Any body of water that is in contact with a mikveh, is considered as the mikveh itself and it can be used for immersion. When cavities that are next to the opening of a mikveh or the footprints left by animals share a point of contact with the water of the mikveh that is as large as the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch, they may be used for immersion.


כָּל הַמְעֹרָב לַמִּקְוֶה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִקְוֶה וּמַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ. גּוּמוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְפִי הַמִּקְוֶה וּמְקוֹם רַגְלֵי פַּרְסוֹת בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהָיוּ בָּהֶן מַיִם מְעֹרָבִין עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן:


Cavities at the side of the mikveh or crevices at the side of mikveh may be used for immersion even if they have only the slightest point of contact with the water of the mikveh.


חוֹרֵי הַמְּעָרָה וְסִדְקֵי הַמְּעָרָה מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶן מְעֹרָבִין עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה אֶלָּא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:


When a needle was placed on the steps leading to a mikveh, one may move his hand back and forth in the water to create waves. Once the wave passes over the needle, it regains purity.


מַחַט שֶׁהָיְתָה נְתוּנָה עַל מַעֲלוֹת הַמִּקְוֶה וְהָיָה מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא בַּמַּיִם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָבַר עָלֶיהָ הַגַּל טְהוֹרָה:


The following laws apply to a hidden reservoir in a mikveh: If the ground that separates between the mikveh and the reservoir is sturdy and capable of remaining over the course of time, one may not use the water in the reservoir for immersion unless it shares a point of contact with the mikveh as large as the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch. If it is not capable of remaining for an extended period, one may immerse in its water as long as it shares any contact whatsoever with the water of the mikveh.


עוּקָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ מִקְוֶה אִם הָיְתָה הַקַּרְקַע הַמַּבְדֶּלֶת בֵּין הָעוּקָה וְהַמִּקְוֶה בְּרִיאָה וִיכוֹלָה לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת עַצְמָהּ אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעוּקָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְעֹרָבִין עִם הַמִּקְוֶה כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. וְאִם אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת עַצְמָהּ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן מְעֹרָבִין אֶלָּא בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶן:


When the wall between two mikveot is cracked in half, the two mikveot are considered as joined. If together they contain 40 se'ah, either of them may be used for immersion. If the wall is cracked horizontally, they are not considered as joined unless there is a point of contact the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch. If the water is joined above the wall, they are considered as joined provided there is a layer of water even as thin as a garlic peel connecting them over the width of a space the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch.


כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין שְׁנֵי מִקְוָאוֹת שֶׁנִּסְדַּק לִשְׁנַיִם מִצְטָרְפִין וְאִם הָיָה בִּשְׁנֵיהֶן אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַטְבִּילִין בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן. וְאִם נִסְדַּק לָעֵרֶב אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. נִפְרַץ הַכֹּתֶל מִלְּמַעְלָה אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ הַמַּיִם לְמַעְלָה מִן הַכֹּתֶל כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם עַל רֹחַב שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מִצְטָרְפִין:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


How large is the measure of a hole the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch? A circle with a diameter the width sufficient to enable two average-sized fingers of an ordinary person to rotate within it. The fingers mentioned do not refer to the thumb, but to the first two of the four on the palm of one's hand.

Any entity present in the hole the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch reduces that measure. This applies even to entities that were created from the water.

If there is a doubt whether a hole is the size of the mouthpiece of a drinking pouch or not, the mikveot are not considered as joined. The rationale is that the primary obligation to immerse is Scriptural. And whenever the primary obligation is Scriptural, even when the measure stated is conveyed by the Oral Tradition, we rule stringently when there is an unresolved doubt regarding its measure.


כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר הַנֶּקֶב שֶׁהוּא כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. בְּרֹחַב שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם וְחוֹזְרוֹת בּוֹ. וְאֵינָן בַּגּוּדָל אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת רִאשׁוֹנוֹת מִן הָאַרְבַּע שֶׁבְּפַס הַיָּד. כָּל שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד מְמַעֵט וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁהֵן מִבְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל מַיִם. סָפֵק יֵשׁ בַּנֶּקֶב כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד סָפֵק אֵין בּוֹ אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִקַּר הַטְּבִילָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה וְכָל שֶׁעִקָּרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשִּׁעוּרוֹ הֲלָכָה סְפֵק שִׁעוּרוֹ לְהַחְמִיר:


Mikveot may be purified from each other, an upper mikveh from a lower one and a far-away mikveh from one that is close.

What is implied? An earthenware or lead pipe - for pipes do not disqualify a mikveh - is brought and inserted into the acceptable mikveh. One places his hand under it until it becomes full and then takes it and connects it so that the water in the pipe will become intermingled with the water of the other mikveh. Even if the point where they become intermingled is only a hairsbreadth, it is sufficient. Then the two mikveot connected by the pipe are considered as one.


מְטַהֲרִין אֶת הַמִּקְוָאוֹת הָעֶלְיוֹן מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹן וְהָרָחוֹק מִן הַקָּרוֹב. כֵּיצַד. מְבִיאִין סִילוֹן שֶׁל חֶרֶס אוֹ שֶׁל אֲבָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵין הַסִּילוֹנוֹת פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת יָדָיו תַּחְתָּיו עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא מַיִם וּמוֹשְׁכוֹ וּמַשִּׁיקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵב הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּסִּילוֹן עִם מֵי הַמִּקְוֶה כְּאֶחָד אֲפִלּוּ כְּשַׂעֲרָה דַּיּוֹ וַהֲרֵי שְׁנֵי הַמִּקְוָאוֹת שֶׁהַסִּילוֹן בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּמִקְוֶה אֶחָד:


The following rules apply when there are three cavities in a wadi, the higher one and the lower one contain only 20 se'ah, the middle one contains 40 se'ah, and a current of rain water flows through the wadi. Although the current of water flows into the cavities and out of them, it does not join the cavities as one. Hence, only the middle one is acceptable for immersion. The rationale is that water that is flowing does not join mikveot unless it collects in one place.


שָׁלֹשׁ גֻּמּוֹת שֶׁבַּנַּחַל הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה וְהָעֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים סְאָה וְהָאֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים וְשֶׁטֶף שֶׁל גְּשָׁמִים עוֹבֵר בְּתוֹךְ הַנַּחַל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְתוֹכָן וְיוֹצֵא מִתּוֹכָן אֵין זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין אֶלָּא בָּאֶמְצָעִית שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם הַנִּזְחָלִין מְעָרְבִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָמְדוּ:


Soft mud from which a cow drinks may be measured as part of a mikveh. If it is so thick that a cow would not drink from it, it should not be measured as part of it.


טִיט רַךְ שֶׁהַפָּרָה שׁוֹחָה וְשׁוֹתָה מִמֶּנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה נִמְדָּד עִם הַמִּקְוֶה. הָיָה עָבֶה עַד שֶׁאֵין הַפָּרָה שׁוֹחָה וְשׁוֹתָה אֵינוֹ נִמְדָּד עִמּוֹ:


When a mikveh contains 40 se'ah of water and mud, one may immerse in both the mud and the water. In which mud may one immerse? In soft mud over which water collects. If the water was on one side and the soft mud on the other side, one may immerse in the water, but not in the mud.


מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם וְטִיט מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט וּבַמַּיִם. בְּאֵי זֶה טִיט מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט הָרַךְ שֶׁהַמַּיִם צָפִין עַל גַּבָּיו. הָיוּ הַמַּיִם מִצַּד אֶחָד וְהַטִּיט הָרַךְ מִצַּד אַחֵר מַטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם וְלֹא בַּטִּיט:


Any substance that was created from the water, e.g., red worms, is acceptable for immersion. One may immerse in the eye of a giant fish.


כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם כְּגוֹן יַבְחוּשִׁין אֲדֻמִּין מַטְבִּילִין בּוֹ. וּמַטְבִּילִין בְּעֵינוֹ שֶׁל דָּג:


When a mikveh contains exactly 40 se'ah of water and two people descended and immersed, one after the other, the first is pure and the second remains impure. The rationale is that some of the water contained in the original 40 se'ah was removed. This stringency applies even if the feet of the first person were still in the water when the second immerses.

If one immersed a thick sponge or the like in such a mikveh and lifted it up, as long as part of the sponge is touching the water, one who immerses afterwards is pure. The rationale is that all of the water is considered as intermingled.

When one immerses a bed or the like, even though he pushed its legs into the thick mud on the bottom of the mikveh until the water covers it from above, it is pure. The rationale is that it does not become sunk in the water until it becomes immersed in the water first.

When one immerses a large pot in a mikveh with a limited amount of water, it is impure, as it was beforehand, because the water will splash out of the mikveh. Thus the mikveh will be less than 40 se'ah. What should he do? He should lower it via its opening, turn it over in the mikveh, immerse it, and lift it up by its base, so that the water inside will not become "drawn," and return to the mikveh and disqualify it.


מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מְכֻוָּנוֹת וְיָרְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְטָבְלוּ זֶה אַחַר זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַגְלָיו שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן נוֹגְעוֹת בַּמַּיִם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָהוֹר וְהַשֵּׁנִי בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי חָסְרוּ הַמַּיִם מֵאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ תְּחִלָּה סָגוֹס עָבֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְהִגְבִּיהוֹ אִם הָיְתָה מִקְצָת הַסָּגוֹס נוֹגַעַת בַּמַּיִם הֲרֵי הַטּוֹבֵל בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה טָהוֹר שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם כֻּלָּן מְעֹרָבִין. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ אֶת הַמִּטָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּחַק רַגְלֵי הַמִּטָּה בְּטִיט עָבֶה שֶׁבְּקַרְקַע הַמִּקְוֶה עַד שֶׁצָּפוּ הַמַּיִם עָלֶיהָ לְמַעְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִטְבְּעוּ בַּטִּיט עַד שֶׁטָּבְלוּ בַּמַּיִם תְּחִלָּה. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ יוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם נִתָּזִין וְיוֹצְאִין חוּץ לַמִּקְוֶה וְנִמְצָא חָסֵר מֵאַרְבָּעִים. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. מוֹרִידָהּ דֶּרֶךְ פִּיהָ וְהוֹפְכָהּ בַּמִּקְוֶה וּמַטְבִּילָהּ וּמַעֲלֶה אוֹתָהּ דֶּרֶךְ שׁוּלֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ שְׁאוּבִים וְיַחְזְרוּ לַמִּקְוֶה וְיִפְסְלוּהוּ:


When the water in a mikveh is dispersed, one may press even bundles of straw and bundles of reeds into the water from the sides until the water level will rise and one can descend and immerse within.


מִקְוֶה שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְרֻדָּדִין כּוֹבֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי קָנִים בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַצְּדָדִין עַד שֶׁיֵּעָרְמוּ הַמַּיִם לְמַעְלָה וְיוֹרֵד וְטוֹבֵל לְתוֹכָן: