1

If one vows: Wine is forbidden to me as if it were an offering [konam], and for that reason I will not taste it today, he is prohibited from drinking wine only until the conclusion of that day at nightfall, and not for a twenty-four hour period. If one vows not to drink wine this week, he is prohibited from drinking wine for the entire remainder of the week. And as Shabbat is considered part of the week that passed, i.e., it is the end of the week, he is prohibited from drinking wine on the upcoming Shabbat. If one vows not to drink wine this month, wine is forbidden to him for the entire remainder of the month; and as the New Moon of the following month is considered part of the next month, he is permitted to drink wine on that day. If he vowed not to drink wine this year, he is prohibited from drinking wine for the entire remainder of the year; and as Rosh HaShana is considered to be part of the upcoming year, not the current one, he is permitted to drink wine on that day. If he vowed not to drink wine during this seven-year Sabbatical cycle, wine is forbidden to him for the entire remainder of the seven-year cycle; and as the Sabbatical Year is considered part of the cycle that passed, he is prohibited from drinking wine during the upcoming Sabbatical Year. All this applies if he said that he would not drink wine on this day or this week, but if he said that wine is forbidden to him for one day, or one week, or one month, or one year, or one seven-year cycle, he is prohibited from drinking wine from the day and time he took the vow to the same time the next day, or week, etc.

א

קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֲנִי טוֹעֵם הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אָסוּר בְּכָל הַשַּׁבָּת, וְשַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה. חֹדֶשׁ זֶה, אָסוּר בְּכָל הַחֹדֶשׁ, וְרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ לְהַבָּא. שָׁנָה זוֹ, אָסוּר בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה, וְרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא. שָׁבוּעַ זֶה, אָסוּר בְּכָל הַשָּׁבוּעַ, וּשְׁבִיעִית שֶׁעָבְרָה. וְאִם אָמַר יוֹם אֶחָד, שַׁבָּת אֶחָת, חֹדֶשׁ אֶחָד, שָׁנָה אֶחָת, שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד, אָסוּר מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם:

2

If he takes a vow that wine is forbidden to him until Passover, it is forbidden to him until Passover arrives. If he said: Until it will be Passover, it is forbidden to him until Passover ends, as he may have intended for the vow to apply as long as it was still Passover (Rosh). If he said: Until before Passover, Rabbi Meir says: It is forbidden to him until Passover arrives. Rabbi Yosei says: It is forbidden to him until it ends.

ב

עַד הַפֶּסַח, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ. עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא. עַד לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא:

3

If one takes a vow that something is forbidden to him until the grain harvest, or until the grape harvest, or until the olive harvest, it is forbidden to him only until the arrival of that season. This is the principle: With regard to any occasion whose time is fixed, and one said: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion arrives. If he said: Until it will be, it is forbidden to him until the specified occasion ends. And with regard to any occasion whose time is not fixed, i.e., it does not fall on a precise date, whether he said: Until it will be, or: Until it arrives, it is forbidden to him only until the specified occasion arrives.

ג

עַד הַקָּצִיר, עַד הַבָּצִיר, עַד הַמָּסִיק, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וְאָמַר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיּעַ. אָמַר עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין זְמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ, בֵּין אָמַר עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא, בֵּין אָמַר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ:

4

If he said: Until the summer [kayitz], or: Until it will be summer, the vow remains in effect until the people begin to bring fruit into their houses in baskets. If he said: Until the summer has passed, the vow remains in effect until the people set aside [yakpilu] the knives [hamaktzuot] with which the figs are cut after being harvested, and return them to their place of storage. If one takes a vow until the harvest, the vow remains in effect until people begin to harvest. This is referring to the wheat harvest but not the barley harvest. As for the exact date of this event, all is determined according to the place where he took his vow. If he was on a mountain, it is assumed that he referred to the time of the harvest on the mountain, and if he was in a valley, it is assumed that he meant the time of the harvest in the valley.

ד

עַד הַקַּיִץ, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַקַּיִץ, עַד שֶׁיַתְחִילוּ הָעָם לְהַכְנִיס בַּכַּלְכַּלּוֹת. עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר הַקַּיִץ, עַד שֶׁיְּקַפְּלוּ הַמַּקְצוּעוֹת. עַד הַקָּצִיר, עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל הָעָם לִקְצֹר, קְצִיר חִטִּין אֲבָל לֹא קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים. הַכֹּל לְפִי מְקוֹם נִדְרוֹ, אִם הָיָה בָהָר, בָּהָר, וְאִם הָיָה בַבִּקְעָה, בַּבִּקְעָה:

5

If one takes a vow until the rains, or until there are rains, the vow remains in effect until the second rain of the rainy season falls. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the second rainfall arrives, even if rain does not fall. If one takes a vow until the rains end, the vow remains in effect until the entire month of Nisan has ended; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until Passover has passed. In the case of one who said: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it for the entire year, if the year was extended, i.e., it was declared to be a leap year, he is prohibited from drinking wine during the year and its intercalated month. If he vowed until the beginning of the month of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the beginning of the first Adar. Similarly, if he says that his vow applies until the end of Adar, the vow remains in effect until the end of the first Adar. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the case of one who says: Wine is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Passover, it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the night of Passover, i.e., until the time when it is customary for people to drink wine in order to fulfill the mitzva of drinking the four cups, but he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to fulfill this mitzva.

ה

עַד הַגְּשָׁמִים, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים, עַד שֶׁתֵּרֵד רְבִיעָה שְׁנִיָּה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַנָּהּ שֶׁל רְבִיעָה. עַד שֶׁיִּפָּסְקוּ גְשָׁמִים, עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא נִיסָן כֻּלּוֹ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר הַפֶּסַח. קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, אָסוּר בָּהּ וּבְעִבּוּרָהּ. עַד רֹאשׁ אֲדָר, עַד רֹאשׁ אֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן. עַד סוֹף אֲדָר, עַד סוֹף אֲדָר הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַפֶּסַח, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד לֵיל הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִשְׁתּוֹת יָיִן:

6

Similarly, if he said: Meat is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be the fast of Yom Kippur, he is prohibited from eating meat only until the eve of [leilei] the fast. This is because it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat meat in the festive meal before the fast, and he did not intend to prevent himself from being able to participate in that meal. Rabbi Yosei, his son, says: One who vows: Garlic is konam for me, and for that reason I will not taste it until it will be Shabbat, it is prohibited for him to eat garlic only until the eve of Shabbat, as it is understood that this individual intended for his vow to apply only until the time when it is customary for people to eat garlic.

ו

אָמַר קוֹנָם בָּשָׂר שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַצּוֹם, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד לֵילֵי צוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְנוֹ אוֹמֵר, קוֹנָם שׁוּם שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שַׁבָּת, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא עַד לֵילֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל שׁוּם:

7

In the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from you is konam for me, i.e., I am prohibited from deriving benefit from you, if you do not come and take for your son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine as a gift, this other individual can dissolve his vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: Did you say your vow for any reason other than due to my honor, in order to convince me to accept a gift for my son? This is my honor, that I refrain from accepting the gift, and consequently the vow is annulled. And, so too, in the case of one who says to another: Benefiting from me is konam for you, i.e., you are prohibited from deriving benefit from me, if you do not come and give my son one kor of wheat and two barrels of wine, Rabbi Meir says: It is prohibited for the other individual to benefit from the speaker until he gives the gifts to his son. However, the Rabbis say: Even this individual who took the vow can dissolve his own vow without the consent of a halakhic authority. This is because he can say to him: I hereby consider it as though I have received the gift. If an individual was urging another to marry the daughter of his sister, and in order to deflect the pressure, the other man said: Benefiting from me is konam for her forever, i.e., she is prohibited from deriving any benefit from me forever, and, so too, if there is one who divorces his wife and says: Benefiting from me is konam for my wife forever, these women are permitted to derive benefit from him, as this man intended to take this vow only for the purpose of prohibiting marriage between them, but not to prohibit all forms of benefit. Similarly, if one was urging another to eat with him, and the latter said: Entering your house is konam for me, as is tasting even a drop of cold liquid of yours, the individual who took the vow is nevertheless permitted to enter his house and to drink a cold beverage of his. This is because this individual intended to take this vow only for the purpose of eating and drinking a meal, but not to prohibit himself from entering the house entirely or from drinking in small quantities (Commentary on Nedarim).

ז

הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹנָם שֶׁאֲנִי נֶהֱנֶה לְךָ אִם אֵין אַתָּה בָא וְנוֹטֵל לְבָנֶיךָ כּוֹר אֶחָד שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן, הֲרֵי זֶה יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר אֶת נִדְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עַל פִּי חָכָם, וְיֹאמַר לוֹ, כְּלוּם אָמַרְתָּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹדִי, זֶהוּ כְבוֹדִי. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹנָם שֶׁאַתָּה נֶהֱנֶה לִי אִם אֵין אַתָּה בָא וְנוֹתֵן לִבְנִי כּוֹר אֶחָד שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף זֶה יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר אֶת נִדְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עַל פִּי חָכָם, וְיֹאמַר לוֹ, הֲרֵי אֲנִי כְאִלּוּ הִתְקַבָּלְתִּי. הָיוּ מְסָרְבִין בּוֹ לָשֵׂאת בַּת אֲחוֹתוֹ וְאָמַר קוֹנָם שֶׁהִיא נֶהֱנֵית לִי לְעוֹלָם, וְכֵן הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמַר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי לְעוֹלָם, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת לֵהָנוֹת לוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְשׁוּם אִישׁוּת. הָיָה מְסָרֵב בַּחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ, אָמַר קוֹנָם לְבֵיתְךָ שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, טִפַּת צוֹנֵן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם לָךְ, מֻתָּר לִכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ צוֹנֵן, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְשׁוּם אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה: