1

When a Torah scholar is exiled to a city of refuge, his teacher is exiled together with him. This is derived from Deuteronomy 19:5, which states: "He shall flee to one of these cities, and he shall live." Implied, is that everything necessary for his life must be provided for him. Therefore, a scholar must be provided with his teacher, for the life of one who possesses knowledge without Torah study is considered to be death. Similarly, if a teacher is exiled, his academy is exiled with him.

א

תַּלְמִיד שֶׁגָּלָה לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט מַגְלִין רַבּוֹ עִמּוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וָחָי עֲשֵׂה לוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּחְיֶה וְחַיֵּי בַּעֲלֵי חָכְמָה וּמְבַקְּשֶׁיהָ בְּלֹא תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּמִיתָה חֲשׁוּבִין. וְכֵן הָרַב שֶׁגָּלָה מַגְלִין יְשִׁיבָתוֹ עִמּוֹ:

2

When a servant is exiled to a city of refuge, his master is not obligated to provide for his sustenance. The income from his labor, however, belongs to his master.

When a woman is exiled to a city of refuge, her husband is obligated to provide for her sustenance. For he cannot tell her: "Take the fruits of your labor in exchange for your sustenance," unless the woman is capable of earning a sufficient amount to provide for herself.

ב

עֶבֶד שֶׁגָּלָה לְעִיר מִקְלָט אֵין רַבּוֹ חַיָּב לְזוּנוֹ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו לְרַבּוֹ. אֲבָל אִשָּׁה שֶׁגָּלְתָה לְעִיר מִקְלָט בַּעְלָהּ חַיָּב לְזוּנָהּ. וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לָהּ צְאִי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַיִךְ לִמְזוֹנוֹתַיִךְ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ מַסְפִּיקִין לָהּ:

3

When a killer was sentenced to exile and died before the sentence was implemented, his bones should be taken to a city of refuge and buried there.

When a killer dies in his city of refuge, he should be buried there. When the High Priest dies, the bones of the killer may be taken to his ancestral plot.

ג

רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ לְהַגְלוֹתוֹ וּמֵת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְלֶה מוֹלִיכִין עַצְמוֹתָיו לְשָׁם. וְרוֹצֵחַ שֶׁמֵּת בְּעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ קוֹבְרִין אוֹתוֹ שָׁם. וּבְעֵת שֶׁיָּמוּת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מוֹלִיכִין עַצְמוֹת הָרוֹצֵחַ מִשָּׁם לְקִבְרֵי אֲבוֹתָיו:

4

When any of the other Levites who live in the city of refuge dies, he should not be buried within the city or within its Sabbath boundary. As Numbers 35:3 states: "Their open space will be for their animals, for their property and for all their life." Implied is that these cities were given for life, and not for burial.

ד

שְׁאָר הַלְוִיִּם הַשּׁוֹכְנִים בְּעָרֵי מִקְלָט כְּשֶׁיָּמוּת אֶחָד מֵהֶן אֵינוֹ נִקְבָּר בְּעִיר וְלֹא בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה ג) "וּמִגְרְשֵׁיהֶם יִהְיוּ לִבְהֶמְתָּם וְלִרְכֻשָׁם וּלְכל חַיָּתָם". לְחַיִּים נִתָּנוּ וְלֹא לִקְבוּרָה:

5

When a killer kills accidentally in a city of refuge, he should be exiled from one neighborhood to another. He should not depart from the city.

Similarly, when a Levite kills in one of his own cities, he should be exiled to another one of the cities of the Levites. For they all serve as a haven, as will be explained. If he killed outside the cities of the Levites and fled to his own city, that city serves as a haven for him.

ה

רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁהָרַג בִּשְׁגָגָה בְּעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ. גּוֹלֶה בָּהּ מִשְּׁכוּנָה לִשְׁכוּנָה וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִן הָעִיר. וְכֵן לֵוִי שֶׁהָרַג בִּמְדִינָתוֹ גּוֹלֶה לִמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת מֵעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם. לְפִי שֶׁכֻּלָּן קוֹלְטוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְאִם הָרַג חוּץ מֵעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם וּבָרַח לְעִירוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה קוֹלְטוֹ:

6

When the majority of the inhabitants of a city of refuge are killers, it no longer serves as a haven. This is derived from Joshua 20:4, which speaks of the designation of the cities of refuge and states: "And the killer will speak his words in the ears of the elders of the city." Implied is that there is a distinction between their words and his words.

Similarly, a city that does not have elders does not serve as a haven, for it is written: "The elders of that city."

ו

עִיר מִקְלָט שֶׁרֻבָּהּ רַצְחָנִים אֵינָהּ קוֹלֶטֶת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע כ ד) "וְדִבֶּר בְּאָזְנֵי זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִיא אֶת דְּבָרָיו" וְלֹא שֶׁשָּׁוִין דִּבְרֵיהֶם לִדְבָרָיו. וְכֵן עִיר שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ זְקֵנִים אֵינָהּ קוֹלֶטֶת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִיא:

7

When a killer was exiled to a city of refuge, and the inhabitants of the city desire to show him honor, he should tell them: "I am a killer."

If they say, "We desire to honor you regardless," he may accept the honor from them.

ז

רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁגָּלָה לְעִיר מִקְלָט וְרָצוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לְכַבְּדוֹ. יֹאמַר לָהֶם רוֹצֵחַ אֲנִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יְקַבֵּל מֵהֶן:

8

A person who was exiled to a city of refuge should never leave his city of refuge, not even to perform a mitzvah or to deliver testimony - neither testimony involving monetary matters, nor testimony involving a capital case. He should not leave even if he can save a life by delivering testimony, or he can save a person from gentiles, from a river, from a fire or from an avalanche. This applies even if he is a person like Yoav ben Tz'ruyah, upon whom the salvation of the entire Jewish people may depend. He should never leave the city of refuge until the death of the High Priest. If he departs, he has allowed for his death, as explained.

ח

הַגּוֹלֶה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מֵעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ לְעוֹלָם. וַאֲפִלּוּ לִדְבַר מִצְוָה אוֹ לְעֵדוּת בֵּין עֵדוּת מָמוֹן בֵּין עֵדוּת נְפָשׁוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַצִּיל נֶפֶשׁ בְּעֵדוּתוֹ אוֹ לְהַצִּיל מִיַּד הָעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים אוֹ מִיַּד הַנָּהָר אוֹ מִיַּד הַדְּלֵקָה וּמִן הַמַּפּלֶת. וַאֲפִלּוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִין לִתְשׁוּעָתוֹ כְּיוֹאָב בֶּן צְרוּיָה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם עַד מוֹת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל. וְאִם יָצָא הִתִּיר עַצְמוֹ לְמִיתָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

When it is said that a killer may return after the death of the High Priest, the intent is a High Priest anointed with the anointing oil, one who assumed his office through wearing his vestments, one who performs the service of a High Priest, and one who was removed from his office. When any of these four die, a killer may return from his city of refuge.

When, by contrast, a priest anointed to lead the nation in war dies, a killer may not return, for this priest is considered to be an ordinary priest.

ט

אֶחָד כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. וְאֶחָד הַמְרֻבֶּה בִּבְגָדִים. וְאֶחָד הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל הָעוֹבֵד. וְאֶחָד הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁעָבַר. כָּל אֶחָד מֵאַרְבַּעְתָּן שֶׁמֵּת מַחְזִיר אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. אֲבָל מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה אֵינוֹ מַחְזִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט:

10

The following individuals are exiled and never return from their exile:

a) a person who was sentenced to exile at a time when the office of High Priest was not filled;

b) a person who killed a High Priest unintentionally and there was no other High Priest; or

c) a High Priest who killed unintentionally and there was no other High Priest.

י

רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ לִגְלוֹת וְלֹא הָיָה שָׁם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל. וְהַהוֹרֵג כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְלֹא הָיָה שָׁם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחֵר. וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָרַג וְלֹא הָיָה שָׁם כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אַחֵר. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ גּוֹלִין וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין מֵעִיר מִקְלָט לְעוֹלָם:

11

If, however, the killer was sentenced, but the High Priest died before the killer was actually exiled, he is not required to go into exile.

If before the killer was sentenced, the High Priest dies, and another High Priest was appointed in his stead, and then the sentence of exile was delivered, the killer returns after the death of the second High Priest, the one in whose term of office he was sentenced.

יא

נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ לְגָלוּת וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּגְלֶה הָרוֹצֵחַ. הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַגָּלוּת. וְאִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וּמִנּוּ כֹּהֵן אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר בְּמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי שֶׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ בְּפָנָיו:

12

If a killer was sentenced and it was discovered that the High Priest was the son of a divorcee or the son of a woman who underwent chalitzah, the High Priesthood is negated. It is as if he were sentenced without there having been a High Priest; he may never leave his city of refuge.

יב

נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ וְנִמְצָא הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל בֶּן גְּרוּשָׁה אוֹ בֶּן חֲלוּצָה. בָּטְלָה כְּהֻנָּה וּכְאִלּוּ נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ בְּלֹא כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם:

13

When a killer returns to his city after the death of the High Priest, he is considered to be an ordinary citizen. If the blood redeemer slays him, the blood redeemer should be executed, for the killer has already gained atonement through exile.

יג

רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁשָּׁב לְעִירוֹ אַחַר מוֹת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל. הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם. וְאִם הֲרָגוֹ גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ בְּגָלוּתוֹ:

14

Although the killer has gained atonement, he should never return to a position of authority that he previously held. Instead, he should be diminished in stature for his entire life, because of this great calamity that he caused.

יד

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם. אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא מוּרָד מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ כָּל יָמָיו הוֹאִיל וּבָאָה תַּקָּלָה זוֹ הַגְּדוֹלָה עַל יָדוֹ:

15

Although a person who intentionally injures his father is liable to be executed by the court just like a person who kills another person, if a person unintentionally injured his parents, he is not liable for exile. For the Torah prescribed exile only for a person who unintentionally killed another man, as we have stated.

טו

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחוֹבֵל בְּאָבִיו בְּזָדוֹן חַיָּב מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין כְּמוֹ הַהוֹרֵג שְׁאָר אָדָם. אִם חָבַל בְּאָבִיו אוֹ בְּאִמּוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה אֵינוֹ חַיָּב גָּלוּת. שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה תּוֹרָה גָּלוּת אֶלָּא [לְהוֹרֵג] נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם בִּשְׁגָגָה בִּלְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ: