1

The Sages instituted other blessings and many other statements that lack a p'tichah and a chatimah, as an expression of praise and acknowledgement of the Holy One, blessed be He - for example, the blessings of prayer that we have already mentioned. Among these [blessings are the following]:

A person who builds a new house or buys new articles should recite the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this occasion." [This blessing is recited] regardless of whether he possesses similar articles or not.

א

ברכות אחרות ודברים אחרים הרבה שאין בהן פתיחה ולא חתימה תיקנו חכמים דרך שבח והודיה להקב"ה כמו ברכות התפלה שכבר כתבנום ואלו הן הבונה בית חדש והקונה כלים חדשים בין יש לו כיוצא בהן בין אין לו מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שהחיינו וקיימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה:

The Sages - In Chapter 1, Halachah 5, the Rambam attributed the composition of the text of all the blessings to Ezra and his court, the Anshei K'nesset Hagedolah.

instituted other blessings - The previous chapters described the birkat hanehenim, the blessings recited in acknowledgement of the benefit received from food or fragrance, based on the principle, "it is forbidden to receive benefit from this world without a blessing." In this chapter, the Rambam mentions other blessings that are recited in connection with events, sights, or news that are out of the ordinary. By reciting a blessing over these occurrences, we focus our awareness on the Divine origin of everything that occurs in this world.

and many other statements - See Halachot 19-25.

that lack a p'tichah - The words, "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the World," which are used to begin blessings. (See Hilchot Kri'at Shema 1:7 and commentary.)

and a chatimah - The words, "Blessed are You, God," which are used to conclude blessings. (See Hilchot Kri'at Shema, ibid.)

as an expression of praise and acknowledgement of the Holy One, blessed be He - See Chapter 1, Halachah 4, which states that these blessings were instituted "to remember the Creator at all times and to fear Him."

for example, the blessings of prayer that we have already mentioned. - See Hilchot Tefillah, Chapter 7, which mentions the morning blessings.

Among these [blessings are the following]: A person who builds a new house - Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi (Piskei Siddur 12:2) also mentions purchasing a new house.

or buys - The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 223:4) states that the blessing should be recited when the article is purchased, and not when it is first used. One feels greater satisfaction when purchasing the article than when using it.

new - This also refers to articles that are new for the purchaser (e.g., a used car). The world "new" is intended to exclude articles that were sold and repurchased (Shulchan Aruch, ibid.:3).

articles - i.e., garments or household goods (Mishnah Berurah 223:13). This blessing should be recited only on the acquisition of important articles, whose purchase brings one considerable satisfaction. See Shulchan Aruch (ibid.:6) and Mishnah Berurah (ibid.).

should recite the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this occasion.'' - As mentioned in Halachah 7, this blessing is associated with "all benefits that a person appreciates alone." Similarly, it is recited in praise of God for allowing us to fulfill certain mitzvot.

[This blessing is recited] regardless of whether one possesses - According to the Rambam, this refers to articles acquired through inheritance. If one has already purchased such an article, he should not recite a blessing. The Shulchan Aruch (ibid.:3, based on the decisions of Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi and Rabbenu Asher), however, states that the blessing should be recited even when he had purchased such articles before.

similar articles or not. - This decision is based on the Rambam's analysis of Berachot 59b-60a.

2

Similarly, a person who sees a friend after [not seeing him for] thirty days [or more] should recite the blessing shehecheyanu . If he sees him after a hiatus of twelve months [or more], he should recite the blessing "Blessed are You, God... who resurrects the dead."

A person who sees a fruit that grows only in a specific season each year should recite the blessing shehecheyanu when he sees it for the first time.

ב

וכן הרואה את חבירו לאחר שלשים יום מברך שהחיינו ואם ראהו לאחר שנים עשר חדש מברך ברוך אתה יי' מחיה המתים הרואה פרי המתחדש משנה לשנה בתחלת ראייתו מברך שהחיינו:

Similarly, a person who sees a friend - Tosafot, Berachot 58b, states that this refers to a friend who is dear and whose sight brings one satisfaction.

after [not seeing him - The Mishnah Berurah 225:2 mentions opinions that maintain that if one has heard news of one's friend's well-being or received a letter from him during this period, the blessing should not be recited. Note, however, Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi's Piskei Siddur 12:11, in which he negates these opinions, stating that a person feels genuine satisfaction only when he sees a friend face to face.

for] thirty days [or more] - Thirty days is considered a significant period regarding various matters of Scriptural Law.

should recite the blessing shehecheyanu - mentioned in the previous halachah.

If he sees him after a hiatus of twelve months [or more], he should recite the blessing "Blessed are You, God... - Although the Panim Me'irot states that the words "our Lord, King of the universe" need not be mentioned, the consensus of halachic opinion (see Mishnah Berurah 225:3) is that they should be recited.

who resurrects the dead." - Berachot 58b states that just as a dead person is forgotten after a year's time, so, too, a friend whom one has not seen for such a period is as if he has ceased to exist.

A person who sees - Although from Bereishit Rabbah 29:2, it is clear that the blessing should be recited whether he eats the fruit or not, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 225:3) states that it is customary to recite the blessing before partaking of the fruit.

a fruit - whether of trees or of the earth. For example, Eruvin 40b states the blessing should be recited over squash.

that grows only in a specific season each year - The Ramah (Orach Chayim 225:6) states that the blessing should be recited even if the fruit has two seasons a year in which it grows. The intent is to exclude fruits and vegetables that grow throughout the year.

should - Eruvin, ibid., emphasizes that we are not obligated to recite this blessing (Mishnah Berurah 225:9).

recite the blessing shehecheyanu when he sees it for the first time. - The Ramah (Orach Chayim 225:3) writes that a person who did not recite the blessing the first time he saw the fruit may recite the blessing when he sees it a second time. The Mishnah Berurah 225:13 supports this opinion, noting that, at present, it is customary not to recite the blessing until one partakes of the fruit. Nevertheless, should he taste the fruit without reciting the blessing, it should not be recited at a later time.

3

When a person hears favorable tidings, he should recite the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who is good and does good." If he hears bad tidings, he should recite the blessing: "Blessed [are You...] the true Judge."

A person is obligated to recite a blessing over undesirable occurrences with a positive spirit, in the same manner as he joyfully recites a blessing over desirable occurrences. [This is implied by Deuteronomy 6:5]: "And you shall love God, your Lord... with all your might." Included in this extra dimension of love that we were commanded [to express] is to acknowledge and praise [God] with happiness even at one's time of difficulty.

ג

שמע שמועה טובה מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם הטוב והמטיב שמע שמועה רעה מברך ברוך דיין האמת וחייב אדם לברך על הרעה בטוב נפש כדרך שמברך על הטובה בשמחה שנאמר ואהבת את יי' אלהיך וגו' ובכל מאדך ובכלל אהבה היתירה שנצטוינו בה שאפילו בעת שייצר לו יודה וישבח בשמחה:

When a person hears favorable tidings - This halachah is complemented by Halachah 7, which explains that the blessing hatov v’hameitiv is recited when the positive nature of the tidings effect others as well as oneself. If the favorable tidings are individual in nature, the blessing shehecheyanu should be recited. The Rambam mentions hatov v’hameitiv in this halachah, because he is referring to - although not quoting exactly - the text of the Mishnah, Berachot 9:2.

he should recite the blessing: "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who is good and does good.'' - As mentioned in Chapter 4, Halachah 9, this same blessing is also recited when different wine is served during a meal.

If he hears bad tidings, he should recite the blessing: "Blessed [are You...] the true Judge.'' - This blessing has the implication that, although one personally feels upset over the event, he realizes that since everything is controlled by God and He is "the true Judge":

a) the occurrence, however tragic, was just,
b) ultimately, it is intended for the good. God, who is truly good, cannot be the source of evil.

A person is obligated to recite a blessing - Dayan ha'emet

over undesirable occurrences with a positive spirit in the same manner as he joyfully recites a blessing - shehecheyanu or hatov v’hameitiv.

over desirable occurrences. [This is implied by Deuteronomy 6:5]: "And you shall love God, your Lord... with all your might." Included in this extra dimension of love - The Hebrew word translated as "your might," מאודך, is related to the word, מאוד, meaning "very." This implies that this is a dimension of love above the ordinary.

that we were commanded [to express] - Loving God is one of the 613 mitzvot of the Torah. (See Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah 2:1-2.) The verse cited above is the proof-text for that commandment. Thus, the mitzvah to love God includes this "extra dimension of love."

is to acknowledge and praise [God] with happiness even at one's time of difficulty. - This halachah is based onBerachot 9:5. Because of the deep message communicated by that Mishnah, it is worthy to quote it and the Rambam's commentary upon it:

We are obligated to bless [God] for undesirable occurrences in the same manner as we bless [Him] for desirable occurrences. [This is implied by Deuteronomy 6:5]: "And you shall love God, your Lord with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might."
"With all your heart": with both your inclinations; the good inclination and the evil inclination;
"With all your soul": even if it takes your soul;
"With all your might": with all your money. Alternatively, the expression בכל מאדך [can be associated with the words בכל מדה and interpreted to mean] for every measure that He deals you be very, very thankful to Him.

On this Mishnah, the Rambam comments:

[The Mishnah] states: In the same manner as one blesses Him for good... [i.e.,] he should accept them with happiness, overcome his feelings, and compose his mind when reciting the blessing Dayan ha'emet to the extent that he should appear in the same state as when reciting the blessing hatov v’hameitiv.
Our Sages declared... "Everything Heaven does is for good."... Although many matters may originally look unfavorable, ultimately they will bring great good. Conversely, there are many things which, at the outset, appear good, and ultimately are very bad. Therefore, an understanding person should not become aggrieved when beset with difficulties... because he does not know the ultimate outcome.
A person should concentrate his thoughts [on the following objective] and ask God [for it to be realized]: That everything that happens to him in this world, both positive and unfavorable occurrences, should be with the intent of bringing him the ultimate happiness, [a portion in the world to come].

1. In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Berachot 9:3, based on Berachot 60a), the Rambam gives an example of such a situation: A person who found a lost object in Eretz Yisrael in Talmudic times. The Romans would punish anyone who did not deliver a lost object he discovered to the government authorities. Thus, one could ultimately be reported for having found a lost object and be forced to pay an exorbitant fine for it. Nevertheless, at the time the object is found, it is an obvious good.
2. The Rambam (ibid.) exemplifies this situation as follows: A person's fields were flooded, damaging his crops. Although the fact that his fields were watered will ultimately prove advantageous, he should recite Dayan ha'emet, since, immediately, he suffered a loss.
3. The Rishon LeTzion relates that the Rambam's choice of phraseology implies that even when one is certain that the opposite quality will ultimately become manifest, he should recite the blessing appropriate for the situation at present.

4. Rabbenu Asher maintains that even if one owns a field individually, if there are other Jews in the area who will benefit from the rain, he should recite hatov v’hameitiv.
5. Significantly, this blessing does not begin: "Blessed are You, God...."
6. One continues, reciting the text of the Nishmat prayer recited on Sabbath mornings.
7. The Bayit Chadash and the Ramah (Orach Chayim 221:1) state that it is not customary to recite this blessing in European countries. Since rain is plentiful there, people do not appreciate it as much. Nevertheless, should there be a drought in these countries, this blessing should be recited (Mishnah Berurah 221:2).

8. Ta'anit 6b, the source for this halachah, describes this situation metaphorically, "when the groom goes out to greet the bride." (See also Berachot 59b.)

9. The same holds true for other circumstances that are, simultaneously, of both a positive and undesirable nature. For example, Ramah (Orach Chayim 223:1) mentions the recitation of the two blessings (shehecheyanu and Dayan ha'emet) when a man's wife dies after giving birth to a son.

4

When a desirable event occurred to a person or he heard favorable tidings, although it appears that this good will ultimately cause one difficulty, he should recite the blessing hatov v’hameitiv. Conversely, if a person suffered a difficulty or heard unfavorable tidings, although it appears that this difficulty will ultimately bring him good, he should recite the blessing Dayan ha'emet. Blessings are not recited in consideration of future possibilities, but rather on what happens at present.

ד

הגיעה אליו טובה או ששמע שמועה טובה אף על פי שהדברים מראין שטובה זו תגרום לו רעה מברך הטוב והמטיב וכן אם נגעה אליו רעה או שמע שמועה רעה אע"פ שהדברים מראים שרעה זו גורמת לו טובה מברך דיין האמת שאין מברכין על העתיד להיות אלא על מה שאירע עתה:

5

[The following rules govern the recitation of blessings for] abundant rainfall: If one owns a field [individually], he should recite the blessing shehecheyanu. If one owns it in partnership with others, he should recite the blessing hatov v’hameitiv. If one does not own a field, he should recite the following blessing:

We thankfully acknowledge You, God, our Lord, for each and every drop that you have caused to descend for us. If our mouths were filled.... They shall all give thanks, praise, and bless Your name, our King. Blessed are You, God, the Almighty, who is worthy of manifold thanksgiving and praise.

ה

ירדו גשמים רבים אם יש לו שדה מברך שהחיינו ואם היתה שלו ושל אחרים מברך הטוב והמטיב ואם אין לו שדה מברך מודים אנחנו לך יי' אלהינו על כל טפה וטפה שהורדת לנו ואילו פינו מלא כו' עד הן הם יודו וישבחו ויברכו את שמך מלכנו ברוך אתה יי' אל רוב ההודאות והתשבחות:

6

When should the blessing be recited? When much water collects on the face of the earth, the raindrops cause bubbles to form in the rain that has already collected, and the bubbles begin to flow one into another.

ו

מאימתי מברכין על הגשמים משירבה המים על הארץ ויעלו אבעבועות מן המטר על פני המים וילכו האבעבועות זה לקראת זה:

7

[The following blessings should be recited] when a person was told that his father died and that he is his heir: If he has brothers [who will share the inheritance] with him, he should first recite, Dayan ha'emet, and afterwards, hatov v’hameitiv. If he has no brothers [who will share] with him, he should recite the blessing shehecheyanu.

To summarize the matter: Whenever a circumstance is of benefit to one together with others, he should recite the blessing hatov v’hameitiv. Should it be of benefit to him alone, he should recite the blessing shehecheyanu.

ז

אמרו לו מת אביו וירשהו אם יש עמו אחין מברך בתחלה דיין האמת ואח"כ הטוב והמטיב ואם אין עמו אחים מברך שהחיינו קצרו של דבר כל דבר טובה שהיא לו ולאחרים מברך הטוב והמטיב וטובה שהיא לו לבדו מברך שהחיינו:

8

Four individuals are required to render thanks: a person who had been sick and recuperated, a person who had been imprisoned and was released, people who alight [at their destination] after a journey at sea, and travelers who reach a settlement.

These thanks must be rendered in the presence of ten people, of whom two are sages, as [implied by Psalms 107:32]: "They will exalt Him in the congregation of the people and they will praise Him in the seat of the elders."

How does one give thanks and what blessing should he recite? He should stand in the midst of the [abovementioned] company and say:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who bestows benefits upon the culpable, who has bestowed all goodness upon me.

Those who hear should respond: May He who granted you beneficence continue to bestow good upon you forever.

ח

ארבעה צריכין להודות חולה שנתרפא וחבוש שיצא מבית האסורים ויורדי הים כשעלו והולכי דרכים כשיגיעו לישוב וצריכין להודות בפני עשרה ושנים מהם חכמים שנאמר וירוממוהו בקהל עם ובמושב זקנים יהללוהו וכיצד מודה וכיצד מברך עומד ביניהן ומברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם הגומל לחייבים טובות שגמלני כל טוב וכל השומעין אומרים שגמלך טוב הוא יגמלך סלה:

9

A person who sees a place where miracles were wrought for the Jewish people - for example, the Red Sea or the crossings of the Jordan - should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who wrought miracles for our ancestors in this place.

This blessing is recited wherever miracles were performed for many people. In contrast, in a place where a miracle was performed for an individual, that individual, his son, and his grandson should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who wrought a miracle for me in this place.
or "...who wrought a miracle for my ancestors in this place."

A person who sees the den of lions [into which Daniel was thrown] or the fiery furnace into which Chananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were thrown should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who wrought miracles for the righteous in this place.

A person who sees a place in which false gods are worshiped should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who grants patience to those who transgress His will.

[When a person sees] a place from which the worship of false gods has been uprooted in Eretz Yisrael, he should recite the blessing:

[Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe,] who uproots foreign worship from our land.

In the Diaspora, he should recite the blessing:

...who uproots foreign worship from this place.

In both instances, he should say:

As You have uprooted [foreign worship] from this place, so may it be uprooted from all places. And may You turn the hearts of its worshipers to serve You.

ט

הרואה מקום שנעשו נסים לישראל כגון ים סוף ומעברות הירדן אומר ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה וכן כל מקום שנעשו בו נסים לרבים אבל מקום שנעשה בו נס ליחיד אותו היחיד ובנו ובן בנו מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שעשה לי נס במקום הזה או שעשה נס לאבותי במקום הזה הרואה גוב אריות וכבשן האש שהושלך בו חנניה מישאל ועזריה מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שעשה נס לצדיקים במקום הזה הרואה מקום שעובדין בו עכו"ם מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו מקום שנעקרה ממנו עכו"ם אם בארץ ישראל הוא מברך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו ואם בחוץ לארץ הוא מברך שעקר עכו"ם ממקום הזה ואומר בשתיהן כשם שעקרת ממקום זה כך תעקר מכל מקומות ותשיב לב עובדיהם לעבדך:

10

A person who sees a settlement of Jewish homes should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who establishes the border of the widow.

[One who sees Jewish homes that are] destroyed should recite the blessing, "the true Judge." A person who sees Jewish graves should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who created you with justice, judged you with justice, sustained you with justice, took your lives with justice, and ultimately, will lift you up with justice to the life of the world to come. Blessed are You, God, who resurrects the dead.

י

הרואה בתי ישראל ביישובן מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם מציב גבול אלמנה בחרבנן אומר ברוך דיין האמת הרואה קברי ישראל מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר יצר אתכם בדין ודן אתכם בדין וכלכל אתכם בדין והמית אתכם בדין והוא עתיד להקים אתכם בדין לחיי העולם הבא ברוך אתה יי' מחיה המתים:

11

The following should be recited when one sees 600,000 people at one time. If they are gentiles, he should recite the verse (Jeremiah 50:12): "Your mother shall be greatly ashamed; she that bore you will be disgraced. Behold, the ultimate fate of the gentiles will be an arid wilderness and a desolate land."

If they are Jews and in Eretz Yisrael, he should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, the Wise [who knows] secrets.

One who sees a gentile wise man should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has given from His wisdom to flesh and blood.

[When one sees] Jewish wise men, he should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has given from His wisdom to those who fear Him.

[When one sees] a Jewish king, he should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has given from His glory and might to those who fear Him.

[When one sees] a gentile king, he should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has given from His glory to flesh and blood.

יא

הרואה ת"ר אלף אדם כאחד אם עכו"ם הם אומר בושה אמכם מאד חפרה יולדתכם הנה אחרית גוים מדבר ציה וערבה ואם ישראל הם ובארץ ישראל אומר ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם חכם הרזים הרואה מחכמי אומות העולם אומר ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שנתן מחכמתו לבשר ודם חכמי ישראל מברך שנתן מחכמתו ליראיו מלכי ישראל אומר שנתן מכבודו ומגבורתו ליראיו מלכי אומות העולם מברך שנתן מכבודו לבשר ודם:

12

A person who sees a Kushit or a person who has a strange-looking face or an abnormal limb should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who has altered His creations.

When one sees a blind man, a one-legged person, a person with skin boils or white blotches, or the like, he should recite the blessing "the true Judge." If they were born with these afflictions, he should recite the blessing "who has altered His creations."

When one sees an elephant, monkey, or owl, he should recite the blessing: "Blessed... who has altered His creations."

יב

הרואה את הכושי ואת המשונין בצורת פניהן או באיבריהם מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם משנה את הבריות הרואה סומא או קיטע ומוכה שחין ובוהקנין וכיוצא בהן מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם דיין האמת ואם נולדו כן ממעי אמן מברך משנה את הבריות הרואה את הפיל ואת הקוף ואת הקיפוף אומר ברוך משנה את הבריות:

13

A person who sees beautiful and well-formed creations or pleasant-looking trees should recite the blessing:

[Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe,] whose world is like this.

A person who goes out to the fields or gardens in the month of Nisan and sees flowering trees sprouting branches should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who did not leave anything lacking in His world and created within it fine creations and beautiful and fine trees so that they would give pleasure to men.

יג

הרואה בריות נאות ומתוקנות ביותר ואילנות טובות מברך שככה לו בעולמו היוצא לשדות או לגנות ביומי ניסן וראה אילנות פורחות וניצנים עולים מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שלא חיסר בעולמו כלום וברא בו בריות טובות ואילנות טובות ונאות כדי ליהנות בהן בני אדם:

14

[When one perceives] any of the following: winds that blow extremely powerfully, lightning, thunder, loud rumblings that sound like large mills when they are heard on the earth, shooting stars, or comets, he should recite the blessing:

[Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe,] whose power and might fill up the world.

If one desires, he may recite the blessing:

[Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe,] who performs the work of creation.

יד

על הרוחות שנשבו בזעף ועל הברקים ועל הרעמים ועל קול ההברה שתשמע בארץ כמו ריחיים גדולים ועל האור שבאויר שיראו כאלו הם כוכבים נופלים ורצים ממקום למקום או כמו כוכבים שיש להם זנב על כל אחד מאלו מברך ברוך שכחו וגבורתו מלא עולם ואם רצה מברך עושה בראשית:

15

Whenever one sees mountains, hills, seas, deserts, or rivers after a thirty day interval, he should recite the blessing "who performs the work of creation."

A person who sees the ocean after an interval of thirty days or more should recite the blessing:

[Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe,] who created the ocean.

טו

על ההרים ועל הגבעות על הימים ועל המדברות ועל הנהרות אם ראה אחת מהן משלשים יום לשלשים יום מברך עושה בראשית הרואה את הים הגדול משלשים יום לשלשים יום או יותר מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם שעשה את הים הגדול:

16

A person who sees a rainbow should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who remembers the covenant, is faithful to His covenant, and maintains His word.

When a person sees the moon after it is renewed, he should recite the blessing:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who created the heavens with His word and all their hosts with the breath of His mouth. He granted them a fixed law and schedule so that they should not alter their tasks. They rejoice and are glad to carry out the will of their Creator. They are faithful servants whose work is righteous. And He instructed the moon to renew itself as a crown of glory to those who are borne [by Him] from the womb, who are destined to be similarly renewed and to glorify their Creator for the name of the glory of His kingdom and for all He has created. Blessed are You, God, who renews the months.

טז

הרואה קשת בענן מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם זוכר הברית ונאמן בבריתו וקיים במאמרו הרואה לבנה בחדושה מברך ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם אשר במאמרו ברא שחקים וברוח פיו כל צבאם חק וזמן נתן להם שלא ישנו את תפקידם ששים ושמחים לעשות רצון קוניהם פועלי אמת ופעולתם צדק וללבנה אמר שתתחדש עטרה תפארת לעמוסי בטן שהם עתידין להתחדש כמותה ולפאר ליוצאם על כבוד מלכותו ועל כל מה שברא ברוך אתה יי' מחדש החדשים:

17

This blessing should be recited while standing, for whoever recites the blessing on the new moon at its appropriate time is considered as if he greeted the Divine Presence.

If a person did not recite the blessing on the first night, he may recite the blessing until the sixteenth of the month, until the moon becomes full.

יז

וצריך לברך ברכה זו מעומד שכל המברך על החדש בזמנו כאילו הקביל פני השכינה אם לא בירך עליה בליל הראשון מברך עליה עד ששה עשר יום בחדש עד שתמלא פגימתה:

18

A person who sees the sun on the day of the spring equinox at the beginning of the twenty-eight year cycle that begins on Wednesday night [must recite a blessing]. When he sees the sun on Wednesday morning, he should recite the blessing "who performs the work of creation."

Similarly, the blessing "who performs the work of creation" should be recited when the moon reaches the beginning of the zodiac constellation taleh at the beginning of the month when it is not pointing to the north or the south, when any of the other five stars [that revolve in separate spheres] arrive at the beginning of the constellation taleh and do not point to the north or the south, and when one sees the constellation taleh ascend to the eastern corner [of the sky].

יז

הרואה את החמה ביום תקופת ניסן של תחלת המחזור של שמונה ועשרים שנה שהתקופה בתחלת ליל רביעי כשרואה אותה ביום רביעי בבקר מברך ברוך עושה בראשית וכן כשתחזור הלבנה לתחלת מזל טלה בתחלת החדש ולא תהיה נוטה לא לצפון ולא לדרום וכן כשיחזור כל כוכב וכוכב מחמשת הכוכבים הנשארים לתחלת מזל טלה ולא יהיה נוטה לא לצפון ולא לדרום וכן בכל עת שיראה מזל טלה עולה מקצה המזרח על כל אחד מאלו מברך עושה בראשית:

19

When a person sees a settlement of gentile homes, he should recite the verse (Proverbs 15:25): "God will pluck up the house of the proud." Should he see a desolate settlement of gentile homes, he should recite the verse (Psalms 94:1): "The Lord is a God of retribution. O God of retribution, reveal Yourself." When one sees gentile graves, he should recite the verse (Jeremiah 50:12): "Your mother shall be greatly ashamed...."

יט

הרואה בתי עכו"ם בישובן אומר בית גאים יסח יי' בחורבנן אומר אל נקמות יי' אל נקמות הופיע ראה קברי עכו"ם אומר בושה אמכם מאד וגו':

20

A person who enters a bathhouse should say "May it be Your will, God, our Lord, to allow me to enter in peace and leave in peace, and may You save me from this and the like in the future."

When one leaves the bath, he should say, "I give thanks to You, God, our Lord, for saving me from fire."

כ

הנכנס למרחץ אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שתכניסני לשלום ותוציאני לשלום ותצילני מזה ומכיוצא בזה לעתיד לבא וכשיצא מן המרחץ אומר מודה אני לפניך יי' אלהי שהצלתני מן האור וכו':

21

A person who goes to let blood should say, "May it be Your will, God, our Lord, that this activity bring me a recovery, for You are a generous healer." Afterward, he should recite the blessing, "Blessed are You, God... Healer of the sick."

כא

הנכנס להקיז דם אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שיהא עסק זה לי לרפואה כי רופא חנם אתה וכשיצא אומר ברוך אתה יי' רופא חולים:

22

A person who goes to measure his silo should say, "May it be Your will, God, our Lord, that You send blessing to the work of my hands." When he begins to measure, he should say, "Blessed be He who sends blessings to this heap of grain."

If he asks for mercy after measuring [his grain], his prayer is considered to be in vain. [Similarly,] whoever calls out [to God] over events that have already happened is considered to have uttered a prayer in vain.

כב

ההולך למוד גורנו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שתשלח ברכה במעשה ידי התחיל למוד אומר ברוך השולח ברכה בכרי זה מדד ואחר כך ביקש רחמים הרי זו תפלת שוא וכל הצועק לשעבר הרי זו תפלת שוא:

23

When a person enters a house of study, he should say:

May it be Your will, God, our Lord, that I not stumble regarding a point of law, that I not call something that is pure impure, nor something that is impure pure, nor call something that is permitted forbidden, nor something that is forbidden permitted, and that I not err regarding a point of Scriptural Law and cause my colleagues to laugh at me, nor my colleagues err and I laugh at them.

כג

הנכנס לבית המדרש אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שלא אכשל בדבר הלכה שלא אומר על טהור טמא ועל טמא טהור ולא על מותר אסור ולא על אסור מותר ולא אכשל בדבר הלכה וישמחו בי חבירי ואל יכשלו חבירי ואשמח בהם:

24

When one leaves the house of study, he should say:

I thank You, God, our Lord, that You have granted me a portion among those who sit in the House of Study and have not granted me a portion among those who sit on the street-corners.
I rise early and they rise early: I rise early to the words of Torah, and they rise early to fruitless matters. I labor and they labor: I labor for the words of Torah and receive a reward; they labor and do not receive a reward. I run and they run: I run to the life of the world to come, and they run to the pit of destruction.

כד

וביציאתו מבית המדרש אומר מודה אני לפניך יי' אלהי ששמת חלקי מיושבי בית המדרש ולא שמת חלקי מיושבי קרנות שאני משכים והם משכימים אני משכים לדברי תורה והם משכימים לדברים בטלים אני עמל והם עמלין אני עמל לדברי תורה ומקבל שכר והם עמלין ואין מקבלין שכר אני רץ והם רצים אני רץ לחיי העולם הבא והם רצים לבאר שחת:

25

A person who enters a metropolis should say, "May it be Your will, God, my Lord, to allow me to enter this metropolis in peace." If one enters in peace, he should say, "I thank You, God, my Lord, for allowing me to enter in peace."

When one desires to leave, he should say, "May it be Your will, God, my Lord, to allow me to depart from this metropolis in peace." If one departs in peace, he should say:

I thank You, God, my Lord, for allowing me to depart in peace. As You have allowed me to depart in peace, lead me [on my way] in peace, direct my steps in peace, support me in peace, and save me from the hands of the enemies and lurking foes on the way.

כה

הנכנס לכרך אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שתכניסני לכרך זה לשלום ואם נכנס בשלום אומר מודה אני לפניך יי' אלהי שהכנסתני לשלום וכשיבקש לצאת אומר יהי רצון מלפניך יי' אלהי שתוציאני מכרך זה לשלום ואם יצא בשלום אומר מודה אני לפניך יי' אלהי שהוצאתני מכרך זה לשלום וכשם שהוצאתני לשלום כך תוליכני לשלום ותצעידני לשלום ותסמכני לשלום ותצילני מכף אויב ואורב בדרך:

26

The general rule is: A person should always cry out [to God] over future possibilities, asking for mercy. He should thank [God] for what has transpired in the past, thanking Him and praising Him according to his capacity. Whoever praises and thanks God abundantly and continuously is worthy to be praised.

כו

כללו של דבר לעולם יצעק אדם על העתיד לבא ויבקש רחמים ויתן הודיה על מה שעבר ויודה וישבח כפי כחו וכל המרבה להודות את יי' ולשבחו תמיד הרי זה משובח: