When a person entrusts keilim to an unlearned person or gives a k'li to an unlearned artisan to fix, they are considered to be impure because of the impurity associated with a human corpse and the impurity of midras. If the watchman is familiar with the owner of the keilim and knows that he is a priest who partakes of terumah, they are considered as pure with regard to the impurity associated with a corpse, but are considered to have contracted midras impurity. The rationale is that it is suspected that his wife sat on them while she was in the nidah state without his knowledge, since care is not taken with regard to ritual impurity in the homes of unlearned people.


הַמַּפְקִיד כֵּלִים אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ אוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן כְּלִי לְאֻמָּן עַם הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים טְמֵא מֵת וּטְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. וְאִם מַכִּירוֹ שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל בִּתְרוּמָה טְהוֹרִים מִטְּמֵא מֵת אֲבָל טְמֵאִים מִדְרָס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה יוֹשֶׁבֶת עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין נִזְהָרִין מִן הַטֻּמְאוֹת בְּבָתֵּי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ:


When a person places his keilim down before an unlearned person and tells him: "Watch these for me," they are considered to have contracted midras impurity, but not the impurity associated with a human corpse. If he placed them on the shoulder of the unlearned person, they are considered to have contracted both types of impurity.

If one left his keilim in a synagogue, they are considered as pure, for it is not entirely a domain of unlearned persons. If he left his keilim in a bathhouse and found them as he left them, they are pure, but he is taught not to do this in the future.

If one left his vat or his cistern unattended, even if he entered a city and returned and found an unlearned person next to the vat or the cistern, they are considered as pure, because the unlearned person does not have license to enter.


הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בִּפְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ וְאָמַר לוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי אֶת אֵלּוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס וּטְהוֹרִין מִטְּמֵא מֵת. הִנִּיחָן עַל כְּתֵפוֹ טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס וּטְמֵא מֵת. שָׁכַח כֵּלָיו בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ גְּמוּרָה. הִנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בַּמֶּרְחָץ וּבָא וּמְצָאָן כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין. וּמְלַמְּדִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן. הִנִּיחַ גִּתּוֹ וּבוֹרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָעִיר וּבָא וּמָצָא עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּצִדּוֹ טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רְשׁוּת שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס:


When a person entrusts the key to his house to an unlearned person, everything in the house is considered as pure, for he entrusted only the key to him for safekeeping.


הַמּוֹסֵר מַפְתֵּחַ בֵּיתוֹ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ:


When a person places his keilim in the lockers of a bathhouse and locked them, the keilim are pure, even if he gave the key to an unlearned person. Similarly, if he sealed the locker or made a sign on it, his keilim are pure even if the seal has been broken.


הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלָיו בְּחַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מֶרְחָץ וְנָעַל עֲלֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ כֵּלָיו טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן אִם חָתַם עַל הַחַלּוֹן אוֹ עָשָׂה לוֹ סִימָן אֲפִלּוּ מָצָא הַחוֹתָם מְקֻלְקָל הֲרֵי כָּל אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין:


When a chavair leaves an unlearned person in his house to watch it and the owner sits a certain distance away, when he sees the people who enter and depart, all the foods, liquids, and earthenware containers that are not tightly sealed are impure. By contrast, surfaces on which one lies or rides and earthenware containers that are tightly sealed are pure. If the owner cannot see the people who enter or depart, everything in the house is impure. Even if the unlearned person he left in the home was bound or had his hands and feet cut off, everything is considered as impure, because it was in the domain of an unlearned person.


הַמַּנִּיחַ עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ לְשָׁמְרוֹ וְיָשַׁב הוּא מֵרָחוֹק בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא רוֹאֶה אֶת הַנִּכְנָסִין וְאֶת הַיּוֹצְאִין הֲרֵי כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת מִן הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין וּכְלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְמֵאִין אֲבָל הַמִּשְׁכָּבוֹת וְהַמֶּרְכָּבוֹת וּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה לֹא אֶת הַנִּכְנָסִין וְלֹא אֶת הַיּוֹצְאִין כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָמֵא אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כָּפוּת אוֹ כְּרוּת יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם הַכּל טָמֵא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When a chavair slept in the home of an unlearned person and his clothes were folded and placed under his head and his sandal and his jug were placed before him, they are considered as pure, because they are assumed to be guarded by their owner. The unlearned person will not touch them for he will say to himself: "Now he will wake up and see me."


חָבֵר שֶׁהָיָה יָשֵׁן בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ וְהָיוּ כֵּלִים מְקֻפָּלִים וּמֻנָּחִין תַּחַת רֹאשׁוֹ וְסַנְדָּלוֹ וְחָבִיתוֹ לְפָנָיו הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בְּחֶזְקַת שְׁמִירַת בַּעֲלֵיהֶן וְלֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר עַתָּה יֵעוֹר וְיַבִּיט בִּי:


When an unlearned person borrows a bed from a chavair and sleeps on it in the house of the chavair, only that bed and the area which he can touch when extending his hand from the bed are impure.


עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁשָּׁאַל מֵחָבֵר מִטָּה שֶׁיָּשֵׁן עָלֶיהָ וְיָשַׁן עָלֶיהָ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא אוֹתָהּ הַמִּטָּה וְעַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ מֵאוֹתָהּ הַמִּטָּה וְלִגַּע:


When a chavair told an unlearned person: "Watch this cow for me so that it will not enter the house" or "...break these utensils," the house and the utensils are pure, for he charged him only with guarding the cow. If, however, he told him: "Watch this house for me so that the cow will not enter it" or "Watch these utensils so that it will not break them," the house and the utensils are impure.


חָבֵר שֶׁאָמַר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ שְׁמֹר לִי פָּרָה זוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנֵס לַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תְּשַׁבֵּר אֶת הַכֵּלִים הֲרֵי הַבַּיִת וְהַכֵּלִים טְהוֹרִים. שֶׁלֹּא מָסַר לוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁמִירַת הַפָּרָה. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ שְׁמֹר לִי בַּיִת זֶה שֶׁלֹּא תִּכָּנֵס בּוֹ הַפָּרָה וְכֵלִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא תְּשַׁבְּרֵם הֲרֵי הֵן טְמֵאִין:


The following rules apply when one leaves an unlearned person lying down in his house and departs. Whether he left him awake and discovered him awake when he returned, he left him sleeping and found him sleeping, or left him awake and found him sleeping, everything in the house is pure. If he left him asleep and he found him awake, any place that is close to him to which he can extend his hand and touch is impure.

Similarly, if one leaves craftsmen in his house, only the places that they can reach when they extend their hands and touch are impure. We do not say that perhaps they climbed onto a chair or a ladder and touched a k'li or food that was hanging on a high place on the wall.


הַמַּנִּיחַ עַם הָאָרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְיָצָא הִנִּיחוֹ עֵר וּמְצָאוֹ עֵר יָשֵׁן וּמְצָאוֹ יָשֵׁן אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ עֵר וּמְצָאוֹ יָשֵׁן כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. הִנִּיחוֹ יָשֵׁן וּמְצָאוֹ עֵר כָּל מָקוֹם הַקָּרוֹב מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע בּוֹ טָמֵא. וְכֵן הַמַּנִּיחַ אֻמָּנִין בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יְדֵיהֶן וְלִגַּע. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא עָלוּ עַל גַּבֵּי כִּסֵּא אוֹ עַל סֻלָּם וְנָגְעוּ בַּכְּלִי אוֹ בָּאֳכָלִין הַתְּלוּיִין לְמַעְלָה בַּכֹּתֶל:


When the wife of a chavair leaves the wife of an unlearned person - or two such women - to grind flour in her home, only the places which the wife of the unlearned person can reach when she extends her hand and touch are impure. This applies even if the mill stops for a time. We do not say that while one was grinding, the other searched through everything in the house and maybe even suspended herself and ascended to high places.


אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחָה אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ טוֹחֶנֶת בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתָה. אֲפִלּוּ פָּסְקָה הָרֵחַיִם וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ שְׁתַּיִם אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מָקוֹם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדָן וְלִגַּע. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין שֶׁמָּא הָאַחַת טוֹחֶנֶת וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה בָּלְשָׁה כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת וְשֶׁמָּא נִיתְלֵת וְעָלְתָה בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַגְּבוֹהוֹת:


When a woman standing at the entrance to her house went in to take out a loaf of bread for a poor man and when she came out, found him standing at the side of loaves of bread, they are pure - even if they are terumah. The rationale is that it can be assumed that he would not touch anything without permission. Similarly, if a woman departed and when she returned, found the wife of an unlearned person stirring the coals that are under her pot, the pot is pure.


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְהוֹצִיא פַּת לֶעָנִי יָצָאת וּמְצָאַתּוּ עוֹמֵד בְּצַד כִּכָּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ תְּרוּמָה הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁאֵין חֶזְקָתוֹ לִגַּע שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצְאָה וּמָצְאָה אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ חוֹתָה גֶּחָלִים מִתַּחַת הַקְּדֵרָה הֲרֵי הַקְּדֵרָה טְהוֹרָה:


When tax-collectors for the ruling kingdom entered a house to take security for money that is owed, everything in the house is impure. If they are accompanied by a gentile, their word is accepted if they say they did not touch something, because they are possessed by fear of the gentile.

When does the above apply? When there are witnesses that they entered or they have security which they took in their hands. If, however, they say on their own initiative: "We entered, but did not touch anything," their word is accepted. The rationale is: the same person whose words aroused our suspicion also allayed it.


גַּבָּאֵי מַלְכוּת שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת לְמַשְׁכֵּן כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָמֵא. אִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶם עַכּוּ''ם נֶאֱמָנִים לוֹמַר לֹא נָגַעְנוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵימַת הָעַכּוּ''ם עֲלֵיהֶן. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן בְּיָדָם. אֲבָל אִם אָמְרוּ הֵן מֵעַצְמָן נִכְנַסְנוּ אֲבָל לֹא נָגַעְנוּ נֶאֱמָנִין שֶׁהַפֶּה שֶׁאָסַר הוּא הַפֶּה שֶׁהִתִּיר:


When thieves entered a house, only the path where the thieves walked is impure. The rationale is that they are afraid to search through the entire house. Instead, they take only what is at hand.

To what do they impart impurity on the path where they walk? To food, liquids, and open earthenware containers. Surfaces on which one lies or rides and earthenware containers that are sealed closed are pure. If there is a gentile or a woman among them, everything is impure.


הַגַּנָּבִים שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מְקוֹם רַגְלֵי הַגַּנָּבִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְפַחֲדִין מִלִּבְלֹשׁ אֶלָּא (דָּבָר) שֶׁנּוֹטְלִין בִּמְזֻמָּן. וּמַה הֵן מְטַמְּאִין בִּמְקוֹם הֲלִיכָתָן הָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין וּכְלֵי חֶרֶס הַפְּתוּחִים אֲבָל הַמִּשְׁכָּבוֹת וְהַמֶּרְכָּבוֹת וּכְלֵי חֶרֶס הַמֻּקָּפִין צָמִיד פָּתִיל טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶן עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַכּל טָמֵא:


When tax-collectors and thieves repent and return the articles they took on their own initiative, and not because of fear, and when doing so, say: "When we entered, we did not touch anything that was in the house except what we took," their word is accepted even with regard to articles that were in their path.


הַגַּבָּאִים וְהַגַּנָּבִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה וְהֶחֱזִירוּ מֵעַצְמָן לֹא מֵחֲמַת יִרְאָה וְאָמְרוּ לֹא נָגַעְנוּ בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה בַּבַּיִת כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַסְנוּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִים וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל מְקוֹם רַגְלֵיהֶן:


When a person leaves his house open and finds it open or finds it locked - and even if he left it locked and found it open - and nothing was stolen from it, everything in the house is pure. We assume that thieves opened the door and then changed their minds and did not enter.


הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת בֵּיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ וּמְצָאוֹ פָּתוּחַ אוֹ שֶׁמְּצָאוֹ נָעוּל. אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוֹ נָעוּל וּמְצָאוֹ פָּתוּחַ וְלֹא נִגְנַב מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר הַגַּנָּבִים פְּתָחוּהוּ וְנִמְלְכוּ וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְלֹא נִכְנְסוּ:


When a hatchet is lost in a house or left in one corner and found in another corner, all the contents of the house are impure, for we assume that an impure person entered the house and took it.


קוֹרְדוֹם שֶׁאָבַד בַּבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּזָוִית זוֹ וּבָא וּמְצָאוֹ בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת הַבַּיִת טָמֵא שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר אָדָם טָמֵא נִכְנַס לְשָׁם וּנְטָלוֹ:


When a person lives together with an unlearned person and shares a common courtyard, if he forgot articles in the courtyard - even barrels that were sealed close or an oven that was sealed close - they are considered as impure. For them to be considered as pure, he must construct a barrier ten handbreadths high around the oven so that it will not be in the domain of an unlearned person.


הַדָּר עִם עַם הָאָרֶץ בֶּחָצֵר וְשָׁכַח כֵּלִים בֶּחָצֵר אֲפִלּוּ חָבִיּוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת צָמִיד פָּתִיל אוֹ תַּנּוּר מֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לַתַּנּוּר מְחִצָּה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ:


When a chavair has a partition or a hut before the entrance to an unlearned person's home or an unlearned person has a partition or a hut before the entrance to a chavair's home, keilim in the hut or in the partition are impure, because the unlearned person has the right to enter this hut or this partition.


חָבֵר שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ מְחִצָּה אוֹ סֻכָּה לִפְנֵי פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ. אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה מְחִצָּה אוֹ סֻכָּה שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר. כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁבַּמְּחִצָּה טְמֵאִים. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְעַם הָאָרֶץ בְּסֻכָּה זוֹ אוֹ בִּמְחִצָּה זוֹ רְשׁוּת:


When the roof of a chavair is above the roof of an unlearned person, thechavair may lay out utensils there and place pure foods there under the presumption that their status has not changed, even though the unlearned person could extend his hand and touch them. Similarly, if his neighbor is a gentile, he need not be concerned about impurity or wine used for libations to a false deity.

If the roofs were next to each other on the same level or the roof of the unlearned person was higher and the chavair laid out utensils or left pure foods on his roof, every place to which the unlearned person could extend his hand and touch is considered to be impure.


חָבֵר שֶׁהָיָה גַּגּוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִגַּגּוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹטֵחַ שָׁם כֵּלִים וּמַנִּיחַ טָהֳרוֹת וְהֵן בְּחֶזְקָתָן. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַם הָאָרֶץ יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע. וְכֵן בְּעַכּוּ''ם אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לֹא מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאָה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם יֵין נֶסֶךְ. הָיוּ הַגַּגּוֹת זֶה בְּצַד זֶה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ לְמַעְלָה וְשָׁטַח הֶחָבֵר כֵּלִים אוֹ הִנִּיחַ טָהֳרוֹת בְּגַגּוֹ. הֲרֵי כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּכוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִגַּע בְּחֶזְקַת טֻמְאָה:


When there are two courtyards, one inside the other, the inner one belonging to a chavair and the outer one, belonging to an unlearned person, the chavair may place his utensils in his courtyard and spread out his produce there, even though the unlearned person's hand could reach there. There is no suspicion that the unlearned person would touch them, because he would be considered as a thief.


שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לְפָנִים מִזּוֹ הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁל חָבֵר וְהַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ. חָבֵר מַנִּיחַ שָׁם כֵּלִים וְשׁוֹטֵחַ שָׁם פֵּרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּד עַם הָאָרֶץ מַגַּעַת לְשָׁם. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּתְפַּשׂ עָלָיו כְּגַנָּב:


When a courtyard is divided by a lattice-work barrier, with a chavair's domain on one side and an unlearned person's domain on the other side, the pure food belonging to the chavair is considered as pure, even though the unlearned person's hand could reach there. There is no suspicion that the unlearned person would touch it, because it is in the domain of the chavair.


חָצֵר הַחֲלוּקָה בִּמְסִיפַס וְחָבֵר בְּצַד זֶה וְעַם הָאָרֶץ בְּצַד זֶה טָהֳרוֹתָיו טְהוֹרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיַּד עַם הָאָרֶץ מַגַּעַת. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם בִּרְשׁוּת הֶחָבֵר:


When the bucket of a chavair fell into the well of an unlearned person and the chavair went to get materials to lift it up, it is considered as impure. The rationale is that it was left unattended in the domain of an unlearned person for a given time.


חָבֵר שֶׁנָּפַל דִּלְיוֹ לְתוֹךְ בּוֹרוֹ שֶׁל עַם הָאָרֶץ וְהָלַךְ לְהָבִיא בְּמָה יַעֲלֶנּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֻנַּח בִּרְשׁוּת עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׁעָה אַחַת:


When the wife of an unlearned person enters the house of a chavair to take out the son or the daughter of the chavair or his animal, everything in the house is pure, because she entered without permission.

When a potter who is a chavair brings his pots to sell and he descends to a well to drink, those on the inner rows are pure, but those on the outer rows are impure. When does the above apply? When he placed them near the public domain, because the passersby will touch the outer ones as they walk by.

Different rules apply if they were placed down distant from the public domain. If he was carrying the tools of his trade in his hand, they are all impure, because his tools indicate that they were placed down to be sold and everyone will touch them. If he was not carrying the tools of his trade, they are all pure, for it can be assumed that no one touched them.

When a chavair places food or liquids down at the entrance to his store and enters, they are considered impure, for the passersby will touch them.


אֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר לְהוֹצִיא בְּנוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ אוֹ בְּהֶמְתּוֹ שֶׁל חָבֵר כָּל שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָהוֹר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת. קַדָּר חָבֵר שֶׁהִכְנִיס קְדֵרוֹתָיו לִמְכֹּר וְיָרַד לִשְׁתּוֹת הֲרֵי הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת וְהַחִיצוֹנוֹת טְמֵאוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהִנִּיחָן סָמוּךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִין נוֹגְעִים בַּחִיצוֹנוֹת בִּשְׁעַת הֲלִיכָה. אֲבָל הָיוּ רְחוֹקוֹת מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אִם הָיוּ כְּלֵי אֻמָּנוּתוֹ בְּיָדָיו הַכּל טְמֵאוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֵּלָיו מוֹכִיחִין שֶׁהֻנְּחוּ לִמְכֹּר וְיַד הַכּל מְמַשְׁמְשׁוֹת בָּהֶן. אֵין כְּלֵי אֻמָּנוּתוֹ בְּיָדוֹ הַכּל טְהוֹרוֹת חֶזְקָתָן שֶׁלֹּא נָגַע בָּהֶן אָדָם. חָבֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין עַל פֶּתַח חֲנוּתוֹ וְנִכְנַס הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹבְרִים וְהַשָּׁבִים מְמַשְׁמְשִׁין בָּהֶן: