hands in cold water and smooth and shape the loaves.

and one to cool off her hands -- from the heat of the oven. It must be noted that Rashi (Pesachim 42a) maintains that the activity of kneading the dough itself heats up the hands. Thus, he requires that a woman dip her hands in water between doughs to cool off her hands, even when she is not baking. The Shulchan Aruch (459:3) follows Rashi's interpretation.

If she violated [these instructions] and kneaded dough in the sun -- unless one can actually feel that the temperature of the dough has risen (Magen Avraham 559:15).

or did not cool off her hands, or made a dough larger than the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah, the loaf is permitted -- In these instances, the Sages did not feel that the leavening process would necessarily be speeded up if their instructions were not followed. Hence, בדיעבד (after the fact), they did not prohibit the use of matzot baked in this manner.

What is the measure for which one is obligated to separate Challah? Forty-three and a fifth eggs of average size -- Rabbenu Manoach notes that the numerical equivalent of Challah (חלה) is also 43.

by volume and not by weight. -- A given volume of dough is much heavier than the same volume of eggs.

In Hilchot Bikkurim 6:15, the Rambam elaborates further on this subject, by giving a measure according to weight as well. In modern measure, the figure he gives equals approximately 1.7 kilograms (close to 4 lbs.).

13

As long as a person is busy with the dough, even for the entire day, it will not become chametz. If he lifts up his hand and allows the dough to rest so that [it rises to the extent that] a noise will resound when a person claps it with his hand, it has already become chametz and must be burned immediately. If a noise does not resound and the dough has lain at rest for the time it takes a man to walk a mil, it has become chametz and must be burned immediately.

Similarly, if its surface has become wrinkled [to the extent that it resembles] a person whose hair stands [on end in fright] - behold, it is forbidden to eat from it, but one is not liable for כרת [for eating it].

יג

כל זמן שאדם עוסק בבצק אפילו כל היום כולו אינו בא לידי חמוץ. ואם הגביה ידו והניחו ושהה הבצק עד שהגיע להשמיע הקול בזמן שאדם מכה בידו עליו כבר החמיץ וישרף מיד. ואם אין קולו נשמע אם שהה כדי שיהלך אדם מיל כבר החמיץ וישרף מיד. וכן אם הכסיפו פניו כאדם שעמדו שערותיו הרי זה אסור לאוכלו ואין חייבין עליו כרת:

As long as a person is busy with the dough, even for the entire day, it will not become chametz. -- As mentioned previously, as long as the dough is constantly being agitated it will not become leavened.

If he lifts up his hand -- from kneading

and allows the dough to rest so that [it rises to the extent that] a noise will resound when a person claps it with his hand -- The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 459:2) mentions another sign; the appearance of cracks or folds in the dough.

it has already become chametz -- even if the time period explained below has not elapsed

and must be burned immediately -- The Rambam is describing an instance when matzah is being baked on Pesach eve or during the holiday, when the possession of chametz is forbidden.

If a noise does not resound -- when the dough is clapped, the possibility still exists that the dough has become chametz. The time the dough has been left unattended is then calculated

and -- if

the dough has lain at rest for the time it takes a man to walk a

mil — two thousand cubits; according to most authorities approximately a kilometer in modern measure. Most authorities (including the Shulchan Aruch and many later Rabbis with regard to halachah l'ma'aseh) define eighteen minutes as the accepted period of time in which an average man would walk this distance. However, the Rambam (Commentary on the Mishnah 3:2) quotes a more lenient figure, 24 minutes.

it has become chametz and must be burned immediately -- The Shulchan Aruch and the Ramah suggest hurrying the process of kneading and baking matzah, because:

a) the heat generated by working the dough may cause it to become leavened faster.

b) though each particular hesitation may be less than eighteen minutes, the total of all hesitations may exceed that figure. (This point is not accepted by all authorities.)

c) once dough is left unattended after having been kneaded thoroughly, it will become leavened very quickly.

Similarly, if its surface has become wrinkled -- Rabbenu Manoach interprets the Hebrew הכסיפו as "whitened."

[to the extent that it resembles] a person whose hair stands [on end in fright] - behold -- this is a sign that the dough has begun to become leavened. Hence,

it is forbidden to eat from it, but one is not liable for

כרת [for eating it]. — The commentaries question whether the Rambam's intent is to free the person from punishment entirely or whether he means that he is not liable for כרת, but receives a lesser punishment, lashes.

14

There were two doughs which people stopped kneading at the same time and left unattended. From one, a sound [resounded when clapped]. From the other, no sound [resounded]. Both of them should be burned - behold, they are absolutely chametz.

יד

היו שתי עיסות שהגביהו היד מהן נילושות בעת אחת ונשתהו. האחת מהן יש לה קול ואחרת אין לה קול שתיהן ישרפו והרי הן חמץ גמור:

There were two doughs which people stopped kneading at the same time and left unattended -- for less than the time it takes a person to walk a mil.

From one, a sound [resounded when clapped] -- a clear sign the dough has become leavened, as stated in the previous halachah.

From the other, no sound [resounded] -- Nevertheless, since they both waited the same amount of time, we assume that a similar leavening process took place in both doughs. Hence,

both of them should be burned - behold, they are -- considered

15

We should not make thick loaves with designs on Pesach, because a woman takes time making them. Thus, [the dough] will become leavened during that time. Hence, professional bakers are allowed to make [such designs], because they are skilled in their craft and quick in its execution.

[In contrast,] a private person is forbidden to make such a design, even if he does so using a [pre-cut] form. [This stringency was instituted] lest others attempt to make [the designs] without using the forms, delay in their work, and cause [the dough] to become chametz.

טו

אין עושין סריקין המצויירין בפסח מפני שהאשה שוהה עליהן ומתחמצין בעת עשייתן. לפיכך הנחתומין מותרין לעשותם מפני שהן בקיאין באומנותן וממהרים לעשותם. אבל בעלי בתים אסורים ואפילו צרו אותן בדפוס. שמא יבואו אחרים לעשותן שלא בדפוס וישהו בעשייתן ויחמיצו:

We should not make thick loaves — Pesachim 37a allows thin loaves to be made with designs. Commenting on this statement, the Ramah (Orach Chayim 460:4) suggests never making thick matzot for Pesach.

with designs -- Rav Yitzchak ibn Giat writes that it was customary to make designs of fish, doves, and other animals.

on Pesach, because a woman takes time making them -- However, there is no prohibition against making holes in their dough as is the common practice. On the contrary, this helps the matzah bake faster (Shulchan Aruch).

Thus, [the dough] will become leavened during that time. Hence, professional bakers are allowed to make [such designs] -- Pesachim (ibid.) records that Rabban Gamliel's household used such matzot, and hence was forced to make this differentiation.

because they are skilled in their craft and quick in its execution. -- Rashi (Pesachim, ibid.) adds that bakers usually have pre-cut forms.

The Mishnah Berurah (Orach Chayim 460:14) forbids all designs, whether made by private people or professional bakers, whether on thick or thin loaves.

[In contrast,] a private person is forbidden to make such a design, even if he does so using a [pre-cut] form -- which will not require time.

[This stringency was instituted] lest others attempt to make [the designs] without using the forms, delay in their work, and cause [the dough] to become chametz. -- Our Sages often instituted decrees uniformly, even though the reason for the decree did not apply in certain instances, lest people misinterpret the leniency and take total license.

16

The water used to wash one's hands and the kneading trough after the kneading [is completed] and, similarly, the water used when kneading - behold, it should be poured out in a place which slopes downward, so it will not collect in one place and become leavened.

טז

מים שרוחצין בהן הידים והעריבה אחר שלשין וכן מים שמשתמשין בהן בשעת לישה הרי זה ישפוך אותן במקום מדרון כדי שלא יתקבצו במקום אחד ויחמיץ:

The water used to wash one's hands and the kneading trough after the kneading [is completed] -- The Mishnah (Pesachim 40b) uses the expression "water used by a baker." In his commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam defines that term as above.

and, similarly, the water used when kneading -- when shaping the dough or cooling off one's hands, as mentioned in Halachah 12.

behold, it should be poured out in a place which slopes downward, so it will not collect in one place -- See Pesachim 42a. The Ramah (Orach Chayim 459:4) also gives instructions about cleaning the utensils used in preparing the matzah to ensure that no dough is allowed to remain stuck to them, and thus become chametz.

and become leavened -- This halachah applies when matzah is prepared and baked after the prohibition against chametz has gone into effect (Shulchan Aruch). However, some later authorities (Bach, Taz) forbid such water to collect even beforehand.

17

We should not soak bran in water and leave it in front of chickens, lest it become chametz. However, we can boil bran for them, and then place it before them. Nevertheless, the majority of people have already adopted the custom of not boiling [grain products], lest the water not be boiled thoroughly.

יז

אין שורין את המורסן ומניחין לפני התרנגולין שמא יחמיץ. אבל חולטין להן המורסן ברותחין ומניחין לפניהן. וכבר נהגו רוב העולם שלא לחלוט גזרה שמא לא ירתיח המים יפה:

We should not soak bran -- The Mishnah Berurah 454:2 notes that there is a difference of opinion among halachic authorities if מורסן refers to the hard shell of the wheat kernels that falls off when the wheat is ground, or the soft shell, which is separated by sifting.

in water and leave it in front of chickens -- without supervision, in contrast to the following halachah.

lest it become chametz. However, we can boil bran for them -- As mentioned in Halachah 3, if grain products are placed directly in boiling water, they will never become chametz.

and then, place it before them. Nevertheless, the majority of people have already adopted the custom of not boiling [grain products], lest the water not be boiled thoroughly. -- as explained in the above halachah and in the Shulchan Aruch and commentaries (Orach Chayim 454:3).

18

It is permitted to prepare bran or flour for chickens in water if they are fed immediately, or if one places [the feed] before them and stands over them to ensure that the food will not stand more than the time it takes a person to walk a mil.

As long as they peck at it or one turns it over by hand, it will not become leavened. Once they finish eating, one should wash out the utensil in water and pour it out in a place which slopes downward.

יח

ומותר ללוש לתרנגולין מורסן או קמח ומאכילן מיד או נותן לפניהן והוא עומד עליהן עד שלא ישהה לפניהן כדי הילוך מיל. וכל זמן שהן מנקרין בו או שהוא מהפך בידו אינו מחמיץ. וכשיפסקו מלאכול ישטוף הכלי במים וישפוך במקום מדרון:

It is permitted to prepare bran or flour for chickens in water -- Rabbenu Manoach and the Meiri state that the Rambam's statements are based on the Tosefta. However, no law of this nature is found in our text of the Tosefta.

Perhaps this lack of a clear source is the reason the Rambam's opinion is not accepted by other halachic authorities. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 465:1) forbids placing bran in water under any circumstances. The Ramah cautions against placing any grain products in a place where there is a residue of moisture.

if they are fed -- and consume the food

immediately, or if one places [the feed] before them and stands over them, to ensure that the food will not stand -- without any activity, as the Rambam continues

more than the time it takes a person to walk a mil -- 18 or 24 minutes, as explained in Halachah 13.

As long as they peck at it or one turns it over by hand -- for, like dough (see Halachah 13), as long as it is agitated

it will not become leavened. Once they finish eating, one should wash out the utensil in water and pour it out in a place which slopes downward -- as in Halachah 16. This halachah also applies only after chametz has become forbidden. Even the authorities who follow a more stringent view than the Rambam allow leniency before the prohibitions against possessing chametz take effect.

19

A woman should not soak bran which she intends to take to the bathhouse in water [beforehand]. However, she may rub dry bran on her skin. A person should not chew wheat and then place it on his wound, for it will become chametz.

We should not place flour into charoset. If one did so, he should burn it immediately, because it will cause [the flour] to become leavened very fast. We should not place flour in mustard. If one did so, he should eat it immediately.

יט

לא תשרה אשה מורסן שתוליך בידה למרחץ. אבל שפה על בשרה יבש. ולא ילעוס אדם חיטין ויתן על מכתו מפני שהן מחמיצות. אין נותנין את הקמח לתוך החרוסת ואם נתן ישפך מיד מפני שהוא ממהר להחמיץ. ואין נותנין את הקמח לתוך החרדל ואם נתן יאכל מיד:

A woman should not soak bran which she intends to take to the bathhouse in water [beforehand] -- The application of moist bran to skin renews the skin's natural moisture. Bran contains high quantities of Vitamin E and other natural cosmetics.

However, she may rub dry bran on her skin -- even though her skin is moist with sweat, without fear of it becoming chametz (Rashi, Pesachim 39b). The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 465:2) forbids the practice entirely.

A person should not chew wheat -- for the spittle can cause the wheat to become leavened.

and then place it on his wound -- as a poultice

for it will become chametz. -- Rabbenu Manoach notes that the Rambam writes (Hilchot Yesodai HaTorah 5:8) that, when there is danger to life or limb, it is permissible to use all substances as remedies, even if it is forbidden to benefit from them. That halachah specifically states that a sick person may be given chametz to eat as a remedy.

Furthermore, that halachah explains that if the sick person does not benefit from the forbidden substance in the normal manner, it may be used as a remedy even if there is no danger to life or limb. The Rambam gives the example of including chametz in a compress.

On that basis, Rabbenu Manoach questions why wheat cannot be used as a poultice as stated in our halachah. However, he resolves the issue by explaining that, in our case, the wheat would become chametz before it was applied to the wound.

The Shulchan Aruch HaRav 466:5 (and the Mishnah Berurah) emphasize that it is permitted to use grain as a remedy for a wound only if there is a question of danger to life or limb. Furthermore, this leniency is qualified as follows:

a) it must be an established medical fact that the remedy works;

b) effort must be made to reduce the chance of the grain becoming leavened to the greatest extent possible (e.g., preparing grain by boiling it in fruit juice which does not become leavened).

We should not place flour into charoset -- In his commentary on the Mishnah (Pesachim 10:3), the Rambam describes charoset as a mixture of dates, figs, spices, and vinegar.

if one did so, he should burn it - The popular texts of the Mishneh Torah use the word ישפך - "pour it out." However, most of the original manuscripts state ישרף as in our text. This version implies that it is feared that the flour has already leavened and, hence, must be burnt.

immediately -- as chametz

because it will cause [the flour] to become leavened very fast. -- In his commentary on the Mishnah (Pesachim 2:8), the Rambam explains that the vinegar in the charoset causes the flour to become leavened fast.

We should not place flour in mustard -- The Ramah (Orach Chayim 464:1) states that Ashkenazic custom forbids the use of mustard on Pesach entirely, placing it in the category of kitniyot.

If one did so, he should eat it immediately. -- In contrast to other dips, the sharpness of mustard prevents the flour from leavening (Pri Chadash).

20

It is permissible to place spices, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, and the like into dough. Similarly, it is permissible to knead the dough with water and oil, honey or milk, or to baste with them.

On the first day, it is forbidden to knead or baste [the matzot] with any other substance besides water; not because of the prohibition against chametz, but rather so [the matzah] will be "poor man's bread." It is only on the first day that the "poor man's bread" must be commemorated.

כ

מותר ליתן התבלין והשומשמין והקצח וכיוצא בהן לתוך הבצק. וכן מותר ללוש העיסה במים ושמן או דבש וחלב או לקטף בהן. וביום הראשון אסור ללוש ולקטף אלא במים בלבד. לא משום חמץ אלא כדי שיהיה לחם עוני. וביום הראשון בלבד הוא שצריך להיות זכרון לחם עוני:

It is permissible to place spices -- Nevertheless, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 455:6) advises against placing spices in dough. The Ramah forbids matzah that was kneaded with pepper, maintaining that its sharpness causes the dough to become leavened.

sesame seeds, poppy seeds -- The Shulchan Aruch HaRav explains that even the opinions which advise against using spices in matzah permit these substances to be used. They are not sharp and will not speed up the leavening process.

and the like -- Salt is not included in this category. The Shulchan Aruch (455:5) explicitly advises against placing salt into dough, and the Ramah considers matzah baked with salt as chametz.

into dough -- for this mixture will not cause the dough to become chametz. In describing the meal offerings which cannot become leavened (Hilchot Ma'aseh HaKorbanot 12:17), the Rambam also states that they may be seasoned in a similar manner.

The Tosefta (Pesachim 2:13) and the Jerusalem Talmud (Pesachim 2:4) go further and state that such matzah may even be used at the Seder. Though some halachic authorities accept this opinion, the later authorities counsel against using such matzah on that occasion.

Similarly, it is permissible to knead the dough with water and oil, honey or milk, or to baste with them -- This statement has raised controversy. In Halachah 2, when the Rambam described the use of מי פירות, he explained that they will not cause grain products to become leavened when used alone. However, if they are mixed with water, they can cause the grain products to become leavened. Indeed, the commentaries relate that the mixture of these liquids with water speeds up the leavening process.

Therefore, the Ra'avad and other authorities question the leniency granted by the Rambam. In practice, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 462:2) advises against, but does not forbid, mixing these liquids with water. The Ramah (and accordingly, Ashkenazic custom) prohibits such a mixture entirely.

It must be noted that the Maggid Mishneh's text of the Mishneh Torah substitutes the word יין (wine) for מים (water). According to such a rendition, there is no difficulty.

On the first day -- more particularly, for the matzah used to fulfill the commandment of eating matzah on Pesach night;

it is forbidden to knead or baste -- even though basting the dough with other substances will not change its taste appreciably, the Rambam forbids this. See Or Sameach.

[the matzot] with any other substance besides water -- Note the commentary on Halachah 6:5.

not because of the prohibition against chametz -- for, as above, the dough will not necessarily become chametz,

but rather so [the matzah] will be "poor man's bread" -- Deuteronomy 16:3 states "For seven days eat matzah, poor man's bread." In contrast, dough mixed with these liquids is considered matzah ashirah, "rich matzah."

It is only on the first day that the "poor man's bread" must be commemorated -- to recall the "poor man's bread" eaten by our ancestors when they were slaves in Egypt.

21

All earthenware vessels that were used for chametz while cold may be used for matzah while cold, except for the utensils in which yeast and charoset were placed, for their leavening effect is powerful. Similarly, a kneading trough in which chametz is kneaded and left to become leavened is considered as a place where yeast is soaked, and we do not use it on Pesach.

כא

כל כלי חרס שנשתמש בהן חמץ בצונן מותר להשתמש בהן מצה בצונן. חוץ מכלי שמניחין בו את השאור וכלי שמניחין בו חרוסת מפני שחימוצו קשה. וכן עריבות שלשין בהן החמץ ומניחין אותו שם עד שיחמיץ הרי הן כבית שאור ואין משתמשין בהן בפסח:

All earthenware vessels -- In this and the following five halachot, the Rambam discusses how dishes and cooking utensils that were used for chametz during the entire year may be prepared for Passover use. It must be emphasized that in many communities, it is customary not to consider these options and to use separate sets of pots, dishes, and cutlery for the holiday.

that were used for chametz while cold -- Utensils absorb substances only when used together with both heat and liquid. Thus, in this instance, there is no fear that chametz is absorbed. Nevertheless, the utensil

may -- only

be used for matzah while cold -- lest its use cause people to err and permit use of earthenware vessels that were used for chametz while hot (Maggid Mishneh). This safeguard was only instituted for earthenware vessels, since the chametz absorbed in substances of metal or wood may be purged through הגעלה.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 451:22) does not recognize this prohibition at all and allows such utensils to be used for matzah even when hot. However, this is merely from an abstract halachic perspective. In practice, that text continues to explain, Jews are accustomed not to use any earthenware utensils or dishes that had been previously used for chametz on Pesach. This custom was already accepted in the days of Rav Yitzchak Alfasi and Rabbenu Asher.

except for the utensils -- Leavening agents were placed directly in these utensils. Accordingly, even if they were made of other substances besides clay, more severe laws than usual apply regarding purging them from the chametz they absorbed. (See Magen Avraham 451:42.)

in which yeast and charoset -- This does not refer to the charoset used at the Seder, but to a similar mixture which was used throughout the entire year. The latter would frequently contain flour.

were placed, for their leavening effect is powerful -- Yeast is a powerful leavening agent. Similarly, the vinegar in the charoset will cause leavening. Even though the utensil was cleaned thoroughly of these substances, we regard that some was absorbed in the utensil's walls and will have an effect on food placed within it on Pesach.

Similarly, a kneading trough in which chametz is kneaded and left to become leavened is considered as a place where yeast is soaked, and we do not use it on Pesach -- lest the leavening agents that are absorbed cause the Matzah to become chametz.

22

An earthenware roasting pan on which loaves of chametz are baked during the entire year should not be used to bake matzah on Pesach. If it was filled with coals and kindled on the place where chametz was cooked, matzah it is permitted to be cooked on it.

כב

ביב של חרס שאופין עליו חלות חמץ כל השנה כולה אין אופין עליו מצה בפסח. ואם מלאו גחלים והסיק מקום שהיה מבשל בו החמץ מותר לבשל עליו מצה:

An earthenware roasting pan on which loaves of chametz are baked during the entire year should not be used to bake matzah on Pesach -- The prohibition is obvious. It appears that this statement was included only as an introduction to the following halachah, which describes how such a utensil may be prepared for Pesach use.

If it was filled with coals and kindled on the place -- This practice, referred to as ליבון, burns up any chametz that may have been absorbed in the pan.

23

Metal and stone utensils in which chametz was boiled in water as a כלי ראשון - e.g., pots and stew pots - should be placed inside a large utensil. They should be covered with water, and the water should be boiled with them inside until they release [what they absorbed]. Afterwards, they should be washed off with cold water, and [then] one may use them for matzah.

Similarly, [with regard to] knives, the blade and the handle should be boiled in a כלי ראשון. Afterwards, one may use them for matzah.

כג

כלי מתכות וכלי אבנים שנשתמש בהן חמץ ברותחין בכלי ראשון כגון קדרות ואלפסין. נותן אותן לתוך כלי גדול של מים וממלא עליהן מים ומרתיחן בתוכו עד שיפלטו ואחר כך שוטף אותן בצונן ומשתמש בהן במצה. וכן הסכינין מרתיח את הלהב ואת הנצב בכלי ראשון ואחר כך משתמש בהן במצה:

Metal and stone utensils -- In Hilchot Ma'acholot Asurot 17:3 and in his commentary on the Mishnah (Avodah Zarah 7:12), the Rambam equates glass utensils with those made of these substances.

in which chametz was boiled in water as a כלי ראשון — The term כלי ראשון is a fundamental concept in the laws of kashrut and the laws of Shabbat. It refers to a pot or cooking vessel that was directly exposed to the heat of an oven or range. Such a pot is still considered as a כלי ראשון even after it has been removed from the cooking surface.

e.g., pots and stew pots -- The Ramah (Orach Chayim 451:5) requires that the surface of the pot be smooth and free of nicks or cracks for this manner of purging to be effective.

should be placed inside a large utensil -- The process described below can be carried out only before chametz becomes forbidden. Once that prohibition takes effect, even the slightest amount of chametz can cause a larger mixture to be prohibited. (See Halachah 1:5.) Hence, were the process carried out at that time, the residue of chametz absorbed in the walls of the utensils would cause all the water to be considered as mixed with chametz.

They should be covered with water, and the water should be boiled -- The commentaries stress how the water must be bubbling because of the heat.

with them inside -- This process is referred to as הגעלה (purging) and is also used to prepare utensils that had been used for non-kosher food for kosher use. Thus, a similar description of this process is found in Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot 17:4.

The basic principle governing the kashering of utensils is כבולעו כך פולטו - "In the same manner as a [forbidden substance] is absorbed [by a utensil], so, too, is it released." Thus, since these utensils were used in hot water, the process of boiling is employed to cause them to release any chametz they might have absorbed.

until they release [what they absorbed] -- This phrase is taken from the halachot of Rav Yitzchak Alfasi. However, it is omitted in some of the Yemenite manuscripts of the Mishneh Torah. In practice, there is also debate about this issue. In his responsum, the Rashbah explains Rav Yitzchak Alfasi's view, stating that a person should leave the utensil submerged until he feels that all the absorbed chametz has been released. However, the Tur (Yoreh De'ah 121) and the Pri Chadash do not require waiting any substantial amount of time. Their view is accepted by the later authorities. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Orach Chayim 452:4.)

Afterwards, they should be washed off with cold water -- in order to cleanse them of any forbidden matter that might remain on their surface (Rabbenu Manoach). The source for this requirement is the description (Zevachim 97a) of the way the priests would purge the Temple pots used to cook the sin offerings after the previous day's service. Though some authorities do not require this stage, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav (452:5) states that it is customary to follow this practice.

and [then] one may use them for matzah.

Similarly, [with regard to] knives, the blade — Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot 17:7 states: "A person who acquires a knife from a gentile must burn it out in fire." A similar decision is rendered by the Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh De'ah 121:7). Nevertheless, the authorities suggest that chametz may be purged from knives by boiling. However, they do not permit this leniency in the following instances:

a) when the knives are rusty;

b) when they have serrated edges;

c) when the handle is separate from the blade and enclosed around it, allowing for the possibility for residue to collect between them.

In the latter instance, even ליבון (exposing the knife to open fire) is insufficient. Since most knives today are made in this manner, they should not be kashered for Pesach or for ordinary use after having been used with prohibited foods. Both the Mishnah Berurah and the Shulchan Aruch HaRav state that purchasing new knives for Pesach is the most desirable manner of fulfilling the mitzvah.

and the handle should be boiled in a כלי ראשון — as described above.

Afterwards, one may use them for matzah.

24

Utensils of metal, stone, and wood which were used for chametz as a כלי שני - e.g., bowls or cups - should be placed in a large utensil, and boiling water poured over them. They should be left in [the large utensil] until they release [the chametz they absorbed]. Afterwards, they should be washed off. [Then,] they may be used for matzah.

כד

כלי מתכות ואבנים וכלי עצים שנשתמש בהן חמץ בכלי שני כגון קערות וכוסות נותן אותן לתוך כלי גדול ונותן עליהן מים רותחין ומניחן בתוכו עד שיפלוטו ואחר כך שוטפן ומשתמש בהן במצה:

Utensils of metal, stone, and wood which were used for chametz as a כלי שני — a utensil into which one pours water that had been cooked over a fire.

e.g., bowls or cups — can also be purged of chametz following the principle כבולעו כך פולטו - "In the same manner as a [forbidden substance] is absorbed [by a utensil], so, too, is it released." Thus, since these utensils absorbed chametz in a שני כלי, in order for them to release the chametz they absorbed, they

should be placed in a large utensil and boiling water poured over them -- from a utensil that was heated on the fire. The Ramah (Orach Chayim 451:6) states that, at present, it is customary to boil all utensils on the fire itself (i.e., in a כלי ראשון), even though they were generally used as a כלי שני.

They should be left in [the large utensil] until they release [the chametz they absorbed] -- See the explanation of the similar phrase in the previous halachah.

Afterwards, they should be washed off -- as explained in the previous halachah.

[Then,] they may be used for matzah.

25

All earthenware utensils that were used for chametz in hot water, whether as a כלי ראשון - for example, pots - or as a

כלי שני - for example, bowls - whether they were glazed and coated with lead so that they became like glass, or they were of simple earthenware: we do not use them for matzah. Rather, we put them aside until after Pesach, and then we may cook with them.

כה

כל כלי חרש שנשתמש בהן חמץ בחמין בין כלי ראשון כגון קדרות. בין כלי שני כגון קערות. בין שהיו משוחין ושועין באבר שעושין אותן כעין זכוכית. בין שהיו חרס כמה שהן. אין משתמשין בהן במצה אלא מניחן לאחר הפסח ומבשל בהן:

All earthenware utensils that were used for chametz in hot — See Halachah 21 with regard to earthenware vessels that were used for chametz while cold.

water -- In contrast to utensils made of other substances, the process of הגעלה cannot remove the forbidden matter absorbed in the walls of an earthenware vessel. Instead of all the absorbed matter being purged at once, it is released a small amount at a time, and there will always be a certain quantity of the previous substance contained in its walls.

Pesachim 30b explains that this concept is derived from the Torah itself. Leviticus 6:21 states that any pot in which meat from a sin offering has been cooked must be broken. A sin offering can only be eaten for one day. Once that time has passed, the taste of the meat absorbed in the pot is considered as נותר (sacrificial meat which has been kept past its required time), and thus forbidden. Hence, the pot itself must be destroyed.

whether as a כלי ראשון - for example, pots - or as a כלי שני - for example, bowls - whether they were glazed and coated with lead so that they became like glass -- i.e., china. Based on these principles, the authorities have stated that china can never be kashered. However, they have suggested certain leniencies when the china is very expensive.

or they were of simple earthenware -- As mentioned in Halachah 22, the Sages also forbade the use of ןוביל (exposing the utensil to fire), to remove chametz absorbed in most earthenware vessels, lest a person hesitate to expose them to the required heat out of fear that they would break. Thus, there is no way to prepare these utensils for Pesach use. Therefore,

we do not use them for matzah -- There would be no halachic difficulty against using these dishes on Pesach for cold foods. Nevertheless, our Sages forbade their use entirely, lest a person err and use them for hot substances as well.

Rather, we put them aside until after Pesach -- Though the taste of chametz is absorbed in the walls of these utensils, keeping them does not cause a person to violate the prohibition against possessing chametz on Pesach. Nevertheless, at present, when it is customary to sell chametz to gentiles, the Rabbis in charge of the sale usually sell this chametz as well.

and then we may cook with them -- This line was added to negate the opinion of Rav (Pesachim 30a), who maintains that each Pesach, a person was required to destroy any earthenware vessels he possessed which were used for chametz while hot.

26

[A person possesses a utensil which is] a כלי ראשון and desires to boil it [in order to prepare it for Passover use], however, he cannot find a larger utensil into which [to place it] to boil it: Behold, he may place a border of clay around its [top] edge from the outside and fill it with water until the water overflows its edge. [Then,] he may boil the water in it, and this is sufficient. Afterwards, he washes it off and may use it for matzah.

כו

כלי ראשון שרצה להרתיחו ולא מצא כלי גדול ממנו כדי להרתיחו בתוכו הרי זה מקיף לו שפה של טיט על שפתו מבחוץ וממלאהו מים עד שיגברו המים על שפתו ומרתיח המים בתוכו ודיו ואחר כך שוטף אותו ומשתמש בו במצה

[A person possesses a utensil which is] a כלי ראשון and desires to boil it [in order to prepare it for Passover use] — and hence must be kashered by boiling water inside of it, as explained in Halachah 23.

however, he cannot find a larger utensil into which [to place it] to boil it -- Thus, were he to boil water in the utensil itself, its entire top edge would not be exposed to the boiling water.

Behold, he may place a border of clay around its [top] edge from the outside and fill it -- the utensil

with water until the water overflows its edge -- but is delayed in pouring out by the clay border.

[Then,] he may boil the water in it, and this is sufficient -- for the entire utensil will have been exposed to the boiling water. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 452:6) offers an alternative suggestion. After boiling the water thoroughly, placing a very hot stone into the water will cause the water to flow over the edges of the utensil on all sides. Thus, the entire utensil will be exposed to the boiling water.

Afterwards, he washes it off -- with cold water, as explained in Halachah 23.

and may use it for matzah.