1

Although Chol HaMo'ed is not referred to as a Sabbath,1 since it is referred to as "a holy convocation" and it was a time when the Chagigah sacrifices were brought in the Temple, it is forbidden to perform labor2 during this period, so that these days will not be regarded as ordinary weekdays that are not endowed with holiness at all. A person who performs forbidden labor on these days is given stripes for rebelliousness, for the prohibition is Rabbinic in origin.3

Not all the types of "servile labor" forbidden on a holiday are forbidden on it, for the intent of the prohibition is that the day not be regarded as an ordinary weekday with regard to all matters. Therefore, some labors are permitted on it, and some are forbidden.

א

חֻלוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ (ויקרא כג כד) (ויקרא כג לט) "שַׁבָּתוֹן" הוֹאִיל וְנִקְרָא (ויקרא כג ז) "מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ" וַהֲרֵי הוּא זְמַן חֲגִיגָה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אָסוּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כִּשְׁאָר יְמֵי הַחל שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן קְדֻשָּׁה כְּלָל. וְהָעוֹשֶׂה בּוֹ מְלָאכָה הָאֲסוּרָה מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְלֹא כָּל מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדָה אֲסוּרָה בּוֹ כְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁסּוֹף הָעִנְיָן בַּדְּבָרִים שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ בּוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כְּיוֹם חֹל לְכָל דָּבָר. לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ מְלָאכוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת בּוֹ וְיֵשׁ מְלָאכוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת בּוֹ:

2

These are [the labors that are permitted]: Any labor may be performed if it would result in a great loss if not performed, provided it does not involve strenuous activity.

What is implied? We may irrigate parched land on [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,4but not land that is well-irrigated. For if parched land is not irrigated, the trees on it will be ruined.

When a person irrigates [such land], he should not draw water and irrigate [the land, using water] from a pool or rain water, for this involves strenuous activity.5 He may, however, irrigate it [using water] from a spring:6 whether an existing spring, or a spring that must be uncovered anew. He may extend the spring and irrigate [his land using this water]. The same applies in all similar situations.

ב

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן. כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בַּמּוֹעֵד יִהְיֶה שָׁם הֶפְסֵד הַרְבֵּה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ טֹרַח הַרְבֵּה. כֵּיצַד. מַשְׁקִין בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין בַּמּוֹעֵד אֲבָל לֹא בֵּית הַמַּשְׁקֶה. שֶׁאִם לֹא יַשְׁקֶה בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין וְהִיא הָאָרֶץ הַצְּמֵאָה יִפָּסְדוּ בּוֹ הָאִילָנוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מַשְׁקֶה אוֹתָהּ לֹא יִדְלֶה וְיַשְׁקֶה מִן הַבְּרֵכָה אוֹ מִמֵּי הַגְּשָׁמִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טֹרַח גָּדוֹל. אֲבָל מַשְׁקֶה הוּא מִן הַמַּעְיָן בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה בֵּין שֶׁיָּצָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה מַמְשִׁיכוֹ וּמַשְׁקֶה בּוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

3

A person may turn over his olives during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,7 grind them, press them, fill jugs up with oil, and seal them as he does on weekdays. Whenever the failure to perform a labor would lead to a loss, one may perform the labor in its ordinary way without deviating from one's regular practice.

Similarly, a person may bring in his produce [to protect it] from thieves, provided he does so discreetly.8 A person may remove his flax from soaking so that it will not be spoiled, and one may harvest a vineyard during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed if the time to harvest it has come.9

ג

הוֹפֵךְ אָדָם אֶת זֵיתָיו בַּמּוֹעֵד וְטוֹחֵן אוֹתָן וְדוֹרֵךְ אוֹתָן וּמְמַלֵּא הֶחָבִיּוֹת וְגַף אוֹתָן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ הֶפְסֵד אִם לֹא נַעֲשָׂה עוֹשֵׂהוּ כְּדַרְכּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שִׁנּוּי. וְכֵן מַכְנִיס אָדָם פֵּרוֹתָיו מִפְּנֵי הַגַּנָּבִים וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֵם בְּצִנְעָה. וְשׁוֹלֶה פִּשְׁתָּנוֹ מִן הַמִּשְׁרֶה בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאבַד. וְכֵן כֶּרֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנּוֹ לְהִבָּצֵר בַּמּוֹעֵד בּוֹצְרִין אוֹתוֹ:

4

It is forbidden for a person to delay the performance of these or similar labors intentionally so that he will be able to perform them during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed when he has free time. Whenever a person ignores his work, leaving it for [Chol Ha]Mo'ed with the intention of performing it then, and actually [begins] to do so, the [Jewish] court must destroy [the fruits of this labor] and/or declare it ownerless, [free to be acquired] by anyone.10

If a person [delayed] his work, with the intention [of performing it on Chol HaMo'ed] and died, we do not punish his son, and cause him a loss. [On the contrary,] we do not prevent the son from performing the labor on [Chol Ha]Mo'ed so that he will not suffer a loss.

ד

וְאָסוּר לָאָדָם שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן וִיאַחֵר מְלָאכוֹת אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְיַנִּיחֵם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹתָן בַּמּוֹעֵד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא פָּנוּי. וְכָל הַמְכַוֵּן מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְהִנִּיחָהּ לַמּוֹעֵד וַעֲשָׂאָהּ בַּמּוֹעֵד בֵּית דִּין מְאַבְּדִין אוֹתָהּ וּמַפְקִירִין אוֹתָהּ לַכּל. וְאִם כִּוֵּן מְלַאכְתּוֹ וּמֵת אֵין קוֹנְסִין בְּנוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְאֵין מְאַבְּדִין אוֹתָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאֵין מוֹנְעִין הַבֵּן מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה בַּמּוֹעֵד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאבַד:

5

[The following rules apply when] a person must sew a garment or build a structure during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed: If he is an ordinary person and not skilled in the performance of that labor, he may perform it in his ordinary manner. If, however, he is a skilled craftsman, he [must deviate from his ordinary practice, and] perform the labor as an ordinary person would.

What is implied? When sewing, he should sew stitches as a weaver would.11 When building, he should place the stones down, but should not put mortar upon them. One may smooth [plaster over] cracks [in a roof] with a roller, with one's hands and with one's feet as one would do with a trowel.12 The same applies in other similar situations.

ה

מִי שֶׁצָּרַךְ לִתְפֹּר לוֹ בֶּגֶד אוֹ לִבְנוֹת לוֹ מָקוֹם בַּמּוֹעֵד. אִם הָיָה הֶדְיוֹט וְאֵינוֹ מָהִיר בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה אֻמָּן מָהִיר הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט. כֵּיצַד. בִּתְפִירָה מַכְלִיב וּבְבִנְיָן מַנִּיחַ אֲבָנִים וְאֵינוֹ טָח בְּטִיט עֲלֵיהֶן וְשָׁף סִדְקֵי הַקַּרְקַע וּמַעֲגִילָהּ בַּיָּד וּבָרֶגֶל כְּעֵין שֶׁמַּעֲגִילִים בְּמַחְלָצַיִם. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6

[The following rule applies when] a person has grain that is still growing in the ground, and he has no other food to eat except this [grain]:13 Although he would not suffer a loss [if he did not harvest the grain], we do not require him to buy what he needs at the marketplace and [wait] until after the festival to harvest.

Instead, he may harvest [the grain] he needs,14 collect it in sheaves, thresh it, winnow it, separate it, and grind it, provided he does not thresh it with oxen.15 For any labor performed [during Chol HaMo'ed] that does not involve a loss must be [performed] in a manner departing from the norm. The same applies in other similar situations.

ו

מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ תְּבוּאָה מְחֻבֶּרֶת לַקַּרְקַע וְאֵין לוֹ מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל בַּמּוֹעֵד אֶלָּא מִמֶּנָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כָּאן הֶפְסֵד אֵין מַצְרִיכִין אוֹתוֹ לִקְנוֹת מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל מִן הַשּׁוּק עַד שֶׁיִּקְצֹר אַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד אֶלָּא קוֹצֵר וּמְעַמֵּר וְדָשׁ וְזוֹרֶה וּבוֹרֵר וְטוֹחֵן מַה שֶּׁהוּא צָרִיךְ. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָדוּשׁ בְּפָרוֹת. שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ הֶפְסֵד צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

7

[Food]16 that one desires to pickle that can be eaten during a festival may be pickled [during Chol HaMo'ed]. If, however, the pickled food will not be ready until after the festival, it is forbidden to pickle it [during Chol HaMo'ed].

One may catch as many fish as one can17 during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed and salt them all, for it is possible for him partake of them during the festival if he squeezes them many times by hand until they become soft.

ז

כְּבָשִׁים שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן בַּמּוֹעֵד כּוֹבְשָׁן. וְשֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד אָסוּר לְכָבְשָׁן. וְצָד אָדָם דָּגִים כָּל שֶׁיָּכוֹל לָצוּד וּמוֹלֵחַ הַכּל בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֹּאכַל מֵהֶן בַּמּוֹעֵד אִם יִסְחֹט אוֹתָן בְּיָדוֹ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת עַד שֶׁיִּתְרַכְּכוּ:

8

One may set beer to ferment during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed for the sake of the festival. If it is not for the sake of the festival, it is forbidden. This applies both to beer made from dates18 and beer made from barley.

Even if a person has aged beer, he may act with guile and [prepare fresh beer to] drink, for the guile of this act would not be noticeable to an observer.19 The same applies in other similar situations.

ח

מְטִילִין שֵׁכָר בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד אָסוּר. אֶחָד שֵׁכָר תְּמָרִים וְאֶחָד שֵׁכָר שְׂעוֹרִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ יָשָׁן מַעֲרִים וְשׁוֹתֶה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ שֶׁאֵין הַעֲרָמָה זוֹ נִכֶּרֶת לָרוֹאֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

9

Whenever labors that are necessary for the festival are performed [during Chol HaMo'ed] by professionals, they must be performed in a private manner.20 What is implied? Hunters, millers, and grape-harvesters, whose intent is to sell their products in the marketplace, must perform these activities in a private manner for the sake of the festival. If these activities are not performed for the sake of the festival, [the products] are forbidden. If they perform these activities for the sake of the festival and the products remain afterwards, they may be used.

ט

כָּל מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁהֵן לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד כְּשֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָן אֻמָּנֵיהֶן עוֹשִׂין בְּצִנְעָה. כֵּיצַד. הַצַּיָּדִים וְהַטּוֹחֲנִין וְהַבּוֹצְרִין לִמְכֹּר בַּשּׁוּק הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ עוֹשִׂין בְּצִנְעָה לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. וְאִם עָשָׂה לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד וְהוֹתִיר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

10

We may perform [any labors that are] necessary for the sake of the community at large during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.21

What is implied? We may fix breaches in waterworks in the public domain; we may fix the highways and the roads; we may dig cisterns, trenches, and grottos for the public;22 we may dig rivulets so that they will have water to drink; we may store water in cisterns and grottos belonging to the public and may fix the cracks [in their walls];23 we may remove brambles from the roads; and we may measure mikvaot.24 When the amount of water in a mikveh is lacking, we may direct water to it to complete its measure.

י

עוֹשִׂין כָּל צָרְכֵי הָרַבִּים בַּמּוֹעֵד. כֵּיצַד. מְתַקְּנִים קִלְקוּלֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וּמְתַקְּנִין אֶת הַדְּרָכִים וְאֶת הָרְחוֹבוֹת. וְחוֹפְרִים לָרַבִּים בּוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. וְכוֹרִין לָהֶן נְהָרוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתּוּ מֵימֵיהֶן וְכוֹנְסִים מַיִם לְבוֹרוֹת וּמְעָרוֹת שֶׁל רַבִּים וּמְתַקְּנִין אֶת סִדְקֵיהֶן. וּמְסִירִין אֶת הַקּוֹצִין מִן הַדְּרָכִים. וּמוֹדְדִין אֶת הַמִּקְוָאוֹת וְכָל מִקְוֶה שֶׁנִּמְצָא חָסֵר מַרְגִּילִין לוֹ מַיִם וּמַשְׁלִימִין לוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ:

11

The agents of the court may go out to declare ownerless fields that contain a mixture of species.25 We may redeem captives [taken by gentiles], endowment evaluations,26 entitlements,27 and consecrated articles.28

We may have a woman suspected of adultery drink [the required mixture],29 we may burn a red heifer,30 we may break the neck of a calf,31 we may pierce the ear of a slave,32 and we may purify a leper.33 We may also designate the site of graves whose markings were washed away by rain, so that the priests will not walk there.34 All these are activities necessary for the community at large.

יא

וְיוֹצְאִין שְׁלוּחֵי בֵּית דִּין לְהַפְקִיר אֶת הַכִּלְאַיִם. וּפוֹדִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיִים וְאֶת הָעֶרְכִין וְאֶת הַחֲרָמִים וְאֶת הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. וּמַשְׁקִין אֶת הַסּוֹטוֹת. וְשׂוֹרְפִין אֶת הַפָּרָה. וְעוֹרְפִין אֶת הָעֶגְלָה. וְרוֹצְעִין עֶבֶד עִבְרִי. וּמְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַמְצֹרָע. וּמְצַיְּנִין עַל הַקְּבָרוֹת שֶׁמִּחוּ גְּשָׁמִים אֶת צִיּוּנָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְרְשׁוּ מֵהֶן הַכֹּהֲנִים. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ צָרְכֵי רַבִּים הֵן:

12

Similarly, we may judge monetary disputes,35 cases involving the punishment by lashing, and capital cases during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. When a person does not accept a judgment, a ban of ostracism may be issued against him during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. Just as cases may be judged during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, we may write court documents and any similar articles during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.

What is implied? The judges may write an account of the evaluation of [a debtor's property] for his creditor, a statement of the property sold to feed a person's wife and daughters,36 and a bill of chalitzah37 and of miyyun.38 Similarly, we may write any legal document that the judges require to remind them - e.g., a record of the claims of the litigants, or a statement of the concessions they made - e.g., that so and so is acceptable [to testify regarding] my case, that so and so may serve as a judge.39

When a person requires a loan and the lender will not grant him the loan on a verbal commitment alone, it is permitted to have a promissory note written. Similarly, a bill of divorce,40 a bill of marriage, a receipt [for payment of a debt], and a deed [recording a present may be written during Chol HaMo'ed], for all these resemble matters necessary for the community at large.41

יב

וְדָנִים דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת וְדִינֵי מַכּוֹת וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת בַּמּוֹעֵד. וּמִי שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו הַדִּין מְשַׁמְּתִין אוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁדָּנִין בַּמּוֹעֵד כָּךְ כּוֹתְבִין מַעֲשֵׂה בֵּית דִּין וְכָל הַדּוֹמֶה לוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כּוֹתְבִין הַדַּיָּנִין אִגְּרוֹת שׁוּם שֶׁשָּׁמוּ לְבַעַל חוֹב וְאִגְּרוֹת שֶׁמָּכְרוּ בָּהֶן לִמְזוֹן הָאִשָּׁה וְהַבָּנוֹת. וְשִׁטְרֵי חֲלִיצָה וּמֵאוּנִין. וְכָל הַדּוֹמֶה לָהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁצְּרִיכִים הַדַּיָּנִין לְכָתְבָם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכְּרוּם. כְּגוֹן טַעֲנוֹת בַּעֲלֵי דִּינִין אוֹ דְּבָרִים שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּגוֹן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נֶאֱמָן עָלַי. אוֹ אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי יָדוּן לִי. מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִלְווֹת בַּמּוֹעֵד וְלֹא הֶאֱמִינוֹ הַמַּלְוֶה בְּעַל פֶּה הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹתֵב שְׁטַר חוֹב. וְכֵן כּוֹתְבִין גִּטִּין וְקִדּוּשֵׁי נָשִׁים וְשׁוֹבְרִין וּמַתָּנוֹת. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ כְּצָרְכֵי רַבִּים הֵן:

13

It is forbidden to write [professionally] during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed; this includes even Torah scrolls, tefillin42 and mezuzot. Nor may one check [the letters of a Torah scroll],43 not even a single letter in the scroll kept in the Temple courtyard,44 for this is not a labor that is necessary for the sake of the festival.45

A person may, however, write tefillin or mezuzot for himself, or spin purple cloth for his garment.46 If he has nothing to eat,47 he may write and sell to others for his livelihood.

יג

וְאָסוּר לִכְתֹּב בַּמּוֹעֵד אֲפִלּוּ סְפָרִים תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת. וְאֵין מַגִּיהִין אֲפִלּוּ אוֹת אַחַת בְּסֵפֶר הָעֲזָרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזּוֹ מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. אֲבָל כּוֹתֵב אָדָם תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזָה לְעַצְמוֹ וְטוֹוֶה תְּכֵלֶת לְבִגְדוֹ. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל כּוֹתֵב וּמוֹכֵר לַאֲחֵרִים כְּדֵי פַּרְנָסָתוֹ:

14

It is permitted to write social correspondence during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. Similarly, one may make a reckoning of one's budget and costs. For a person does not take much care when writing these matters, and this is thus like the performance of a task by an ordinary person.48

יד

וּמֻתָּר לִכְתֹּב אִגְּרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְכוֹתֵב חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹתָיו וּמְחַשֵּׁב יְצִיאוֹתָיו. שֶׁכְּתִיבוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין אָדָם נִזְהָר בְּתִקּוּנָן מְאֹד וְנִמְצְאוּ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט בִּמְלָאכוֹת:

15

We may take care of all the needs of a corpse during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.49 We may cut its hair, wash its shrouds, and make a coffin for it. If there are no boards available, we may bring beams and cut boards from them in a discreet manner inside a building.50 If [the coffin is intended for] an important person, it may be made in the marketplace.51

We may not, however, cut down a tree from the forest to cut boards for a coffin, nor may we quarry out stones to build a grave.

טו

עוֹשִׂין כָּל צָרְכֵי הַמֵּת בַּמּוֹעֵד. גּוֹזְזִין שְׂעָרוֹ וּמְכַבְּסִין כְּסוּתוֹ וְעוֹשִׂין לוֹ אָרוֹן. וְאִם לֹא הָיוּ לָהֶם נְסָרִים מְבִיאִין קוֹרוֹת וְנוֹסְרִין מֵהֶם נְסָרִים בְּצִנְעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת. וְאִם הָיָה אָדָם מְפֻרְסָם עוֹשִׂין אֲפִלּוּ בַּשּׁוּק. אֲבָל אֵין כּוֹרְתִין עֵץ מִן הַיַּעַר לִנְסֹר מִמֶּנּוּ לוּחוֹת לָאָרוֹן. וְאֵין חוֹצְבִין אֲבָנִים לִבְנוֹת בָּהֶן קֶבֶר:

16

We may not inspect leprous blotches during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,52 lest the person be declared impure and his festival be transformed into a period of mourning.

We may neither marry, nor perform the act of yibbum53 during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, so that the happiness of the festival will not be obscured by the happiness of the marriage. One may, however, remarry one's divorcee, and one may betroth54 a woman during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, provided one does not make a feast for the betrothal or the wedding,55 so that no other rejoicing will be combined with the rejoicing of the festival.

טז

אֵין רוֹאִין אֶת הַנְּגָעִים בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁמָּא יִמָּצֵא טָמֵא וְנִמְצָא חַגּוֹ נֶהֱפָךְ לְאֵבֶל. וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין נָשִׁים וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין בַּמּוֹעֵד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּשְׁתַּכֵּחַ שִׂמְחַת הֶחָג בְּשִׂמְחַת הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. אֲבָל מַחֲזִיר אֶת גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ. וּמְאָרְסִין נָשִׁים בַּמּוֹעֵד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה סְעֻדַּת אֵרוּסִין וְלֹא סְעֻדַּת נִשּׂוּאִין. שֶׁלֹּא יְעָרֵב שִׂמְחָה אַחֶרֶת בְּשִׂמְחַת הֶחָג:

17

We may not cut hair,56 nor may we launder clothes during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. [This is] a decree, [instituted] lest a person wait until [Chol Ha]Mo'ed and enter the first day of the holiday unkempt.57 Therefore, anyone who was unable to cut his hair or launder his clothes on the day before the commencement of the holiday may launder his clothes and cut his hair during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.

יז

אֵין מְגַלְּחִין וְאֵין מְכַבְּסִין בַּמּוֹעֵד גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁהֶה אָדָם עַצְמוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד וְיָבוֹא יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהוּא מְנֻוָּל. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְגַלֵּחַ וּלְכַבֵּס בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְכַבֵּס וּלְגַלֵּחַ בַּמּוֹעֵד:

18

What is implied? The [following] individuals are permitted to cut their hair and launder their clothes during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed: a mourner whose seventh day of mourning falls on [the first day of] a holiday58- or even if [his seventh day] falls on the day before the holiday, but it is a Sabbath, when it is forbidden to cut hair, a person who returns from an overseas journey - provided he did not travel for pleasure, but rather for business purposes and the like - a person who is freed from captivity, or freed from prison,59 a person who was under a ban of ostracism60 that was not lifted until [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, a person who took an oath not to cut his hair, or not to launder his clothes and did not ask a wise man to abrogate his oath61 until [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.62

יח

כֵּיצַד. אָבֵל שֶׁחָל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁלּוֹ לִהְיוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב אוֹ שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וַהֲרֵי הוּא שַׁבָּת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְגַלֵּחַ. וְהַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא לְהִטַיֵּיל אֶלָּא לִסְחוֹרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הַשִּׁבְיָה וּמִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים. וּמִי שֶׁהָיָה מְנֻדֶּה וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ אֶלָּא בַּמּוֹעֵד. וּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא לְגַלֵּחַ וְשֶׁלֹּא לְכַבֵּס וְלֹא נִשְׁאָל לְחָכָם לְהַתִּיר נִדְרוֹ אֶלָּא בַּמּוֹעֵד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְגַלְּחִין וּמְכַבְּסִין בַּמּוֹעֵד:

19

In all the above situations, if any of the persons had the opportunity to cut their hair before the festival but failed to do so, they are forbidden from doing so [during Chol HaMo'ed].

In contrast, when the time for a nazarite or a leper to shave has already arrived,63 whether it arrived during the festival or before the festival, they may shave during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, even if they had the opportunity [to shave their hair before the holiday], so that they will not delay the offering of their sacrifices. [Similarly,] anyone who terminates a state of ritual impurity and becomes pure is permitted to cut his hair during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.64

We may cut a child's hair during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,65 whether he was born during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed or before [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.66

The members of the priestly watch serving in the Temple who completed [their week of service]67 during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed may cut their hair. For the members of the priestly watch may not cut their hair during their week of service.68

יט

וְכֻלָּן שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶן פְּנַאי לְגַלֵּחַ קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל וְלֹא גִּלְּחוּ אֲסוּרִין. אֲבָל הַנָּזִיר וְהַמְצֹרָע שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תִּגְלַחְתָּן בֵּין בְּתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד בֵּין קֹדֶם הָרֶגֶל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם פְּנַאי מֻתָּרִין לְגַלֵּחַ בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁהוּ קָרְבְּנוֹתֵיהֶן. וְכָל הַיּוֹצֵא מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ לְטָהֳרָתוֹ מֻתָּר לְגַלֵּחַ בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְקָטָן שֶׁנּוֹלַד בֵּין בַּמּוֹעֵד בֵּין לִפְנֵי הַמּוֹעֵד מֻתָּר לְגַלְּחוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר שֶׁשָּׁלְמָה מִשְׁמַרְתָּן בְּתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד מֻתָּרִין לְגַלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר אֲסוּרִין לְגַלֵּחַ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁלָּהֶן:

20

It is permitted to cut one's mustache during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed and to cut one's nails,69 even using a utensil.70

A woman may remove the hair from her underarms and her pubic hair by hand, or with a utensil.71 Similarly, she may undergo all cosmetic treatments during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed: [e.g.,] she may paint her eyes, part her hair, apply rouge to her face, and apply lime to her skin72 and the like, provided she can remove it73 during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.

כ

מֻתָּר לִטּל שָׂפָה בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. וְלִטּל צִפָּרְנַיִם וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי. וּמַעֲבֶרֶת הָאִשָּׁה שֵׂעָר מִבֵּית הַשֶּׁחִי וּמִבֵּית הָעֶרְוָה בֵּין בַּיָּד בֵּין בִּכְלִי. וְעוֹשָׂה כָּל תַּכְשִׁיטֶיהָ בַּמּוֹעֵד. כּוֹחֶלֶת וּפוֹקֶסֶת וּמַעֲבֶרֶת סְרָק עַל פָּנֶיהָ וְטוֹפֶלֶת עַצְמָהּ בְּסִיד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְהוּא שֶׁתּוּכַל לְקַפְּלוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד:

21

A zav,74 a zavah,75 a niddah,76 a woman who gave birth,77 and all those who emerge from a state of ritual impurity during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed are permitted to launder their garments.78

A person who has only one garment should79 wash it during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. Hand towels, barber's towels,80 and bathing towels are permitted to be laundered. Similarly, undergarments81 are permitted to be laundered during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,82 because they must continually be laundered, even if they were laundered on the day preceding the holiday.

כא

הַזָּבִים וְהַזָּבוֹת וְהַנִּדּוֹת וְהַיּוֹלְדוֹת וְכָל הָעוֹלִים מִטֻּמְאָה לְטָהֳרָה בְּתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין לְכַבֵּס. וּמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא חָלוּק אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מְכַבְּסוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. מִטְפְּחוֹת הַיָּדַיִם וּמִטְפְּחוֹת הַסְּפָרִים וּמִטְפְּחוֹת הַסְפָג הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין לְכַבֵּס בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְכֵן כְּלֵי פִּשְׁתָּן מֻתָּר לְכַבְּסָן בַּמּוֹעֵד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁצְּרִיכִין כִּבּוּס תָּמִיד אֲפִלּוּ נִתְכַּבְּסוּ עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב:

22

One may not become involved in commercial enterprise during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, whether one sells or purchases.83 If, however, the matter is one that involves the loss [of an opportunity] that is not always available after the festival84 - e.g., ships or caravans that have arrived or that are preparing to depart and they are selling their wares cheaply or purchasing dearly - it is permissible to sell and to purchase from them [during Chol HaMo'ed].

We may not purchase buildings, servants, and animals that are not necessary during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.85

כב

אֵין עוֹשִׂין סְחוֹרָה בַּמּוֹעֵד בֵּין לִמְכֹּר בֵּין לִקְנוֹת. וְאִם הָיָה דָּבָר הָאָבֵד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי תָּמִיד לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד כְּגוֹן סְפִינוֹת אוֹ שַׁיָּרוֹת שֶׁבָּאוּ אוֹ שֶׁהֵם מְבַקְּשִׁים לָצֵאת וּמָכְרוּ בְּזוֹל אוֹ לָקְחוּ בְּיֹקֶר הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לִקְנוֹת אוֹ לִמְכֹּר. וְאֵין לוֹקְחִין בָּתִּים וַעֲבָדִים וּבְהֵמָה אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד:

23

Merchants selling produce, garments, and utensils may sell them discreetly for the sake of the festival.86 What is implied? If [the merchant's] store opens to a corner or to a lane, he may operate it in his ordinary manner. If it opens into the public thoroughfare, he should open one door and close the other. On the day before Shemini Atzeret,87 one may take out one's produce and adorn the marketplace with it, as an expression of honor for the holiday.

Spice merchants88 may sell their wares in their ordinary manner, in public [during Chol HaMo'ed].

כג

מוֹכְרֵי פֵּרוֹת כְּסוּת וְכֵלִים מוֹכְרִין בְּצִנְעָה לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. כֵּיצַד. אִם הָיְתָה הַחֲנוּת פְּתוּחָה לְזָוִית אוֹ לְמָבוֹי פּוֹתֵחַ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. וְאִם הָיְתָה פְּתוּחָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים פּוֹתֵחַ אַחַת וְנוֹעֵל אַחַת. וְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת מוֹצִיא וּמְעַטֵּר אֶת הַשּׁוּק בְּפֵרוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב. מוֹכְרֵי תַּבְלִין מוֹכְרִין כְּדַרְכָּן בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא:

24

Whatever is forbidden to be done during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, one may not instruct a gentile to do [on one's behalf].

If a person does not have food to eat,89 a person may perform any task that is forbidden during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed or involve himself in any commercial enterprise to earn his livelihood.90

It is permissible for a rich man to hire a poor employee who does not have food to eat to perform tasks that are forbidden during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, so that the worker will be paid a wage with which he can purchase his sustenance. Similarly, we may purchase articles that are not necessary for the festival, because the seller is in need and lacks food.

כד

כָּל שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ. וְכָל שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד אִם אֵין לוֹ מַה שֶּׁיֹּאכַל הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי פַּרְנָסָתוֹ. וְכֵן עוֹשֶׂה סְחוֹרָה כְּדֵי פַּרְנָסָתוֹ. וּמֻתָּר לֶעָשִׁיר לִשְׂכֹּר פּוֹעֵל עָנִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה בַּמּוֹעֵד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטּל שְׂכָרוֹ לְהִתְפַּרְנֵס בּוֹ. וְכֵן לוֹקְחִין דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד מִפְּנֵי צֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל:

25

We may hire a worker during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed to perform a task after the festival, provided he does not weigh, measure, or count [the amount of work he must perform] as he would on an ordinary day.

When a gentile has been contracted to perform a task for a Jew,91 [the Jew] should prevent him from performing it during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. [This applies] even if the gentile [works] outside [the city's] Sabbath limits.92 For the people at large know that this task [is being performed] for the sake of a Jew and they will suspect that he hired the gentile to perform it for him during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed. For not all people are aware of the distinction between a hired laborer and a contractor. Therefore, [lest a mistaken impression arise,] it is forbidden.

כה

שׂוֹכְרִין הַשָּׂכִיר עַל הַמְּלָאכָה בַּמּוֹעֵד לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁקל וְשֶׁלֹּא יִמְדֹּד וְלֹא יִמְנֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. נָכְרִי שֶׁקִּבֵּל קִבּלֶת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵינוֹ מַנִּיחוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. שֶׁהַכּל יוֹדְעִין שֶׁמְּלָאכָה זוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיַחְשְׁדוּ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהוּא שָׂכַר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. שֶׁאֵין הַכּל יוֹדְעִין הַהֶפְרֵשׁ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּין הַשָּׂכִיר וּבֵין הַקַּבְּלָן וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר: