1

The handles of a large earthenware container, the bulges at the bottom of such a container, and the back of its walls do not protect their contents when sealed close in a tent where a corpse is located. If one cut them off, planed them, and made them into containers, they protect their contents if sealed close. The rationale is that the concept of sealing something close applies only to containers.

א

שׁוּלֵי הַמַּחֲצִין וְשׁוּלֵי קַרְקָעוֹת וְהַכֵּלִים וְדָפְנוֹתֵיהֶן מֵאֲחוֹרֵיהֶן אֵין מַצִּילִין בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. קִרְסְמָן וְשָׁפָן וַעֲשָׂאָן כֵּלִים מַצִּילִין בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. שֶׁאֵין מַצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל אֶלָּא כֵּלִים:

2

When clay is put into an earthenware container and filled half of it, it does not nullify it from being considered as a container. If keilim are sunk in that clay and the container is sealed close, the contents are protected from impurity.

ב

כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ שֶׁנָּתַן בּוֹ טִיט עַד חֶצְיוֹ לֹא בִּטְּלוֹ. וְאִם הִשְׁקִיעַ בּוֹ אֶת הַכֵּלִים מַצִּיל:

3

An earthenware container protects its contents from impurity when sealed close unless it is perforated with a hole large enough for a pomegranate to fall through. If it is large, the majority of it must be damaged and open for it to be disqualified.

What is implied? If there was a large container and half was damaged, it was sealed close, including the damaged portion, it protects its contents from impurity even though it is not considered a utensil with regard to impurity. If, however, a container that was sealed close had a hole or a crack and the hole was not closed, it becomes impure and does not protect its contents.

How large must the hole be to disqualify the container? If the container was used for foods, the measure is a hole large enough for olives to fall through. If it was used for liquids, its measure is that the hole must be large enough to enable liquids to seep in when the container is placed in them. If it is used for both these purposes, we rule stringently and if a hole was made that was large enough for liquids to seep in, it does not protect its contents until the hole is closed or reduced in size.

ג

כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ מַצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל עַד שֶׁיִּנָּקֵב בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן. וּבְגָדוֹל עַד שֶׁפָּחַת רֻבּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כְּלִי גָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּפְחַת [חֶצְיוֹ] וְהִקִּיפוֹ צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְסָתַם מְקוֹם הַפְּחָת בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל הֲרֵי זֶה מַצִּיל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלִי לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה. אֲבָל כְּלִי הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל שֶׁהָיָה נָקוּב אוֹ סָדוּק וְלֹא סָתַם הַנֶּקֶב נִטְמָא וְאֵינוֹ מַצִּיל. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בַּנֶּקֶב. אִם הָיָה כְּלִי הֶעָשׂוּי לָאֳכָלִים שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים. הָיָה עָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקֶה שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה. הֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ מְטִילִין אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרָא. וּמִשֶׁיִּנָּקֵב בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל עַד שֶׁיִּסְתֹּם הַנֶּקֶב אוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּמַעֲטֶנּוּ:

4

The following rules apply when there was an oven in an ohel where a corpse was located. The oven had a covering upon it, it was sealed close, but it was cracked. If the crack was as wide as the opening of the rod of a plow which is a handbreadth in circumference, the oven is impure even though the rod could not be inserted into the oven through the hole, but the hole was equal to its size. If the hole was smaller than this, the oven is pure.

If the covering was cracked to the extent that the rod of a plow could enter, it is impure. If it is less, it protects its contents with a sealed covering. If the crack is round, we do not consider it as if it was long. Instead, the measure is dependent on whether the opening of the rod of a plow could be inserted.

ד

תַּנּוּר שֶׁהָיְתָה סְרִידָא עַל פִּיו וּמֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְנָתוּן בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת וְנִסְדַּק הַתַּנּוּר. אִם הָיָה הַסֶּדֶק מְלֹא פִּי מַרְדֵּעַ שֶׁהוּא הֶקֵּף טֶפַח נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַמַּרְדֵּעַ יָכוֹל לְהִכָּנֵס בַּסֶּדֶק אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹתוֹ בְּשָׁוֶה. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר. נִסְדְּקָה הַסְּרִידָא שֶׁעַל פִּיו כִּמְלֹא פִּי מַרְדֵּעַ נִכְנַס הֲרֵי זֶה טָמֵא. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן נִצָּל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. הָיָה הַסֶּדֶק עִגּוּל אֵין רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ אָרֹךְ אֶלָּא שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלֹא פִּי מַרְדֵּעַ נִכְנָס:

5

The following rules apply when an oven that is sealed close has an eye that was partially closed with clay. If the hole was large enough for a reed to be inserted and taken out while it was burning, the contents of the oven are impure. If the hole is smaller than this, the contents are protected.

ה

תַּנּוּר הַמֻּקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל שֶׁנִּקַּב נֶקֶב בְּעֵינוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר הַטּוּחָה אִם הָיָה הַנֶּקֶב מְלֹא כּוּשׁ נִכְנַס וְיוֹצֵא כְּשֶׁהוּא דּוֹלֵק הֲרֵי זֶה נִטְמָא. וְאִם הָיָה הַנֶּקֶב פָּחוֹת מִזֶּה נִצָּל:

6

When an oven has a hole at its side, the size of the hole that causes it to not to be considered as sealed is enough space for a reed to be inserted and taken out even when it was not burning. Similarly, when the clay seal of a jug was perforated, the measure is space for the second joint of a rye stalk to be inserted in the hole. Similarly, when large casks were perforated, the measure is space for the second joint of a reed to be inserted. If they are less than this, they are pure.

When does the above apply? When they were made to store wine. If, however, they were made to store other liquids, a hole of even the slightest size causes them to contract impurity and the fact that they are sealed close is not effective unless the hole was closed. Moreover, even if they were made for wine, the above applies only when they were not perforated by human hands. If, however, they were perforated by human hands, even the slightest hole causes them to contract impurity and they are not protected unless the hole is closed.

ו

נִקַּב הַתַּנּוּר מִצִּדּוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ מְלֹא כּוּשׁ נִכְנָס וְיוֹצֵא שֶׁלֹּא דּוֹלֵק. וְכֵן מְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה שִׁעוּרָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס מִצָּה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל שִׁיפוֹן בַּנֶּקֶב. וַחֲצָבִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ שִׁעוּרָן כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס מִצָּה שְׁנִיָּה שֶׁל קָנֶה. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן טְהוֹרִין. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְיַיִן. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשׂוּ לִשְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין אֲפִלּוּ נִקְּבוּ בְּכָל שֶׁהֵן נִטְמְאוּ. וְאֵין הַצָּמִיד פָּתִיל מוֹעִיל לָהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּסְתֹּם הַנֶּקֶב. וְאַף בִּזְמַן שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְיַיִן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּידֵי אָדָם. אֲבָל אִם נַעֲשׂוּ בִּידֵי אָדָם אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהֵן טְמֵאִים. וְאֵינָן נִצָּלִין עַד שֶׁיִּסָּתֵם הַנֶּקֶב:

7

When a jug that is filled with pure liquids has an earthenware tube in it, it is considered as sealed close. If it is located in an ohel where a corpse is found, the jug and the liquid are pure. The tube is impure, because one end of it is in the jug which is sealed close and the second end is open in the ohel where the corpse is found and it is not closed. Even though it is crooked, this does not cause it to be considered as closed.

ז

חָבִית שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין וּמְנִיקַת שֶׁל חֶרֶס בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהֶחָבִית מֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. הֶחָבִית וְהַמַּשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין וְהַמְּנִיקַת טְמֵאָה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקְּצָתָהּ הָאַחַת בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית הַמֻּקֶּפֶת וְהַקָּצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי פָּתוּחַ לְאֹהֶל הַמֵּת וְאֵינוֹ סָתוּם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא עֲקֻמָּה אֵין הֶעָקֹם כְּסָתוּם:

8

When a jug that was sealed close had a hole on its side, but that hole was closed by wine dregs, it protects its contents from impurity. If the owner plugged half the hole and the dregs closed the other half, there is an unresolved question whether the contents are protected or not.

If one plugged the hole with a twig, it is not considered as closed unless one smears clay around the sides. If one closed it with two slivers of wood, one must smear clay from the sides and between one sliver and the other. Similarly, if a board was placed over the opening to an oven and one smeared clay at the sides, it is protected from impurity. If there were two boards, one must smear clay from the sides and between one board and the other. If, however, one joined the boards together with wooden pegs or the like or with cork, it is not necessary to smear clay in the middle.

With what can a jug be sealed close? With lime, clay, gypsum, pitch, wax, mud, filth, mortar, or any substance that can be smeared. We do not seal with tin or lead, because it will not be a seal, nor will it close the container tightly. A plump fig that was not prepared to contract ritual impurity may be used as a seal. This also applies with regard to a dough that was kneaded with fruit juice so that it will not become impure. These qualifications are necessary, because an impure object cannot intervene in the face of impurity.

ח

חָבִית הַמֻּקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל שֶׁנִּקְּבָה מִצִּדָּהּ וְסָתְמוּ שְׁמָרִים אֶת הַנֶּקֶב הִצִּיל. אָגַף חֲצִי הַנֶּקֶב וְסָתַם חֶצְיוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם הִצִּיל אִם לֹא הִצִּיל. סָתַם אֶת הַנֶּקֶב בִּזְמוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין. סְתָמוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי קֵסָמִים עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין וּבֵין זְמוֹרָה לַחֲבֵרְתָהּ. וְכֵן נֶסֶר שֶׁנָּתוּן עַל פִּי הַתַּנּוּר וּמֵרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין [הִצִּיל. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי נְסָרִים עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין וּבֵין] נֶסֶר לַחֲבֵרוֹ. חִבֵּר אֶת שְׁנֵי הַנְּסָרִים בְּמַסְמְרִים שֶׁל עֵץ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁלִּפֵּף עֲלֵיהֶן שׁוּגְמִין אֵין צָרִיךְ לְמָרֵחַ מִן הָאֶמְצַע. בַּמֶּה מַקִּיפִין. בְּסִיד. וּבְחַרְסִית. וּבִגְפַסִין. בְּזֶפֶת. וּבְשַׁעֲוָה. בְּטִיט. וּבְצוֹאָה. וּבְחֵמָר. וּבְכָל דָּבָר הַמִּתְמָרֵחַ. וְאֵין מַקִּיפִין לֹא בְּבַעַץ וְלֹא בְּעוֹפֶרֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא פָּתִיל וְאֵינוֹ צָמִיד. וּמַקִּיפִין בִּדְבֵלָה שְׁמֵנָה שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשְׁרָה וּבְבָצֵק שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטָּמֵא. שֶׁדָּבָר טָמֵא אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ:

9

When the covering of a jug has become loose, even when it does not slip off, it no longer protects the contents, for it is not considered as sealed.

When a rubber ball or strands tied together were placed on a jug and clay was smeared at the sides, it does not protect the contents unless clay was smeared on the entire ball or collection of strands from below upward. Similar concepts apply with regard to a patch of cloth that was tied to a container. If a covering of paper or leather was tied over a container with string, it protects the contents if one merely smeared clay at the sides.

ט

מְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית שֶׁנִּתְחַלְחֲלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִשְׁמֶטֶת אֵינָהּ מַצֶּלֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְרָעֵעַ הַצָּמִיד. הַכַּדּוּר וְהַפְּקַעַת שֶׁל גֶּמִי שֶׁנָּתַן עַל פִּי הֶחָבִית וּמֵרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין לֹא הִצִּיל עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ עַל כָּל הַכַּדּוּר וְעַל כָּל הַפְּקַעַת מִמַּטָּה לְמַעְלָה. וְכֵן בְּמַטְלַת שֶׁל בֶּגֶד שֶׁקְּשָׁרָהּ עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי. הָיְתָה שֶׁל נְיָר אוֹ שֶׁל עוֹר וּקְשָׁרָהּ בִּמְשִׁיחָה. אִם מֵרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין הִצִּיל:

10

When a jug was enwrapped in a container made from the skin of a fish or from paper and it was tied close from below, the contents are protected. If it was not tied, it does not protect the contents, even if clay was smeared at the sides.

י

חֵמֶת שֶׁל עוֹר הַדָּג אוֹ הַנְּיָר שֶׁהִלְבִּישׁ בָּהֶן אֶת הֶחָבִית וּצְרָרָהּ מִלְּמַטָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ מַצֶּלֶת. וְאִם לֹא צְרָרָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּרֵחַ מִן הַצְּדָדִין לֹא תַּצִּיל:

11

The following rules apply when there was a jug that was covered with pitch from the inside and then a portion of the clay of the jug was peeled off, but the pitch remained standing. If one placed a covering on the pitch and pressed it down until it became attached to the pitch and thus the pitch was standing between the covering and the based of the jug, its contents are protected.

Similar concepts apply with regard to a container used for fish brine or the like. If one of the substances that is smeared as insulation for the container was standing between the covering and the container like a border, since everything was attached together, the contents are protected.

יא

חָבִית זְפוּתָה שֶׁנִּתְקַלֵּף הַחֶרֶס מִלְּמַעְלָה וְהַזֶּפֶת שֶׁלָּהּ עוֹמֵד וְנָתַן הַכִּסּוּי עַל הַזֶּפֶת וּדְחָקוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּדְבַּק בַּזֶּפֶת. וְנִמְצָא הַזֶּפֶת עוֹמֵד בֵּין הַכִּסּוּי וּבֵין קַרְקַע הֶחָבִית הֲרֵי זֶה מַצִּיל. וְכֵן בִּכְלֵי הַמֻּרְיָס וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים הַמִּתְמָרְחִין שֶׁהָיָה הַמִּתְמָרֵחַ בֵּין הַכִּסּוּי וּבֵין הַכְּלִי כְּמוֹ זָר הוֹאִיל וְהַכּל דְּבוּקִין הֲרֵי זֶה מַצִּיל: