Chapter 25

1If there is a quarrel between men, and they approach the tribunal, and they [the judges] judge them, and they acquit the innocent one and condemn the guilty one   אכִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה רִיב֙ בֵּ֣ין אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְנִגְּשׁ֥וּ אֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט וּשְׁפָט֑וּם וְהִצְדִּ֨יקוּ֙ אֶת־הַצַּדִּ֔יק וְהִרְשִׁ֖יעוּ אֶת־הָֽרָשָֽׁע:
If there is a quarrel: they will eventually go to court. We learn from this, that peace cannot result from quarrel. [Just think,] what caused Lot to leave the righteous man [Abraham] (Gen. 13:7-12)? Clearly, it was quarrel. — [Sifrei 25:152]   כִּי־יִֽהְיֶה רִיב: סוֹפָם לִהְיוֹת נִגָּשִׁים אֶל הַמִּשְׁפָּט. אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה אֵין שָׁלוֹם יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹךְ מְרִיבָה, מִי גָּרַם לְלוֹט לִפְרֹשׁ מִן הַצַּדִּיק? הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זוֹ מְרִיבָה:
and condemn the guilty one: [Since the next verse continues, “the judge shall… flog him,”] one might think that all those convicted by the court must be flogged. Therefore, Scripture teaches us, “and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty] of lashes…” (verse 2). [From here, we see that] sometimes [a convicted party] is given lashes, and sometimes he is not. Who receives lashes is derived from the context, as follows: [Some negative commandments are mitigated by positive commandments which relate to the same matter, for example, the law of sending away the mother bird (Deut. 22:6-7). Scripture (22:6) states the negative commandment: “you shall not take the mother upon the young,” and immediately, Scripture (22:7) continues to state the positive commandment of: “You shall send away the mother.” Here, the negative commandment is mitigated by the positive commandment. How so? If someone transgressed the negative commandment and took the mother bird from upon her young, he may clear himself of the punishment he has just incurred, by fulfilling the positive commandment of sending the mother bird away from the nest. This is an example of “a negative commandment mitigated by a positive commandment.” (see Mishnah Mak. 17a) Now, in our context, immediately after describing the procedure of flogging in court, the next verse (4) continues with the negative commandment of:] “You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain],” a negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive one. [Therefore, from the very context of these verses, we learn that only for transgressing a “negative commandment which is not mitigated by a positive commandment,” is one punished by lashes.]- [see Mak. 13b]   וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ אֶת־הָֽרָשָֽׁע: יָכוֹל כָּל הַמִּתְחַיְּבִין בַּדִּין לוֹקִין, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר — והיה אם בן הכות הרשע. פְּעָמִים לוֹקֶה וּפְעָמִים אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. וּמִי הוּא הַלּוֹקֶה? לְמֹד מִן הָעִנְיָן, "לֹא תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ" — לָאו שֶׁלֹּא נִתַּק לַעֲשֵׂה (עי' ספרי; מכות י"ג):
2and it shall be, if the guilty one has incurred [the penalty of] lashes, that the judge shall make him lean over and flog him in front of him, commensurate with his crime, in number.   בוְהָיָ֛ה אִם־בִּ֥ן הַכּ֖וֹת הָֽרָשָׁ֑ע וְהִפִּיל֤וֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט֙ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ לְפָנָ֔יו כְּדֵ֥י רִשְׁעָת֖וֹ בְּמִסְפָּֽר:
the judge shall make him lean over: This teaches [us] that they [the judges] do not flog [the guilty party while [the latter is] standing or sitting, but, [when he is] leaning over. — [Mak. 22b]   וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ לֹא עוֹמֵד וְלֹא יוֹשֵׁב אֶלָּא מֻטֶּה (מכות כ"ב):
[The judge shall… flog him] in front of him, commensurate with his crime: Heb., כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ [singular-meaning one punishment before him -] and behind him twice that number. From here they [the Rabbis] said: “They must give him two thirds [of his lashes] behind him [i.e., on his back], and one third in front of him [i.e., on his chest]” (Mak. 22b)   לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ: וּלְאַחֲרָיו כְּדֵי שְׁתַּיִם, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת מִלְּאַחֲרָיו וּשְׁלִישׁ מִלְּפָנָיו (ספרי; מכות כ"ב):
in number: Heb. בְּמִסְפָּר, but it is not vowelized בַּמִּסְפָּר, in the number. This teaches us that the word בְּמִסְפָּר is in the construct state, [qualifying the word following it which is the first word of the next verse, namely, אַרְבָּעִים], to read: בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, that is, “[and flog him…] the number of forty,” but not quite a full quota of forty, but the number that leads up to the full total of forty, i. e.,“forty-minus-one.” - [Mak. 22b]   בְּמִסְפָּֽר: וְאֵינוֹ נָקוּד בַּמִּסְפָּר, לִמֵּד שֶׁהִיא דְבוּקָה, לוֹמַר בְּמִסְפַּר אַרְבָּעִים וְלֹא אַרְבָּעִים שְׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא מִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא סוֹכֵם וּמַשְׁלִים לְאַרְבָּעִים וְהֵם אַרְבָּעִים חָסֵר אַחַת (שם):
3He shall flog him with forty [lashes]; he shall not exceed, lest he give him a much more severe flogging than these [forty lashes], and your brother will be degraded before your eyes.   גאַרְבָּעִ֥ים יַכֶּ֖נּוּ לֹ֣א יֹסִ֑יף פֶּן־יֹסִ֨יף לְהַכֹּת֤וֹ עַל־אֵ֨לֶּה֙ מַכָּ֣ה רַבָּ֔ה וְנִקְלָ֥ה אָחִ֖יךָ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
He… shall not exceed: From here, we derive the admonition that one may not strike his fellow man. - [Keth. 33a, San. 85a]   לֹא יֹסִיף: מִכָּאן אַזְהָרָה לַמַּכֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ (עי' כתובות ל"ג):
and your brother will be degraded: All day [that is, throughout the entire procedure], Scripture calls him רָשָׁע, “wicked,” but, once he has been flogged, behold, he is “your brother.” - [Sifrei 25:153]   וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ: כָּל הַיּוֹם קוֹרְאוֹ רָשָׁע, וּמִשֶּׁלָּקָה קְרָאוֹ אָחִיךָ:
4You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing [the grain].   דלֹֽא־תַחְסֹ֥ם שׁ֖וֹר בְּדִישֽׁוֹ:
You shall not muzzle an ox: Scripture is speaking here in terms of what usually occurs [i.e., one usually uses an ox for threshing grain]. However, the law applies equally to any species of domestic animal, non-domesticated animal, or bird, and in any area of work in the process of preparing food. If so, why does Scripture specify an ox? To exclude man [from this law. That is, if it is a human who is performing the work, his employer is permitted to “muzzle” him, that is, to prevent the worker from eating from the produce. Nevertheless, it is a mitzvah to allow him to eat from the employer’s produce.]- [Sifrei 25:154]   לֹֽא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר: דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב בַּהֹוֶה, וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף הָעוֹשִׂים בִּמְלָאכָה שֶׁהִיא בִּדְבַר מַאֲכָל; אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר שׁוֹר? לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָאָדָם (ספרי; בבא מציעא פ"ח):
when it is threshing [the grain]: One might have thought that it is permissible to muzzle the animal outside [the work area, i.e., before it starts threshing]. Therefore, Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox!”-i.e., at any time [even before the actual threshing] (see B.M. 90b). Why then, is threshing mentioned? To tell you that, just as threshing [has two specific features]: a) It is a thing that does not represent the completion of its process [rendering the product liable for tithing and challah], and b) it [namely, grain] grows from the ground, likewise, any [work] which resembles it [in these two features, is included in this law]. Thus, excluded [from this prohibition] is the labor of milking, cheese-making, or in churning [milk, to produce buttermilk], all of which deal with an item that does not grow from the ground. Also excluded is the labor of kneading [dough], or in rolling out the dough to shape, for these procedures do in fact complete the process, rendering the product liable for challah to be taken. A further exclusion to this prohibition is the labor of separating dates and figs [that is, when spreading out dates and figs on a roof or the like, so that they dry, the fruit may adhere into one mass. Here, the procedure is to separate individual dates or figs from the mass, a procedure] which completes the preparation process, rendering the fruit liable for tithing. — [B.M. 89a]   בְּדִישֽׁוֹ: יָכוֹל יַחְסְמֶנּוּ מִבַּחוּץ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "לֹא תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר" — מִכָּל מָקוֹם; וְלָמָּה נֶאֱמַר דַּיִשׁ? לוֹמַר לְךָ מַה דַּיִשׁ מְיֻחָד דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְגִדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ, אַף כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, יָצָא הַחוֹלֵב וְהַמְגַבֵּן וְהַמְחַבֵּץ שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ, יָצָא הַלָּשׁ וְהַמְקַטֵּף שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ לְחַלָּה, יָצָא הַבּוֹדֵל בִּתְמָרִים וּבִגְרוֹגְרוֹת שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן לַמַּעֲשֵׂר (ספרי; ב"מ פ"ט):
5If brothers reside together, and one of them dies having no son, the dead man's wife shall not marry an outsider. [Rather,] her husband's brother shall be intimate with her, making her a wife for himself, thus performing the obligation of a husband's brother with her.   הכִּי־יֵֽשְׁב֨וּ אַחִ֜ים יַחְדָּ֗ו וּמֵ֨ת אַחַ֤ד מֵהֶם֙ וּבֵ֣ן אֵֽין־ל֔וֹ לֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֧ה אֵֽשֶׁת־הַמֵּ֛ת הַח֖וּצָה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר יְבָמָהּ֙ יָבֹ֣א עָלֶ֔יהָ וּלְקָחָ֥הּ לֽוֹ־לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וְיִבְּמָֽהּ:
If brothers reside together: [meaning] that they were both alive at the same time, [lit. that they had one dwelling in the world]. It excludes the wife of his brother who was no longer in the world [when he was born]. [This means as follows: If a man dies, and his brother is born after his death, his widow may not marry the brother of her deceased husband.] - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   כִּי־יֵֽשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו: שֶׁהָיְתָה לָהֶם יְשִׁיבָה אַחַת בָּעוֹלָם, פְּרָט לְאֵשֶׁת אָחִיו שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְעוֹלָמוֹ (ספרי; יבמות י"ז):
together: [This law applies only to brothers] who share in the inheritance “together” [namely, paternal brothers]. This excludes maternal brothers. - [Sifrei 25:155, Yev. 17b]   יַחְדָּו: הַמְיֻחָדִים בַּנַּחֲלָה, פְּרָט לְאָחִיו מִן הָאֵם (שם):
having no son: Heb. וּבֵן אֵין-לוֹ [Literally, “and he has no son.” Here, the word אֵין can be read also as עַיִן, meaning to “investigate,” because an א is interchangeable with an ע (see Yev. 22b). Thus, the verse also teaches us:] Investigate him [if he has progeny of any sort]-whether he has a son or a daughter, or a son’s son or a son’s daughter, or a daughter’s son or a daughter’s daughter. [And if he has any of these, the law of יִבּוּם does not apply.]   וּבֵן אֵֽין־לוֹ: עַיֵּן עָלָיו, בֵּן אוֹ בַת אוֹ בֵן הַבֵּן אוֹ בַת הַבֵּן אוֹ בֵן הַבַּת אוֹ בַת הַבַּת (עי' יבמות כ"ב):
6And it will be, that the eldest brother [who performs the levirate marriage, if] she [can] bear will succeed in the name of his deceased brother, so that his [the deceased brother's] name shall not be obliterated from Israel.   ווְהָיָ֗ה הַבְּכוֹר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּלֵ֔ד יָק֕וּם עַל־שֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו הַמֵּ֑ת וְלֹֽא־יִמָּחֶ֥ה שְׁמ֖וֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל:
the eldest brother: Heb. הַבְּכוֹר, [literally “the firstborn.” However, here it means that] the eldest brother [of the deceased] should perform the levirate marriage with the widow. — [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   וְהָיָה הַבְּכוֹר: גְּדוֹל הָאַחִים הוּא מְיַבֵּם אוֹתָהּ (ספרי; יבמות כ"ד):
she [can] bear: Heb. אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד [literally, “who will give birth.”] This excludes a woman incapable of conception. - [Sifrei 25:156, Yev. 24a]   אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵד: פְּרָט לְאַיְלוֹנִית שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹלֶדֶת:
will succeed in the name of his deceased brother: [literally, “will rise in the name of his brother.”] The one who marries his wife, is to take the share of his deceased brother’s inheritance of their father’s property [in addition to his own share]. - [Yev. 24a]   יָקוּם עַל־שֵׁם אָחִיו: זֶה שֶׁיִּבֵּם אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ יִטֹּל נַחֲלַת הַמֵּת בְּנִכְסֵי אָבִיו:
so that his name shall not be obliterated: This excludes [from the obligation of יִבּוּם] the wife of a eunuch whose name [was already] obliterated. - [Yev. 24a]   וְלֹֽא־יִמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ: פְּרָט לְאֵשֶׁת סָרִיס שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ מָחוּי (יבמות כ"ד):
7But if the man does not wish to take his brother's wife, the brother's wife shall go up to the gate, to the elders, and say, "My husband's brother has refused to perpetuate his brother's name in Israel he does not wish to perform the obligation of a husband's brother with me."   זוְאִם־לֹ֤א יַחְפֹּץ֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ לָקַ֖חַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּ֑וֹ וְעָֽלְתָה֩ יְבִמְתּ֨וֹ הַשַּׁ֜עְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים וְאָֽמְרָה֙ מֵאֵ֨ן יְבָמִ֜י לְהָקִ֨ים לְאָחִ֥יו שֵׁם֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה יַבְּמִֽי:
to the gate: [Not to the gate of the city, but,] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: to the gate of the court.   הַשַּׁעְרָה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ — לִתְרַע בֵּית דִּינָא:
8Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him, and he shall stand up and say, "I do not wish to take her."   חוְקָֽרְאוּ־ל֥וֹ זִקְנֵֽי־עִיר֖וֹ וְדִבְּר֣וּ אֵלָ֑יו וְעָמַ֣ד וְאָמַ֔ר לֹ֥א חָפַ֖צְתִּי לְקַחְתָּֽהּ:
and he shall stand up: [He must make this declaration] in a standing position. - [Sifrei 25:158]   וְעָמַד: בַּעֲמִידָה (ספרי):
and say: in the Holy Language. She too shall make her statement in the Holy Language. — [Yev. 106b]   וְאָמַר: בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְאַף הִיא דְּבָרֶיהָ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ (יבמות ק"ו; ספרי):
9Then his brother's wife shall approach him before the eyes of the elders and remove his shoe from his foot. And she shall spit before his face and answer [him] and say, "Thus shall be done to the man who will not build up his brother's household!"   טוְנִגְּשָׁ֨ה יְבִמְתּ֣וֹ אֵלָיו֘ לְעֵינֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִים֒ וְחָֽלְצָ֤ה נַֽעֲלוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְל֔וֹ וְיָֽרְקָ֖ה בְּפָנָ֑יו וְעָֽנְתָה֙ וְאָ֣מְרָ֔ה כָּ֚כָה יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יִבְנֶ֖ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית אָחִֽיו:
And she shall spit before his face: on the ground, [not in his face]. — [Yev. 106b]   וְיָֽרְקָה בְּפָנָיו: עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע (שם):
[Thus shall be done to the man] who will not build up [his brother’s household]: From here, [we learn] that one who has undergone the rite of chalitzah [described in these verses], cannot change his mind and marry her, for it does not say, “[Thus will be done to that man] who did not build up [his brother’s household],” but, “who will not build up [his brother’s household].” Since he did not build it up [when he was obliged to do so], he will never again build it up. — [Yev. 10b]   אֲשֶׁר לֹֽא־יִבְנֶה: מִכָּאן לְמִי שֶׁחָלַץ שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר וִייַבֵּם, דְּלָא כְתִיב "אֲשֶׁר לֹא בָנָה", אֶלָּא "אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִבְנֶה", כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא בָנָה — שׁוּב לֹא יִבְנֶה (יבמות י'; עי' ספרי):
10And that family shall be called in Israel, "The family of the one whose shoe was removed."   יוְנִקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בֵּ֖ית חֲל֥וּץ הַנָּֽעַל:
And his name shall be called [in Israel]: It is the duty of all those standing there to proclaim: חֲלוּץ הַנָּעַל - “you, who have had your shoe removed!” - [Yev. 106b]   וְנִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ וגו': מִצְוָה עַל כָּל הָעוֹמְדִים שָׁם לוֹמַר "חֲלוּץ הַנַּעַל" (ספרי; יבמות ק"ו):
11If [two] men, a man and his brother, are fighting together, and the wife of one of them approaches to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she stretches forth her hand and grabs hold of his private parts   יאכִּֽי־יִנָּצ֨וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים יַחְדָּו֙ אִ֣ישׁ וְאָחִ֔יו וְקָֽרְבָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת הָֽאֶחָ֔ד לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶת־אִישָׁ֖הּ מִיַּ֣ד מַכֵּ֑הוּ וְשָֽׁלְחָ֣ה יָדָ֔הּ וְהֶֽחֱזִ֖יקָה בִּמְבֻשָֽׁיו:
If… men… are fighting together: they will eventually come to blows, as it is said: “[to rescue her husband] from his assailant.” [The moral here is:] Peace cannot result from strife. — [Sifrei 25:160]   כִּֽי־יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים: סוֹפוֹ לָבֹא לִידֵי מַכּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מיד מכהו, אֵין שָׁלוֹם יוֹצֵא מִתּוֹךְ יְדֵי מַצּוּת (ספרי):
12you shall cut off her hand You shall not have pity.   יבוְקַצֹּתָ֖ה אֶת־כַּפָּ֑הּ לֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶֽךָ:
You shall cut off her hand: [This verse is not to be understood literally, but rather, it means:] She must pay monetary damages to recompense the victim for the embarrassment he suffered [through her action. The amount she must pay is calculated by the court,] all according to the [social status] of the culprit and the victim (see B.K. 83b). But perhaps [it means that we must actually cut off] her very hand? [The answer is born out from a transmission handed down to our Rabbis, as follows:] Here, it says לֹא תָחוֹס, “do not have pity,” and later, in the case of conspiring witnesses (Deut. 19:21), the same expression, לֹא תָחוֹס, is used. [And our Rabbis taught that these verses have a contextual connection:] Just as there, in the case of the conspiring witnesses, [the literal expressions in the verse refer to] monetary compensation (see Rashi on that verse), so too, here, [the expression “You must cut off her hand” refers to] monetary compensation. — [Sifrei 25:161]   וְקַצֹּתָה אֶת־כַּפָּהּ: מָמוֹן דְּמֵי בָשְׁתּוֹ, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַמְבַיֵּשׁ וְהַמִּתְבַּיֵּשׁ; אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא יָדָהּ מַמָּשׁ? נֶאֱמַר כָּאן "לֹא תָחוֹס", וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן בְּעֵדִים זוֹמְמִים (דברים י"ט) "לֹא תָחוֹס", מַה לְּהַלָן מָמוֹן אַף כָּאן מָמוֹן (ספרי; עי' בבא קמא כ"ח):
13You shall not keep in your pouch two different weights, one large and one small.   יגלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּכִֽיסְךָ֖ אֶ֣בֶן וָאָ֑בֶן גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה:
two different weights: [This term is not to be understood literally as “stones,” but rather, it refers to specific stones, namely:] weights [used to weigh merchandise in business].   אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן: מִשְׁקָלוֹת:
one large and one small: [literally, “big and small.” This means:] the big stone “contradicts” [i.e., is inconsistent with] the small one. [That is to say, you must not have two weights which appear to be the same, but in fact, are unequal, allowing you] to purchase goods with the larger weight [thereby cheating the seller], and to sell with the smaller one [thereby cheating the buyer]. — [Sifrei 25:162]   גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּֽה: גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁמַּכְחֶשֶׁת אֶת הַקְּטַנָּה, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵי נוֹטֵל בַּגְּדוֹלָה וּמַחֲזִיר בַּקְּטַנָּה (ספרי):
14You shall not keep in your house two different ephah measures, one large and one small.   ידלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּבֵֽיתְךָ֖ אֵיפָ֣ה וְאֵיפָ֑ה גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה:
You shall not keep: Heb. לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ, literally, “You will not have.” That is, the verse literally reads: “If you keep… two different weights, you will not have.” This teaches us that] if you do this, you will not have anything! - [Sifrei 25:162] [However,]   לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה לְךָ: אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן, לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ כְּלוּם (עי' שם):
15[Rather,] you shall have a full and honest weight, [and] a full and honest ephah measure, in order that your days will be prolonged on the land which the Lord, your God, gives you.   טואֶ֣בֶן שְׁלֵמָ֤ה וָצֶ֨דֶק֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֔ךְ אֵיפָ֧ה שְׁלֵמָ֛ה וָצֶ֖דֶק יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יַֽאֲרִ֣יכוּ יָמֶ֔יךָ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
you shall have a full and honest weight: [Literally, “If you keep a full and honest weight, you will have.” That is to say,] if you do this, you will have much. — [Sifrei 25:162]   אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִֽהְיֶה־לָּךְ: אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן, יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַרְבֵּה:
16For whoever does these things, whoever perpetrates such injustice, is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   טזכִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־עֹ֣שֵׂה אֵ֑לֶּה כֹּ֖ל עֹ֥שֵׂה עָֽוֶל:
17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues, “When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ: אִם שִׁקַּרְתָּ בְמִדּוֹת וּבְמִשְׁקָלוֹת הֱוֵי דוֹאֵג מִגֵּרוּי הָאוֹיֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי י"א) "מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה תּוֹעֲבַת ה'", וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ "בָּא זָדוֹן וַיָּבֹא קָלוֹן" (תנחומא):
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אֲשֶׁר קָֽרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ: לְשׁוֹן מִקְרֶה; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֶרִי וְטֻמְאָה שֶׁהָיָה מְטַמְּאָן בְּמִשְׁכַּב זְכוּר; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֹר וְחֹם, צִנֶּנְךָ וְהִפְשִׁירְךָ מֵרְתִיחָתְךָ, שֶׁהָיוּ כָל הָאֻמּוֹת יְרֵאִים לְהִלָּחֵם בָּכֶם וּבָא זֶה וְהִתְחִיל וְהֶרְאָה מָקוֹם לַאֲחֵרִים; מָשָׁל לְאַמְבָּטִי רוֹתַחַת שֶׁאֵין כָּל בְּרִיָּה יְכוֹלָה לֵירֵד בְּתוֹכָהּ, בָּא בֶן בְּלִיַּעַל אֶחָד קָפַץ וְיָרַד לְתוֹכָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְוָה הֵקֵרָהּ אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵרִים (תנחומא):
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ: מַכַּת זָנָב, חוֹתֵךְ מִילוֹת וְזוֹרֵק כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה (תנחומא):
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִים אַֽחֲרֶיךָ: חַסְרֵי כֹחַ מֵחֲמַת חֶטְאָם, שֶׁהָיָה הֶעָנָן פּוֹלְטָן (תנחומא):
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says, “Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ: עָיֵף בַּצָּמָא, דִּכְתִיב "וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם" (שמות י"ז) וּכְתִיב אַחֲרָיו "וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק":
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   וְיָגֵעַ: בַּדֶּרֶךְ:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   וְלֹא יָרֵא: עֲמָלֵק אלהים מִלְּהָרַע לְךָ:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכָּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר * (זֶ֣כֶר) עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר), even regarding an animal, to say: “This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק: מֵאִישׁ עַד אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד יוֹנֵק מִשּׁוֹר וְעַד שֶׂה (שמואל א ט"ו), שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שֵׁם עֲמָלֵק נִזְכָּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה, לוֹמַר בְּהֵמָה זוֹ מִשֶּׁל עֲמָלֵק הָיְתָה (פסיק' זוטר'):