1

According to Scriptural Law, it is permissible to immerse in any collected body of water, as implied by Leviticus 11:36: "a gathering of water," i.e., any gathering, provided it contains enough water for the entire body of a human being to immerse in it at one time. Our Sages measured this figure as a cubit by a cubit by a height of three cubits. This measure contains 40 se'ah of water. According to Scriptural Law, the water is acceptable whether drawn or not.

א

דִין תּוֹרָה שֶׁכָּל מַיִם מְכֻנָּסִין טוֹבְלִין בָּהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לו) "מִקְוֵה מַיִם" מִכָּל מָקוֹם. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהֶן כְּדֵי לְהַעֲלוֹת בָּהֶן כְּדֵי טְבִילָה לְכָל גּוּף הָאָדָם בְּבַת אַחַת. שִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת. וְשִׁעוּר זֶה הוּא מַחֲזִיק אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם בֵּין שְׁאוּבִין בֵּין שֶׁאֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין:

2

According to Rabbinic Law, water that is drawn is invalid for immersion. Moreover, if there was a body of water that was not drawn and three lugim of drawn water fell into it, the entire body of water is invalidated.

Although the disqualification of drawn water is a Rabbinic decree, our Sages explained it based on an association found in a Biblical verse. Leviticus, op. cit., states: "Only a spring, a cistern, or a gathering of water shall be pure." Based on a comparison of the terms used in the verse, they explained: The water of "a spring" is not dependent on man's activity at all. The water of "a cistern" is entirely dependent on man's activity, for it contains drawn water entirely. Our Sages said: The "gathering of water" should not be entirely made up of drawn water like a cistern, nor need it come entirely from the hand of heaven. Instead, if it came into being partially through human effort, it is acceptable.

ב

מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַשְּׁאוּבִין פְּסוּלִין לִטְבִילָה. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא מִקְוֵה מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָן שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין פָּסְלוּ הַכּל. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפִּסּוּל מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְמָדוּהוּ בְּהֶקֵּשׁ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יא לו) "אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְוֵה מַיִם יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר", הַמַּעְיָן אֵין בּוֹ תְּפִיסַת יַד אָדָם כְּלָל וְהַבּוֹר כֻּלּוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם שֶׁהֲרֵי כֻּלּוֹ מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הַמִּקְוֶה לֹא יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ שָׁאוּב כְּבוֹר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת כֻּלּוֹ בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם כְּמַעְיָן אֶלָּא אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ תְּפִיסַת יַד אָדָם כָּשֵׁר:

3

What is implied? When a person places barrels on top of a roof to dry, but it rained and they became filled with water, even though it is during the rainy season, he may break the barrels or turn them over and the water collected from them is acceptable for immersion. Even though all of this water had been contained in vessels, the mikveh is acceptable, because the person did not fill it up by hand. Therefore if he lifted up the barrels and overturned them, all of the water in them is considered as drawn.

ג

כֵּיצַד. הַמַּנִּיחַ קַנְקַנִּים בְּרֹאשׁ הַגַּג לְנַגְּבָם וְיָרְדוּ לָהֶם גְּשָׁמִים וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא עוֹנַת הַגְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי זֶה יִשְׁבֹּר אֶת הַקַּנְקַנִּים אוֹ יִכְפֵּם וְהַמַּיִם הַנִּקְוִים מֵהֶם כְּשֵׁרִים לִטְבּל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַמַּיִם הָאֵלּוּ הָיוּ בַּכֵּלִים שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא מִלְּאָן בְּיָדוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִגְבִּיהַּ אֶת הַקַּנְקַנִּים וְהֶעֱרָם הֲרֵי כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶם שְׁאוּבִין:

4

When a person places containers under a drainage pipe at any time and any season, both small containers and large containers, even containers of stone and the like that are not susceptible to ritual impurity, if they became filled with rainwater, the water is not acceptable for a mikveh. Even if he turned them over or broke them, the water collected from them is considered as drawn in every respect. For the containers were filled as a result of his intent, since it can be assumed that a drainpipe will conduct water. Even if one forgot containers under a drainpipe, the water is unacceptable for a mikveh. Our Sages issued a decree against one who forgot, lest a person place them there intentionally.

Similarly, if one placed containers in a courtyard when the sky was densely cloudy and they became filled with rainwater afterwards, the water inside of them is unacceptable for a mikveh, since they were filled as a result of his intent. Moreover, our Sages issued a decree against one who forgot containers in a courtyard, lest a person place them there intentionally.

If one placed containers in a courtyard when the clouds were dispersed and then the sky became cloudy and the containers became filled with rainwater, the water is acceptable for a mikveh, like that in containers left on top of a roof to dry. Similarly, when one left containers in a courtyard when the sky was densely cloudy, the clouds dispersed, and then became dense again and the containers became filled with rainwater, the water is acceptable. If he breaks the containers or turns them over, the water collected from them is acceptable for a mikveh.

ד

הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר תָּמִיד בְּכָל עֵת וּבְכָל זְמַן אֶחָד כֵּלִים קְטַנִּים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים אֲפִלּוּ כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ מֵי גְּשָׁמִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִין. וְאִם כְּפָאָן עַל פִּיהֶן אוֹ שְׁבָרָן הַמַּיִם הַנִּקְוִין מֵהֶן כִּשְׁאוּבִין לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהֲרֵי לְדַעְתּוֹ נִתְמַלְּאוּ שֶׁחֶזְקַת הַצִּנּוֹר לְקַלֵּחַ מַיִם. וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁכַח הַכֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר פְּסוּלִין גָּזְרוּ עַל הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ מִפְּנֵי הַמַּנִּיחַ. וְכֵן הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת הַכֵּלִים בֶּחָצֵר בְּעֵת קִשּׁוּר הֶעָבִים וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶן פְּסוּלִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לְדַעְתּוֹ נִתְמַלְּאוּ. וְכֵן גָּזְרוּ עַל הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר בִּשְׁעַת קִשּׁוּר עָבִים מִשּׁוּם מַנִּיחַ. הִנִּיחָן בֶּחָצֵר בְּעֵת פִּזּוּר עָבִים וּבָאוּ עָבִים וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּנִּיחָן בְּרֹאשׁ הַגָּג לְנַגְּבָן. וְכֵן אִם הִנִּיחָן בְּעֵת קִשּׁוּר הֶעָבִים וְנִתְפַּזְּרוּ וְחָזְרוּ וְנִתְקַשְּׁרוּ וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִין. וְאִם שִׁבְּרָן אוֹ כְּפָאָן הַמַּיִם הַנִּקְוִין מֵהֶן כְּשֵׁרִין:

5

When one who applies lime forgot a large container in a mikveh and it became full with water, even if only a small quantity of water remained in the mikveh and the majority of the water of the mikveh is in the container, he may break the container in its place. Thus the entire mikveh will be acceptable.

Similarly, when one arranged containers in a mikveh to seal them and they became filled with water, even though the mikveh absorbed its water and no water remained except the water in the containers, one may break the containers. The water that collects from them forms an acceptable mikveh.

ה

הַסַּיָּד שֶׁשָּׁכַח עָצִיץ בַּמִּקְוֶה וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ מַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר בַּמִּקְוֶה אֶלָּא מְעַט וַהֲרֵי הֶעָצִיץ יֵשׁ בּוֹ רֹב הַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי זֶה יִשְׁבֹּר אֶת הֶעָצִיץ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְנִמְצָא הַמִּקְוֶה כֻּלּוֹ כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן הַמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַקַּנְקַנִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה כְּדֵי לְחַסְּמָן וְנִתְמַלְּאוּ מַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּלַע הַמִּקְוֶה אֶת מֵימָיו וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר שָׁם מַיִם כְּלָל אֶלָּא מַיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקַּנְקַנִּים הֲרֵי זֶה יִשְׁבֹּר אֶת הַקַּנְקַנִּים וְהַמַּיִם הַנִּקְוִין מֵהֶן מִקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר:

6

How do three lugim of drawn water invalidate a mikveh? If there were less than 40 se'ah of acceptable water in a mikveh and three lugim of water fell in, making the entire amount 40 se'ah, all of the water is disqualified for use. If, however, there are 40 se'ah of water that was not drawn in a mikveh and then one drew water with a pitcher and poured it into the mikveh throughout the entire day, it is acceptable. Furthermore, when there are two mikveot, one above the other, and the upper mikveh had 40 se'ah of acceptable water and one was drawing water by hand and pouring it into that mikveh until the amount of water increased to the extent that 40 se'ah overflowed and descended into the lower mikveh, the lower mikveh is acceptable.

ו

כֵּיצַד פּוֹסְלִין הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁאוּבִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין. שֶׁאִם הָיָה בַּמִּקְוֶה פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה [וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָן שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין וְהִשְׁלִימוּם לְאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה] הַכּל פָּסוּל. אֲבָל מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן שְׁאוּבִין וְשָׁאַב בְּכַד וְשָׁפַךְ לְתוֹכוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ כָּשֵׁר. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא מִקְוֶה עֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִין וְהָיָה מְמַלֵּא בִּכְלִי וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּרְבּוּ הַמַּיִם וְיָרְדוּ לַמִּקְוֶה הַתַּחְתּוֹן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹן כָּשֵׁר:

7

When a mikveh contained exactly 40 se'ah and one added a se'ah of drawn water and then removed a se'ah of water from it, the mikveh is acceptable. Similarly, if he added a se'ah of drawn water and removed a se'ah of water from the mikveh, the mikveh is acceptable provided the greater portion of the original water remained.

ז

מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מְכֻוָּנוֹת וְנָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ סְאָה מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין וְנָטַל אַחַר כָּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ סְאָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן נוֹתֵן סְאָה וְנוֹטֵל סְאָה וְהוּא כָּשֵׁר עַד רֻבּוֹ:

8

Drawn water does not disqualify the water of a mikveh when three lugin fall in unless they fall into the mikveh from a container. If, by contrast, the drawn water flows on the ground outside the mikveh and continues streaming until it descends into the mikveh, it does not disqualify the mikveh unless it constitutes half or more of the original 40 seah of water. If, however, the majority of the original 40 se'ah of water was acceptable, the mikveh is acceptable.

What is implied? When a mikveh contains a little bit more than 20 se'ah of acceptable water, one drew water and poured it outside the mikveh, and then the water flowed and descended into the mikveh, it is acceptable, even if it reached a total of 1000 se'ah. This applies whether the water flowed on the ground or through a conduit or the like that does not disqualify a mikveh. The rationale is that drawn water that was caused to flow is acceptable if the majority of 40 se'ah water is acceptable.

Similarly, if there was a little more than 20 se'ah of rainwater on an enclosed roof and one drew water by hand and poured less than 20 se'ah of water into the water, the entire quantity is unacceptable. Nevertheless, if one opened the drainage pipe and caused all the water to flow into one place, it constitutes an acceptable mikveh. The rationale is that when an entire quantity of drawn water was caused to flow, it is acceptable, provided the majority of the water was acceptable.

ח

אֵין הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁאוּבִין פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין עַד שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה מִן הַכְּלִי. אֲבָל אִם נִגְרְרוּ הַמַּיִם הַשְּׁאוּבִין חוּץ לַמִּקְוֶה וְנִמְשְׁכוּ וְיָרְדוּ לַמִּקְוֶה אֵינָן פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה אֲבָל אִם הָיָה רֹב מִן הַכְּשֵׁרִים הֲרֵי הַמִּקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר. כֵּיצַד. מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים סְאָה וּמַשֶּׁהוּ מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִין וְהָיָה מְמַלֵּא וְשׁוֹאֵב חוּץ לַמִּקְוֶה וְהַמַּיִם נִמְשָׁכִין וְיוֹרְדִין לַמִּקְוֶה בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ נִמְשָׁכִין עַל הַקַּרְקַע אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַסִּילוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי הוּא כָּשֵׁר וַאֲפִלּוּ הִשְׁלִימוֹ לְאֶלֶף סְאָה. שֶׁהַשְּׁאִיבָה שֶׁהִמְשִׁיכוּהָ כְּשֵׁרָה אִם הָיָה שָׁם רֹב אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מִן הַכָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן גַּג שֶׁהָיָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ עֶשְׂרִים סְאָה וּמַשֶּׁהוּ מֵי גְּשָׁמִים וּמִלֵּא בִּכְתֵפוֹ וְנָתַן לְתוֹכוֹ פָּחוֹת מֵעֶשְׂרִים שֶׁנִּמְצָא הַכּל פָּסוּל וּפָתַח הַצִּנּוֹר וְנִמְשְׁכוּ הַכּל לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מִקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר. שֶׁהַשְּׁאוּבִים שֶׁהִמְשִׁיכוּהָ כֻּלָּהּ כְּשֵׁרָה הוֹאִיל וְהָיָה שָׁם רֹב מִן הַכָּשֵׁר:

9

Some of the scholars of the west ruled that since the Sages declared "An entire quantity of drawn water that was caused to flow is pure," it is not necessary that the majority of the water be acceptable. Instead, the perspective that required both a majority of acceptable water and that it be caused to flow are the words of only one Sage and they were already rebutted, for the conclusion of the passage states: "An entire quantity of drawn water that was caused to flow is pure."

According to the words of the scholars of the west, if one would fill a container with water and pour it out and the water would flow to one place where it collects, it would be an acceptable mikveh. Similarly, all the pools in our bathhouses would be kosher mikveot, for all the water they contain was drawn and then flowed through pipes. Never have we seen anyone who performed such a deed, i.e., ruling that such pools are acceptable for immersion.

ט

הוֹרוּ מִקְצָת חַכְמֵי מַעֲרָב וְאָמְרוּ הוֹאִיל וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שְׁאוּבָה שֶׁהִמְשִׁיכוּהָ כֻּלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה אֵין אָנוּ צְרִיכִין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁם רֹב מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִין. וְזֶה שֶׁהִצְרִיךְ רֹב וְהַמְשָׁכָה דִּבְרֵי יָחִיד הֵן וּכְבָר נִדְּחוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרוּ בַּסּוֹף שְׁאוּבָה שֶׁהִמְשִׁיכוּהָ כֻּלָּהּ טְהוֹרָה. לְפִי דִּבְרֵי זֶה אִם הָיָה מְמַלֵּא בִּכְלִי וְשׁוֹפֵךְ וְהַמַּיִם נִזְחָלִין וְהוֹלְכִין לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מִקְוֶה כָּשֵׁר. וְכֵן כָּל אַמְבְּטִי שֶׁבְּמֶרְחֲצָאוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ מִקְוָאוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין. שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶן שָׁאוּב וְשֶׁנִּמְשָׁךְ הוּא. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא רָאִינוּ מִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מַעֲשֵׂה בְּעִנְיָן זֶה:

10

The following laws apply when rainwater and drawn water were mixed together in a courtyard and flowed into a cavity or they were mixed together on the steps leading to an underground cavern and then descended into the cavern. If the majority of the water was acceptable, the mikveh is acceptable. If the majority of the water was unacceptable, it is unacceptable.

When does the above apply? When they became mixed together before they reached the mikveh, but instead, flowed and descended together. If, however, the acceptable water and the unacceptable water were descending directly into the mikveh, different rules apply. If it is known that 40 se'ah of acceptable water fell into the mikveh before three lugim of drawn water, the mikveh is acceptable. If not, it is unacceptable.

י

מֵי גְּשָׁמִים וּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְעָרְבִין בְּחָצֵר וְנִמְשָׁכִין וְיוֹרְדִין לַעֻקָּה שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר אוֹ שֶׁמִּתְעָרְבִין עַל מַעֲלוֹת הַמְּעָרָה וְיוֹרְדִין לַמְּעָרָה. אִם רֹב מִן הַכָּשֵׁר כָּשֵׁר וְאִם רֹב מִן הַפָּסוּל פָּסוּל. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה פָּסוּל. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּתְעָרְבִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַגִּיעוּ לַמִּקְוֶה וְנִמְשָׁכִין וְיוֹרְדִין אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ הַכְּשֵׁרִים וְהַפְּסוּלִים מְקַלְּחִין לְתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹכוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם כְּשֵׁרִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יָרְדוּ לְתוֹכוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה לוֹגִין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין כָּשֵׁר וְאִם לָאו פָּסוּל: