1

We already explained that washing one's hands and/or immersing them is a Rabbinic requirement. Hands that must be immersed may be immersed solely in an acceptable mikveh that contains 40 se'ah. For only in a place where a person immerses his body may he immerse keilim and hands. When, however, hands need only to be washed, if they were immersed in the water of a mikveh, they are pure. If they were immersed in drawn water, whether in a container or on the earth, the person's hands are not purified. Instead, drawn water poured from a container must fall upon his hands. For hands may only be washed from containers and using human effort, as we explained in Hilchot Berachot.

א

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁנְּטִילַת יָדַיִם וּטְבִילָתָן מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְיָדַיִם שֶׁצְּרִיכוֹת טְבִילָה אֵין מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא בְּמִקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָאָדָם טוֹבֵל בּוֹ כֵּלִים יָדַיִם טוֹבְלִין. אֲבָל יָדַיִם שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכוֹת אֶלָּא נְטִילָה בִּלְבַד אִם הִטְבִּילָן בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם הִטְבִּילָן בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין בֵּין בְּכֵלִים בֵּין בְּקַרְקָעוֹת לֹא טָהֲרוּ יָדָיו עַד שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁאוּבִים מִן הַכְּלִי עַל יָדָיו. שֶׁאֵין נוֹטְלִין לַיָּדַיִם אֶלָּא מִן הַכֵּלִים וּמִכֹּחַ נוֹתֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת בְּרָכוֹת:

2

Any substance that intervenes for one's entire body when immersing also intervenes for one's hands, both when immersing then and when washing them. Any substance that is included in the measure of a mikveh, e.g., flowing mud, is also included in the measure of a revi'it required for the washing of hands. Everyone who washes his hands must rub them together.

ב

כָּל הַחוֹצֵץ בִּטְבִילָה חוֹצֵץ בַּיָּדַיִם בֵּין בִּטְבִילָתָן בֵּין בִּנְטִילָתָן. וְכָל הָעוֹלֶה לְמִדַּת הַמִּקְוֶה כְּטִיט הַנֵּרוֹק עוֹלֶה לְשִׁעוּר הָרְבִיעִית שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בָּהֶן הַיָּדָיִם. וְכָל הַנּוֹטֵל יָדָיו צָרִיךְ לְשַׁפְשֵׁף:

3

When a person washes both of his hands to partake of terumah, he must wash them a second time with other water to remove the water that is on his hands. For the water with which he washed them first - it is called the first water - contracted impurity from his hands. Therefore if a loaf of bread that was terumah fell into the water with which one first washed his hands, it contracts impurity. If it fell into the water of the second washing, it does not contract impurity. If one poured the water of the first washing and the second washing into one place and a loaf that was terumah fell there, it contracts impurity.

If one washed one's hands with the first water, an intervening object was found on his hands, and he removed it and washed again, his hands are impure as they were before, because the second water imparts purity only to what remains of the first water on his hands.

ג

הַנּוֹטֵל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו לִתְרוּמָה צָרִיךְ לַחְזֹר וְלִטּל פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה בְּמַיִם שְׁנִיִּים כְּדֵי לְהָסִיר הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גַּב יָדָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁנָּטַל בָּהֶן תְּחִלָּה וְהֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין מַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים נִטְמְאוּ בְּיָדָיו. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם שֶׁנָּטַל בָּהֶן יָדָיו תְּחִלָּה נִטְמָא וְאִם נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים לֹא נִטְמָא. וְאִם נָטַל רִאשׁוֹנִים וּשְׁנִיִּים לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְנָפַל שָׁם כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה נִטְמָא. נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְנִמְצָא עַל יָדָיו דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ וֶהֱסִירוֹ וְנָטַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיִּים הֲרֵי יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִין אֶלָּא הַנִּשְׁאָר מִן הַמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עַל גַּבֵּי יָדָיו:

4

Hands contract impurity and are purified until the joint.

What is implied? One washed his hands the first time until the joint. The second time, he washed them, the water poured beyond the joint, his hands are pure. The rationale is that the second water is pure.

If, when he washed his hands the first time and the second time, the water poured beyond the joint and it returned to his hand, his hand contracts impurity. The rationale is that the first water that poured beyond the wrist contracted impurity because of his hand. The second water does not purify the water outside the joint. Hence, since the water that was beyond the joint returned to his hand, it imparts impurity to it.

ד

הַיָּדָיִם מִתְטַמְּאוֹת וּמִתְטַהֲרוֹת עַד הַפֶּרֶק. כֵּיצַד. נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עַד הַפֶּרֶק וְנָטַל הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק וְחָזְרוּ מִחוּץ לַפֶּרֶק לְיָדָיו הֲרֵי יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים טְהוֹרִין הֵן. נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים וְהַשְּׁנִיִּים חוּץ לַפֶּרֶק וְחָזְרוּ לְיָדוֹ נִטְמֵאת יָדוֹ שֶׁהַמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁחוּץ לַפֶּרֶק נִטְמְאוּ מֵחֲמַת יָדָיו וְאֵין הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים מְטַהֲרִים בַּמַּיִם שֶׁחוּץ לַפֶּרֶק. וּלְפִי שֶׁחָזְרוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁחוּץ לַפֶּרֶק לְיָדוֹ טִמְּאוּהָ:

5

If the first time, he washed one hand and changed his mind and washed both his hands together the second time, they are impure. The rationale is that the second water contracts impurity because of the hand that was not washed the first time and then they impart impurity to the other hand.

If he washed both his hands the first time and washed only one hand the second time, that one is pure. If he washed one hand and then rubbed it against his other hand which was not washed at all, the water upon the washed hand contracts impurity because of the unwashed hand and then imparts impurity to the hand which was washed. If he rubs it on his head or against the wall, it is pure.

ה

נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לְיָדוֹ אַחַת וְנִמְלַךְ וְנָטַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיִּים לִשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת שֶׁהַשְּׁנִיִּים מִתְטַמְּאִין מֵחֲמַת הַיָּד שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה בְּמַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים וְחוֹזְרִין וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּד הַשְּׁנִיָּה. נָטַל אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לִשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו וְנָטַל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיִּים לְיָדוֹ אַחַת הָאַחַת טְהוֹרָה. נָטַל יָדוֹ אַחַת וְשִׁפְשְׁפָהּ בַּחֲבֶרְתָּהּ נִטְמְאוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלֶיהָ מֵחֲמַת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה וְחוֹזְרִין וּמְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּד שֶׁנִּטְּלָה. שִׁפְשְׁפָהּ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה:

6

If one washes both hands with one washing, they are pure. We do not say that it is like washing one hand with the water that descended from the other hand. Moreover, even four or five people, one next to each other or one on top of the other, may wash in this manner, as long as they hold their hands open so that the water can flow over the entire hand.

ו

נָטַל שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִשְּׁטִיפָה אַחַת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹטֵל יָדוֹ אַחַת בַּמַּיִם שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מֵעַל יָדוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה. אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה אוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה זֶה בְּצַד זֶה אוֹ זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּרְפּוּ שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ בָּהֶן הַמַּיִם:

7

If one washed a portion of his hand and then washed the rest of his hand, his hand is impure as it was originally. If there is enough water to impart moisture to another substance on the portion of the hand washed first while the other part was being washed the hand] is pure.

When does the above apply? To the water of the first washing. With regard to the second washing, one may wash a portion of his hand and then wash again, adding to the portion washed.

ז

נָטַל מִקְצָת יָדוֹ וְחָזַר וְהוֹסִיף וְנָטַל הַנִּשְׁאָר מִן יָדוֹ הֲרֵי יָדוֹ טְמֵאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה. וְאִם עֲדַיִן יֵשׁ עַל מִקְצָת שֶׁנָּטַל בַּתְּחִלָּה טוֹפֵחַ עַל מְנָת לְהַטְפִּיחַ הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים. אֲבָל בִּשְׁנִיִּים נוֹטֵל מִקְצָת יָדָיו וְחוֹזֵר וּמוֹסִיף עַל מִקְצָתָן:

8

The minimum measure of water with which one may wash one's hands initially is a revi'it for each and every person for both their hands. No less than this measure is acceptable, as explained with regarding to washing before partaking of bread.

With regard to the second washing, by contrast, two people may wash their hands with a revi'it, and half a log may be used for three or four. And from a log, even 100 may wash. The rationale is that the second water does not come to purify, but merely to wash off the first water.

ח

שִׁעוּר הַמַּיִם שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בָּהֶן תְּחִלָּה רְבִיעִית לְכָל אָדָם וְאָדָם לִשְׁתֵּי הַיָדַיִם אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּנְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְפַת. אֲבָל מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים יֵשׁ לִשְׁנַיִם לִטּל יְדֵיהֶן מֵרְבִיעִית. וּמֵחֲצִי לוֹג נוֹתְנִין לִשְׁלֹשָׁה וּלְאַרְבָּעָה. וּמִלּוֹג נוֹתְנִין אֲפִלּוּ לְמֵאָה שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים לְטַהֵר אֶלָּא לְהַעֲבִיר הַמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים:

9

When there was a container that held a revi'it of water that was acceptable for the washing of hands and one added to it a small amount of water that is not acceptable for that purpose, the mixture is acceptable. If one removed the amount of water he added from the container and there remained only a revi'it as there was originally, it is unacceptable. The rationale is that water that is unacceptable made up the measure of the revi'it.

ט

כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ רְבִיעִית מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִים לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם וְנָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ מְעַט מַיִם פְּסוּלִין לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִין. נָטַל מִן הַכְּלִי כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁנָּתַן וְנִשְׁאֲרָה רְבִיעִית בִּלְבַד כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַפְּסוּלִין הִשְׁלִימוּ שִׁעוּר הָרְבִיעִית:

10

Any water that is deemed unacceptable for the first washing is unacceptable for the second washing. Any container that may not be used for the first washing is also unacceptable for the second washing. Just as the water of the first washing must be poured by human effort, so too, must the water of the second washing.

י

כָּל הַמַּיִם הַפְּסוּלִין לִנְטִילָה בְּמַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים כָּךְ הֵן פְּסוּלִין בְּמַיִם שְׁנִיִּים. וְכָל כְּלִי שֶׁאֵין נוֹטְלִין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּמַיִם רִאשׁוֹנִים כָּךְ אֵין נוֹטְלִין מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם שְׁנִיִּים. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת הַמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹנִים מִכֹּחַ אָדָם כָּךְ הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁנִיִּים:

11

We already explained in Hilchot Berachot all of the factors that could disqualify water for the washing of hands and what makes them acceptable, all of the containers that may be used for the washing of the hands and those that may not be used, Just as any doubt regarding the washing of hands is considered as pure with regard to partaking of ordinary food, as explained there, so too, with regard to terumah, any doubt regarding the washing of hands is considered as pure.

יא

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּפֶרֶק שִׁשִּׁי מֵהִלְכוֹת בְּרָכוֹת כָּל מִינֵי הַמַּיִם הַפְּסוּלִין לִנְטִילַת יָדַיִם וְהֶכְשֵׁרָן. וְכָל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בָּהֶן לַיָּדַיִם וְשֶׁאֵין נוֹטְלִין. וְאֵי זוֹ נְתִינָה הִיא מִכֹּחַ נוֹתֵן וּכְשֵׁרָה וְאֵי זוֹ נְתִינָה אֵינָהּ מִכֹּחַ נוֹתֵן וּפְסוּלָה. וְכָל אוֹתָן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שָׁם בִּנְטִילַת יָדַיִם לְפַת חֻלִּין כָּךְ הֵן לִתְרוּמָה. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק יָדַיִם טְהוֹרוֹת לְחֻלִּין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ שָׁם. כָּךְ הֵן לִתְרוּמָה כָּל סְפֵק יָדַיִם טָהוֹר:

12

It is a clear and apparent matter that the concepts of purity and impurity are Scriptural decrees and they are not matters determined by a person's understanding and they are included in the category of chukim. Similarly, immersion in a mikveh to ascend from impurity is included in the category of chukim, because impurity is not mud or filth that can be washed away with water. Instead, the immersion is a Scriptural decree and requires the focusing the intent of one's heart. Therefore our Sages said: "When one immersed, but did not intend to purify himself," it is as if he did not immerse.

Although it is a Scriptural decree, there is an allusion involved: One who focuses his heart on purifying himself becomes purified once he immerses, even though there was no change in his body. Similarly, one who focuses his heart on purifying his soul from the impurities of the soul, which are wicked thoughts and bad character traits, becomes purified when he resolves within his heart to distance himself from such counsel and immerse his soul in the waters of knowledge. And Ezekiel 36:25 states: "I will pour over you pure water and you will be purified from all your impurities and from all your false deities, I will purify you."

יב

דָּבָר בָּרוּר וְגָלוּי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאוֹת וְהַטָּהֳרוֹת גְּזֵרוֹת הַכָּתוּב הֵן. וְאֵינָן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מַכְרָעָתוֹ. וַהֲרֵי הֵן מִכְּלַל הַחֻקִּים. וְכֵן הַטְּבִילָה מִן הַטֻּמְאוֹת מִכְּלַל הַחֻקִּים הוּא שֶׁאֵין הַטֻּמְאָה טִיט אוֹ צוֹאָה שֶׁתַּעֲבֹר בְּמַיִם אֶלָּא גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב הִיא וְהַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בְּכַוָּנַת הַלֵּב. וּלְפִיכָךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים טָבַל וְלֹא הֻחְזַק כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבַל. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן רֶמֶז יֵשׁ בַּדָּבָר כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַמְכַוֵּן לִבּוֹ לְטַהֵר כֵּיוָן שֶׁטָּבַל טָהוֹר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַדֵּשׁ בְּגוּפוֹ דָּבָר כָּךְ הַמְכַוֵּן לִבּוֹ לְטַהֵר נַפְשׁוֹ מִטֻּמְאוֹת הַנְּפָשׁוֹת שֶׁהֵן מַחְשְׁבוֹת הָאָוֶן וְדֵעוֹת הָרָעוֹת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִסְכִּים בְּלִבּוֹ לִפְרשׁ מֵאוֹתָן הָעֵצוֹת וְהֵבִיא נַפְשׁוֹ בְּמֵי הַדַּעַת טָהוֹר. הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (יחזקאל לו כה) "וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם מִכּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם". הַשֵּׁם בְּרַחֲמָיו הָרַבִּים מִכָּל חֵטְא עָוֹן וְאַשְׁמָה יְטַהֲרֵנוּ אָמֵן:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות מקואות בס"ד: