Chapter 24

1When a man takes a wife and is intimate with her, and it happens that she does not find favor in his eyes because he discovers in her an unseemly [moral] matter, and he writes for her a bill of divorce and places it into her hand, and sends her away from his house,   אכִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֛ישׁ אִשָּׁ֖ה וּבְעָלָ֑הּ וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א תִמְצָא־חֵ֣ן בְּעֵינָ֗יו כִּי־מָ֤צָא בָהּ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּיתֽוֹ:
[When a man takes a wife… that she does not find favor in his eyes] because he discovers in her an unseemly [moral] matter: [In this case] he has an obligation to divorce her, lest she find favor in his eyes [and he might consequently wish to keep her, which he must not do, since she had committed an act of impropriety]. — [Gittin 90b]   כִּֽי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר: מִצְוָה עָלָיו לְגָרְשָׁהּ, שֶׁלֹּא תִמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָיו (גיט' צ'):
2and she leaves his house and goes and marries another man,   בוְיָֽצְאָ֖ה מִבֵּית֑וֹ וְהָֽלְכָ֖ה וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לְאִֽישׁ־אַחֵֽר:
[and goes and marries] another man: who differs from her first husband, for that one sent the evil woman out of his home, whereas this [man] has taken her in[to his home]. — [Gittin 90b]   לְאִֽישׁ־אַחֵֽר: אֵין זֶה בֶּן זוּגוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן, הוּא הוֹצִיא רְשָׁעָה מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְזֶה הִכְנִיסָהּ (שם):
3if the latter husband hates her and writes her a bill of divorce, and places it into her hand and sends her away from his house, or if the latter husband who took her as a wife, dies   גוּשְׂנֵאָהּ֘ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָֽאַחֲרוֹן֒ וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּית֑וֹ א֣וֹ כִ֤י יָמוּת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַֽחֲר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָ֥הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
if the latter husband hates her: Scripture informs him that eventually he will [come to] despise her, and if not, she will bury him, for it says, “or if the latter husband… dies.”- [Sifrei 24:135]   וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָֽאַחֲרוֹן: הַכָּתוּב מְבַשְּׂרוֹ שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לִשְׂנֹאתָהּ, וְאִם לָאו קוֹבַרְתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר או כי ימות (ספרי):
4her first husband, who had sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, since she was defiled [to him], for that is an abomination before the Lord, and you shall not bring sin to the land the Lord, your God, gives you for an inheritance.   דלֹֽא־יוּכַ֣ל בַּעְלָ֣הּ הָֽרִאשׁ֣וֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁ֠לְּחָ֠הּ לָשׁ֨וּב לְקַחְתָּ֜הּ לִֽהְי֧וֹת ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֗ה אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻטַּמָּ֔אָה כִּי־תֽוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְלֹ֤א תַֽחֲטִיא֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
since she was defiled [to him]: [This unusual expression comes] to include a sotah [a woman suspected of adultery] because she secluded herself [with another man]. [Until her trial ceremony takes place (see Num. 5:11-31) and it is yet unknown whether she has indeed committed adultery, he may not have relations with her.] - [Sifrei 24:136]   אַֽחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֻטַּמָּאָה: לְרַבּוֹת סוֹטָה שֶׁנִּסְתְּרָה (ספרי; יבמות י"א):
5When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out in the army, nor shall he be subjected to anything associated with it. He shall remain free for his home for one year and delight his wife, whom he has taken.   הכִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִישׁ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה לֹ֤א יֵצֵא֙ בַּצָּבָ֔א וְלֹא־יַֽעֲבֹ֥ר עָלָ֖יו לְכָל־דָּבָ֑ר נָקִ֞י יִֽהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵיתוֹ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְשִׂמַּ֖ח אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־לָקָֽח:
[When a man takes] a new wife: [i.e., one] who is new to him, even if she is a widow [i.e., she was previously married to someone else], but this excludes [a man who] remarries his divorcee. — [Sotah 44a]   אִשָּׁה חֲדָשָׁה: שֶׁהִיא חֲדָשָׁה לוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ אַלְמָנָה, פְּרָט לְמַחֲזִיר גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ (ספרי; סוטה מ"ד):
nor shall he be subjected: lit., nor shall it pass over him, [referring to] the order of the army.   וְלֹא־יעבור עָלָיו: דְּבַר הַצָּבָא:
to anything associated with it: that is required by the army: [For instance,] he must not supply water and food or repair the roads [for the army]. However, men who return from the battlefield by the order of the kohen because they either built a house but did not yet dedicate it, or betrothed a woman but did not yet take her [as a wife] [see Deut. 20:5-7], are required to supply water and food and repair the roads [for the army]. — [Sotah 43a]   לְכָל־דָּבָר: שֶׁהוּא צֹרֶךְ הַצָּבָא, לֹא לְסַפֵּק מַיִם וּמָזוֹן וְלֹא לְתַקֵּן הַדְּרָכִים, אֲבָל הַחוֹזְרִים מֵעוֹרְכֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה עַל פִּי כֹהֵן, כְּגוֹן בָּנָה בַיִת וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ אוֹ אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ, מַסְפִּיקִין מַיִם וּמָזוֹן וּמְתַקְּנִין אֶת הַדְּרָכִים (שם):
He shall remain [free] for his home: Heb. לְבֵיתוֹ, lit.,“for his house,” [meaning] also for his house. If he built a new house and dedicated it, or if he planted a vineyard (see Deut. 20:6) and redeemed it [i.e., he just began to partake of its fruits in the fourth year by redeeming them and eating their value in Jerusalem], he does not move from his home for the needs of war.   יִֽהְיֶה לְבֵיתוֹ: אַף בִּשְׁבִיל בֵּיתוֹ, אִם בָּנָה בַיִת וַחֲנָכוֹ וְאִם נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְחִלְּלוֹ אֵינוֹ זָז מִבֵּיתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל צָרְכֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה:
for his home: Heb. לְבֵיתוֹ. This refers to his house [as explained above].   יִֽהְיֶה: לְרַבּוֹת אֶת כַּרְמוֹ:
must remain: Heb. יִהְיֶה. [This] comes to include his vineyard [as explained above].   לְבֵיתוֹ: זֶה בֵיתוֹ:
and delight: Heb. וְשִׂמַּח. [The word אֶת in this phrase, וְשִׂמַּח אֶת-אִשְׁתּוֹ, can mean “with,” or it can introduce the direct object, namely, “his wife.” Thus, this phrase can either mean “he shall rejoice with his wife,” or it could mean “he shall delight his wife.” Here, Rashi decides that the meaning is] “He shall delight his wife” [that is, the verb is in the piel (intensive causative) conjugation]. Thus, the [correct] rendering is as it appears in the Targum [Onkelos]: וְיַחְדֵי יַת אִיתְּתֵהּ, “and he shall make his wife happy.” One who renders: וְיֶחְדֵי יַת אִיתְּתֵהּ, “he shall rejoice with his wife,” is mistaken, for this is not the translation of וְשִׂמַּח [in the piel, causative conjugation], but [the translation] of וְשָׂמַח, [the kal, simple intransitive conjugation].   וְשִׂמַּח: יְשַׂמֵּחַ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ "וְיַחְדֵי יָת אִתְּתֵהּ", וְהַמְתַרְגֵּם וְיֶחְדֵּי עִם אִתְּתֵהּ טוֹעֶה הוּא, שֶׁאֵין זֶה תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל וְשִׂמַּח אֶלָּא שֶׁל וְשָׂמַח:
6One shall not take the lower or the upper millstone as security [for a loan], because he is taking a life as security.   ולֹא־יַֽחֲבֹ֥ל רֵחַ֖יִם וָרָ֑כֶב כִּי־נֶ֖פֶשׁ ה֥וּא חֹבֵֽל:
One shall not take the lower or the upper millstone as security [for a loan]: If [a creditor] comes to the court to demand security for a debt [for which no security had previously been required], he may not take as security articles used in the preparation of food. — [B.M. 115a]   לֹא־יַֽחֲבֹל: אִם בָּא לְמַשְׁכְּנוֹ עַל חוֹבוֹ בְּבֵית דִּין, לֹא יְמַשְׁכְּנֶנּוּ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁעוֹשִׂים בָּהֶן אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ (ב"מ קי"ג):
the lower millstone: Heb. רֵחַיִם. This is the lower [millstone].   רֵחַיִם: הִיא הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה:
the upper millstone: Heb. וָרָכֶב. This is the upper [millstone].   וָרָכֶב: הִיא הָעֶלְיוֹנָה:
7If a man is discovered kidnapping any person from among his brothers, of the children of Israel, and treats him as a slave and sells him, that thief shall die, so that you shall clear out the evil from among you.   זכִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ גֹּנֵ֨ב נֶ֤פֶשׁ מֵֽאֶחָיו֙ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּ֖וֹ וּמְכָר֑וֹ וּמֵת֙ הַגַּנָּ֣ב הַה֔וּא וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
If [a man] is discovered: By witnesses, and after he was warned [not to kidnap] (Sifrei 24:139). Likewise, every [instance of] יִמָּצֵא, “[if someone is] discovered,” in the Torah. - [Mechilta 21:63]   כִּֽי־יִמָּצֵא: בְּעֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה, וְכֵן כָּל "יִמָּצֵא" שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה:
and treats him as a slave: The perpetrator is not liable [to the death penalty] until he uses [his victim as a slave]. — [Sifrei 24:139, San. 85b]   וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּוֹ: אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ:
8Be cautious regarding the lesion of tzara'ath, to observe meticulously and you shall do according to all that the Levite priests instruct you; as I have commanded them, [so shall you] observe to do.   חהִשָּׁ֧מֶר בְּנֶֽגַע־הַצָּרַ֛עַת לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מְאֹ֖ד וְלַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת כְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יוֹר֨וּ אֶתְכֶ֜ם הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים הַֽלְוִיִּ֛ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִ֖ם תִּשְׁמְר֥וּ לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
Be cautious regarding the lesion of tzara’ath: that you do not remove any of the signs of uncleanness [e.g., by peeling off the skin], and that you do not cut off a bahereth, bright spot. — [Sifrei 24:140, Mak. 22a]   הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶֽגַע־הַצָּרַעַת: שֶׁלֹּא תִתְלֹשׁ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְלֹא תָקֹץ אֶת הַבַּהֶרֶת (מכות כ"ב):
according to all that [the Levite kohanim] instruct you: whether to quarantine [the person with tzara’ath], whether to make a decisive diagnosis [of tzara’ath], or whether to declare him clean.   כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם: אִם לְהַסְגִּיר אִם לְהַחֲלִיט אִם לְטַהֵר:
9Remember what the Lord, your God, did to Miriam on the way, when you went out of Egypt.   טזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְמִרְיָ֑ם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Remember what the Lord, your God, did to Miriam: If you wish to take precautions against being stricken with tzara’ath, then do not speak לָשׁוֹן הָרַע [slander, derogatory remarks]. Remember what was done to Miriam, who spoke against her brother [Moses] and was stricken with lesions [of tzara’ath] (see Num. 12:1-16). - [Sifrei 24: 141]   זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמִרְיָם: אִם בָּאתָ לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תִלְקֶה בְּצָרַעַת אַל תְּסַפֵּר לָשׁוֹן הָרָע, זְכֹר הֶעָשׂוּי לְמִרְיָם שֶׁדִּבְּרָה בְאָחִיהָ וְלָקְתָה בִנְגָעִים (עי' ספרי):
10When you lend your fellow [Jew] any item, you shall not enter his home to take his security.   יכִּֽי־תַשֶּׁ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ מַשַּׁ֣את מְא֑וּמָה לֹֽא־תָבֹ֥א אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ לַֽעֲבֹ֥ט עֲבֹטֽוֹ:
When you lend your fellow [Jew]: Heb. כִּי-תַשֶּׁה, lit., when you obligate your friend.   כִּֽי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵֽעֲךָ: תָחֹב בַּחֲבֵרְךָ:
any item: Heb. מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה, lit., a debt involving anything.   מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה: חוֹב שֶׁל כְּלוּם:
11You shall stand outside, and the man to whom you are extending the loan shall bring the security to you outside.   יאבַּח֖וּץ תַּֽעֲמֹ֑ד וְהָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ נשֶׁ֣ה ב֔וֹ יוֹצִ֥יא אֵלֶ֛יךָ אֶת־הָֽעֲב֖וֹט הַחֽוּצָה:
12And if he is a poor man, you shall not lie down [to sleep] with his security.   יבוְאִם־אִ֥ישׁ עָנִ֖י ה֑וּא לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב בַּֽעֲבֹטֽוֹ:
you shall not lie down [to sleep] with his security: You shall not lie down [to sleep] while you have his security in your possession. — [Sifrei 24:144, B.M. 114b]   לֹא תִשְׁכַּב בַּֽעֲבֹטֽוֹ: לֹא תִשְׁכַּב וַעֲבוֹטוֹ אֶצְלְךָ (ספרי; בבא מציעא קי"ד):
13You shall return the security to him by sunset, so that he may lie down [to sleep] in his garment, and he will bless you, and it will be counted for you as merit before the Lord, your God.   יגהָשֵׁב֩ תָּשִׁ֨יב ל֤וֹ אֶת־הָֽעֲבוֹט֙ כְּב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ וְשָׁכַ֥ב בְּשַׂלְמָת֖וֹ וּבֵֽרֲכֶ֑ךָּ וּלְךָ֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה צְדָקָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
[You shall return the security to him] by sunset: if it is a garment worn at night. And if it is a garment worn by day, return it in the morning. This has already been written in parshath Mishpatim, where the verse says, “until sunset you shall return it to him” (Exod. 22:25), meaning that you shall return it to him for the entire day, and when the sun sets, you may take it [back]. — [B.M. 114b]   כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ: אִם כְּסוּת לַיְלָה הוּא, וְאִם כְּסוּת יוֹם — הַחֲזִירֵהוּ בַבֹּקֶר, וּכְבָר כָּתוּב בִּוְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים (כ"ב) "עַד בֹּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ" — כָּל הַיּוֹם תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ, וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תִּקָּחֶנּוּ:
and he will bless you: And if he does not bless you, it will nevertheless “be counted for you as merit.” - [Sifrei 24:144]   וּבֵֽרֲכֶךָּ: וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְבָרֶכְךָ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם ולך תהיה צדקה (ספרי):
14You shall not withhold the wages of a poor or destitute hired worker, of your brothers or of your strangers who are in your land within your cities.   ידלֹא־תַֽעֲשֹׁ֥ק שָׂכִ֖יר עָנִ֣י וְאֶבְי֑וֹן מֵֽאַחֶ֕יךָ א֧וֹ מִגֵּֽרְךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאַרְצְךָ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
You shall not withhold the wages of a [poor or destitute] hired worker: But has this not already been written [in the verse, “You shall not withhold what is due your fellow [Jew]” (Lev. 19:13)]? However, this [negative commandment] is [repeated here] to [make one] transgress two negative commandments for [withholding the pay due] a destitute person: [First, here,] not to withhold the wages of a worker who is poor or destitute, and [secondly,] concerning [even] the well-to-do worker, one was already admonished (Lev. 19:13)], “You shall not [unjustly] withhold what is due your fellow [Jew, which includes the destitute as well].” - [B.M. 61a] [See Chavel and Yosef Hallel, who quote the Reggio edition, which is more correct.]   לֹא־תַֽעֲשֹׁק שָׂכִיר: וַהֲלֹא כְבָר כָּתוּב? אֶלָּא לַעֲבֹר עַל הָאֶבְיוֹן בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוין, "לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר" שֶׁהוּא עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן, וְעַל הֶעָשִׁיר כְּבָר הֻזְהַר (ויקרא י"ט) "לֹא תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת רֵעֲךָ" (ב"מ ס"א):
destitute: Heb. אֶבְיוֹן, one who longs for everything [because he has nothing. The word for longing (תאב) resembles the word for destitute (אֶבְיוֹן)]. - [See Midrash Prov. 22:22]   אביון: הַתָּאֵב לְכָל דָּבָר:
of your strangers: This [refers to] a righteous proselyte [who converts to Judaism out of genuine conviction and pure motives]. — [Sifrei 24:145]   מִגֵּֽרְךָ: זֶה גֵּר צֶדֶק:
within your cities: This [expression refers to] a convert who [has undertaken not to practice idolatry, but] eats animals that have not been ritually slaughtered. — [Sifrei 24:145]   בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ: זֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב הָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת:
who are in your land: This [expression] comes to include the hire of animals or utensils. — [Sifrei 24:145, B.M. 111b]   אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצְךָ: לְרַבּוֹת שְׂכַר בְּהֵמָה וְכֵלִים (בבא מציעא קי"א):
15You shall give him his wage on his day and not let the sun set over it, for he is poor, and he risks his life for it, so that he should not cry out to the Lord against you, so that there should be sin upon you.   טובְּיוֹמוֹ֩ תִתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָר֜וֹ וְלֹֽא־תָב֧וֹא עָלָ֣יו הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֤י עָנִי֙ ה֔וּא וְאֵלָ֕יו ה֥וּא נֹשֵׂ֖א אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־יִקְרָ֤א עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
and he risks his life for it: For this wage he risks his life. [For instance,] he climbed up a ramp or suspended himself from a tree. — [B.M. 112a]   וְאֵלָיו הוּא נֹשֵׂא אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ: אֶל הַשָּׂכָר הַזֶּה הוּא נוֹשֵׂא אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ לָמוּת, עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וְנִתְלָה בְאִילָן (ספרי; ב"מ קי"ב):
so that there should be sin upon you: in any case, [even if he does not cry out to the Lord against you]. However, punishment is meted out faster by virtue of one who cries out. — [Sifrei 24:146]   וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵֽטְא: מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּמַהֲרִין לִפָּרֵעַ עַל יְדֵי הַקּוֹרֵא (ספרי):
16Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons, nor shall sons be put to death because of fathers; each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.   טזלֹא־יֽוּמְת֤וּ אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וּבָנִ֖ים לֹא־יֽוּמְת֣וּ עַל־אָב֑וֹת אִ֥ישׁ בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ יוּמָֽתוּ:
Fathers shall not be put to death because of sons: [I.e.,] by the testimony of [their] sons. But, if you say [that it means that fathers shall not be put to death] because of the sins of their sons, it has already been stated, “each man shall be put to death for his own transgression.” However, one who is not yet a man may die on account of his father’s transgressions. [Therefore,] minors may die at the hands of Heaven on account of their parents’ sins. — [Sifrei 24:147, Shab. 32b]   לֹא־יֽוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים: בְּעֵדוּת בָּנִים, וְאִם תֹּאמַר בַּעֲוֹן בָּנִים, כְּבָר נֶאֱמַר אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יֽוּמְתוּ (ספרי; סנהדרין כ"ז) אֲבָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אִישׁ מֵת בַּעֲוֹן אָבִיו, וְהַקְּטַנִּים מֵתִים בַּעֲוֹן אֲבוֹתָם בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם (ספרי):
17You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan, and you shall not take a widow's garment as security [for a loan].   יזלֹ֣א תַטֶּ֔ה מִשְׁפַּ֖ט גֵּ֣ר יָת֑וֹם וְלֹ֣א תַחֲבֹ֔ל בֶּ֖גֶד אַלְמָנָֽה:
You shall not pervert the judgment of a stranger or an orphan: And concerning a wealthy person, [meaning anyone, not necessarily poor], one has already been warned, “You shall not pervert justice” (Deut. 16:19). However, [Scripture] repeats this prohibition here in reference to the poor man to [make one] transgress two negative commandments [for perverting the justice due a poor man]. Since it is easier to pervert the judgment of a poor man than that of a rich man, [Scripture] admonishes and then repeats [the admonition].   לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם: וְעַל הֶעָשִׁיר כְּבָר הֻזְהַר (דברים ט"ז) "לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט", וְשָׁנָה בֶעָנִי לַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוין, לְפִי שֶׁנָּקֵל לְהַטּוֹת מִשְׁפַּט עָנִי יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁל עָשִׁיר, לְכָךְ הִזְהִיר וְשָׁנָה עָלָיו (ספרי):
and you shall not take a widow’s garment as security [for a loan]: not at the time of the loan, [but when the debtor has defaulted].   וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל: שֶׁלֹּא בִשְׁעַת הַלְוָאָה:
18You shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there; therefore, I command you to do this thing.   יחוְזָֽכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֨יתָ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה:
You shall remember [that you were a slave in Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you from there]: [God says:] On that condition I redeemed you, [namely, on the condition] that you observe My statutes, even if you incur monetary loss in the matter.   וְזָֽכַרְתָּ: עַל מְנָת כֵּן פְּדִיתִיךָ, לִשְׁמֹר חֻקּוֹתַי אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס בַּדָּבָר:
19When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to take it; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow, so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all that you do.   יטכִּ֣י תִקְצֹר֩ קְצִֽירְךָ֨ בְשָׂדֶ֜ךָ וְשָֽׁכַחְתָּ֧ עֹ֣מֶר בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה לֹ֤א תָשׁוּב֙ לְקַחְתּ֔וֹ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֑ה לְמַ֤עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ:
and forget a sheaf: but not a stack. [That is, if someone forgot a stack of grain, he may go back to retrieve it.] (Sifrei 24:149). Hence, [our Rabbis] said: (Pe’ah 6:6) A sheaf containing two se’ah, which someone forgot, is not considered שִׁכְחָה [that is, the harvester is permitted to go back and retrieve it].   וְשָֽׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר: וְלֹא גָדִישׁ, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, עֹמֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם וּשְׁכָחוֹ אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה (פאה ו' מ"ב):
[When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf] in the field: [Why the repetition of the word “field”? This comes] to include שִׁכְחָה of standing grain, part of which the harvester had forgotten to reap, [not only bound up sheaves standing in the field]. - [Sifrei 24:149]   בַּשָּׂדֶה: לְרַבּוֹת שִׁכְחַת קָמָה שֶׁשָּׁכַח מִקְצָתָהּ מִלִּקְצֹר:
you shall not go back to take it: From here, [our Rabbis] said: Whatever is behind him is considered שִׁכְחָה, “forgotten” [and may not be retrieved]. Whatever is in front of him, is not considered “forgotten” [and may still be retrieved], since it does not come under the law of “you shall not go back to take.” - [Pe’ah 6:4]   לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ: מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו שִׁכְחָה, שֶׁלְּפָנָיו אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב (פאה מ"ד; בבא מציעא י"א):
so that [the Lord, your God,] will bless you: Although [the forgotten sheaf came into his hand without intention [of the owner]. How much more so [will one be blessed] if he did it deliberately! Hence, you must say that if someone dropped a sela, and a poor man found it and was sustained by it, then he [who lost the coin] will be blessed on its account. — [Sifrei 24:149]   לְמַעַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ: וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּאת לְיָדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בְמִתְכַּוֵּן, קַל וָחֹמֶר לָעוֹשֶׂה בְמִתְכַּוֵּן. אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה נָפְלָה סֶלַע מִיָּדוֹ וּמְצָאָהּ עָנִי וְנִתְפַּרְנֵס בָּהּ — הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבָּרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ (ספרי):
20When you beat your olive tree, you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you; it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   ככִּ֤י תַחְבֹּט֙ זֵֽיתְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְפַאֵ֖ר אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶֽה:
you shall not deglorify it [by picking all its fruit] after you: Heb. לֹא-תְפַאֵר, [This word is derived from פְּאֵר or תִּפְאֶרֶת, “glory.” The “glory” of an olive-tree is its fruit. Thus, the meaning is:] “You shall not take its glory” (תִּפְאֶרֶת) from it. [I.e., do not remove all its fruit.] Hence, [our Rabbis derive that in addition to the harvest of grain and produce, in fruit-bearing trees also], one must leave behind פֵּאָה, [fruits at the end of the olive harvest]. — [Chul. 131b]   לֹא תְפַאֵר: לֹא תִטֹּל תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ (חולין קל"א), מִכָּאן שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין פֵּאָה לָאִילָן:
after you: This refers to שִׁכְחָה, forgotten fruit [in the case of a fruit-bearing tree, that one must leave the forgotten fruit for the poor to collect]. — [Chul. 131b]   אַֽחֲרֶיךָ: זוֹ שִׁכְחָה:
21When you pick the grapes of your vineyard, you shall not glean after you: it shall be [left] for the stranger, the orphan and the widow.   כאכִּ֤י תִבְצֹר֙ כַּרְמְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְעוֹלֵ֖ל אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶֽה:
[When you pick the grapes of your vineyard,] you shall not glean: i.e., if you find עוֹלְלוֹת, small clusters therein, you shall not take them. Now what constitutes עוֹלְלוֹת [thus necessitating them to be left for the poor]? Any cluster of grapes which has neither a כָּתֵף, “shoulder” or a נָטֵף, “drippings.” But if it has either one of them, it belongs to the householder. — [Pe’ah 7:4] I saw in the Talmud Yerushalmi (Pe’ah 7:3): “What is a כָּתֵף, shoulder?” It is [a cluster of grapes] in which the sprigs of grapes pile one on top of the other [at the top of the cluster, together taking on the shape of a shoulder. And what is] a נָטֵף,“drippings?” These are the grapes suspended from the central stalk [of the cluster, as though dripping down].   לֹא תְעוֹלֵל: אִם מָצָאתָ בוֹ עוֹלֵלוֹת, לֹא תִקָּחֶנָּה. וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא עוֹלֵלוֹת? כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא כָּתֵף וְלֹא נָטֵף. יֵשׁ לָהּ אֶחָד מֵהֶם — הֲרֵי הִיא לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת (ספרא); וְרָאִיתִי בְתַלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי אֵי זוֹ הִיא כָּתֵף? פְּסִיגִין זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה, נָטֵף — אֵלּוּ הַתְּלוּיוֹת בַּשִּׁדְרָה וְיוֹרְדוֹת:
22You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt: therefore, I command you to do this thing.   כבוְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה: