1

The priests were set aside from the Levites as a whole [to perform] the sacrificial service, as [I Chronicles 23:13] states: "And Aaron was set apart to sanctify him as holy of holies." It is a positive commandment1 to distinguish the priests, make them holy, and prepare them for the sacrifices, as [Leviticus 21:8] states: "And you shall sanctify him because he offers the food of your God."

א

הַכֹּהֲנִּים הֻבְדְּלוּ מִכְּלַל הַלְוִיִּם לַעֲבוֹדַת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים א כג יג) "וַיִּבָּדֵל אַהֲרֹן לְהַקְדִּישׁוֹ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים". וּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה הִיא לְהַבְדִּיל הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְקַדְּשָׁם וְלַהֲכִינָם לְקָרְבָּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא ח) "וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ כִּי אֶת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא מַקְרִיב":

2

It is necessary for every Jewish person to show them much honor and to give them priority for every matter of holiness, to begin [reading] the Torah first,2 to recite the blessings first,3 and to take a desirable portion first.4

ב

וְצָרִיךְ כָּל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִנְהֹג בָּהֶן כָּבוֹד הַרְבֵּה וּלְהַקְדִּים אוֹתָם לְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה. לִפְתֹּחַ בַּתּוֹרָה רִאשׁוֹן. וּלְבָרֵךְ רִאשׁוֹן. וְלִטֹּל מָנָה יָפָה רִאשׁוֹן:

3

Moses divided the priests into eight watches: four from Elazar and four from Itamar. This continued until [the days of] Samuel the prophet. At that time, he and King David divided them into 24 watches.5 For each watch, there was one who served as the leader. A watch would ascend to Jerusalem to serve for the entire week. They would switch on the Sabbath day. The previous watch would depart and the one which follows would enter.6 [This cycle would continue] until its completion and then they would start again.

ג

משֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ חִלֵּק הַכֹּהֲנִים לִשְׁמוֹנֶה מִשְׁמָרוֹת. אַרְבָּעָה מֵאֶלְעָזָר. וְאַרְבָּעָה מֵאִיתָמָר. וְכֵן הָיוּ עַד שְׁמוּאֵל הַנָּבִיא. וּבִימֵי שְׁמוּאֵל חִלְּקָם הוּא וְדָוִד הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מִשְׁמָר. וְעַל כָּל מִשְׁמָר וּמִשְׁמָר רֹאשׁ אֶחָד מְמֻנֶּה. וְעוֹלִין לִירוּשָׁלַיִם לַעֲבוֹדָה מִשְׁמָר לְכָל שַׁבָּת. וּמִיּוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת הֵן מִתְחַלְּפִין מִשְׁמָר יוֹצֵא וְהָאַחֵר שֶׁהוּא אַחֲרָיו נִכְנָס. עַד שֶׁיִּגְמְרוּ וְחוֹזְרִין חֲלִילָה:

4

It is a positive commandment for all the watches to share equal status7 during the pilgrimage festivals. Any one of the priests who comes during the pilgrimage festivals and desires to serve [in the Temple] may serve and receive a portion [of the sacrifices]. We do not tell him: "Go and [wait] until your watch [receives its turn]," as [Deuteronomy 18:6] states: "When the Levite8 will come from one of your cities... [to the place that God will choose, he shall serve..."].

ד

וּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לִהְיוֹת כָּל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת שָׁוִים בָּרְגָלִים. וְכָל שֶׁיָּבוֹא מִן הַכֹּהֲנִים בָּרֶגֶל וְרָצָה לַעֲבֹד עוֹבֵד וְחוֹלֵק עִמָּהֶם. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִין לוֹ לֵךְ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ מִשְׁמָרְךָ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ו) "וְכִי יָבֹא הַלֵּוִי מֵאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ" וְגוֹ':

5

In which context does the above apply? With regard to the sacrifices of the festivals,9 the division of the showbread,10 and the two loaves [offered on] Shavuot.11 Vowed offerings,12 freewill offerings,13 and the daily offerings are offered only by the watch that serves at that time.14 [This applies] even during the pilgrimage festivals, as [ibid.:8] states: "Portion for portion shall they eat, except for what was transacted by the ancestors." The implication is that they will partake "portion for portion" of the communal offerings, but not of the other sacrifices. For these were already divided by their ancestors and established for each watch in its week.

ה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הָרְגָלִים וּבְחִלּוּק לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וּבְחִלּוּק שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁל עֲצֶרֶת. אֲבָל נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת וּתְמִידִין אֵין מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא מִשְׁמָר שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ וַאֲפִלּוּ בָּרֶגֶל. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ח) "חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק יֹאכֵלוּ לְבַד מִמְכָּרָיו עַל הָאָבוֹת". כְּלוֹמַר חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק יֹאכְלוּ בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר. וְאֵין חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק בִּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁכְּבָר חָלְקוּ אוֹתָם הָאָבוֹת וּקְבָעוּם כָּל מִשְׁמָר וּמִשְׁמָר בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ:

6

Similarly, the service involved with the showbread is performed by the watch whose turn is established. The service involved with the two breads [of Shavuos] is performed by all the watches.15

How do we know that [the verse cited above] is speaking only about the festivals? Because it states: "from one of your cities among all Israel." [One can infer] that it is speaking about a time when the entire Jewish people enter through one gate.16

How do we know that it is speaking about priests?17 For it states: "Portion for portion shall they eat" and there are no presents to be eaten allotted in the Temple except to the priests.

ו

וְכֵן עֲבוֹדַת לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בַּמִּשְׁמָר שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ. אֲבָל עֲבוֹדַת שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם בְּכָל הַמִּשְׁמָרוֹת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בָּרְגָלִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ו) "מֵאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ מִכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל" בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאִין בְּשַׁעַר אֶחָד. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בַּכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ח) "חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק יֹאכֵלוּ". וְאֵין שָׁם מַתָּנוֹת בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ לְהֵאָכֵל אֶלָּא לַכֹּהֲנִים בִּלְבַד:

7

Similarly, when a priest has a sacrifice [of his own], he may come to the Temple and offer it on any day that he desires,18 as [that verse] states: "He shall come at any [impulse] of his heart's desires and serve." He may even offer his sin offering and guilt offering and bring about atonement for himself. [In such an instance,] the right to the hide and to partake of the sacrifice belongs to him. If he desires he may give his sacrifice to any priest he desires to sacrifice it. [In such an instance,] the right to the hide and to partake of the sacrifice belongs to the priest to whom he gave it.19

ז

וְכֵן כֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ קָרְבָּן הֲרֵי זֶה בָּא לַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּמַקְרִיבוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח ו) "וּבָא בְּכָל אַוַּת נַפְשׁוֹ" (דברים יח ז) "וְשֵׁרֵת". וַאֲפִלּוּ חַטָּאתוֹ וַאֲשָׁמוֹ הוּא מַקְרִיב וּמְכַפֵּר עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ וְהָעוֹר שֶׁל קָרְבָּנוֹ וַאֲכִילָתוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם רָצָה לִתֵּן אֶת קָרְבָּנוֹ לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְהַקְרִיבוֹ נוֹתֵן. וְעוֹר הַקָּרְבָּן וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן בִּלְבַד שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ:

8

If the priest who brings the sacrifice is physically blemished,20 he should give his sacrifice to the [priests of] the watch serving that week and the hide belongs to them.21 If he was ill or sick to the extent that he could serve only with difficulty, he may give the sacrifice to any priest he desires,22 the hide and the service23 belong to the [priests of] the watch serving that week. If he cannot serve at all, the sacrifice belongs to the [priests of] the watch serving that week in its entirety.24

ח

הָיָה הַכֹּהֵן בַּעַל הַקָּרְבָּן בַּעַל מוּם נוֹתֵן קָרְבָּנוֹ לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְהָעוֹר שֶׁלָּהֶם. הָיָה זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲבֹד עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק נוֹתֵן קָרְבָּנוֹ לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְהָעוֹר וְהָעֲבוֹדָה לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲבֹד כְּלָל הֲרֵי הַקָּרְבָּן כֻּלּוֹ לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר:

9

If [all the priests of the watch] are impure and a communal sacrifice is involved and all of the priests25 were impure,26 the sacrifice may be given to the priests of that watch who were ritually pure, but have physical blemishes.27 The hide and the service belong to [the priests of] the watch serving that week [even though they are] impure.28

ט

הָיָה טָמֵא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים טְמֵאִים נוֹתְנוֹ לְבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין טְהוֹרִים שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר. וְעוֹרוֹ וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר הַטְּמֵאִים:

10

If the sacrifice belonged to the High Priest and he was in a state of acute mourning,29 he may give it to any priest he desires. The hide and the service belong to [the priests of] the watch serving that week. [The rationale is that] since a High Priest is fit to perform service in a state of acute mourning,30 as will be explained,31 he may appoint an agent for his sacrifice.

י

הָיָה הַקָּרְבָּן שֶׁל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וְהָיָה אוֹנֵן נוֹתְנוֹ לְכָל כֹּהֵן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה וְעוֹרוֹ וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר. כֵּיוָן שֶׁכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הָאוֹנֵן רָאוּי לַעֲבוֹדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְקָרְבָּנוֹ:

11

The head of every watch divides his watch into clans32 so that [the priests] in each clan will serve on one of the days of the week, one on one day, another on the next, and another on the next. Each of the clans had a head who was appointed over it.

יא

כָּל רֹאשׁ מִשְׁמָר וּמִשְׁמָר מְחַלֵּק מִשְׁמָרוֹ לְבָתֵּי אָבוֹת. עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כָּל בֵּית אָב וַאֲנָשָׁיו עוֹבֵד בְּיוֹם אֶחָד מִימוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת. וְהָאַחֵר בְּיוֹם שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו. וְהָאַחֵר בְּיוֹם שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו. וּלְכָל בֵּית אָב וְאָב רֹאשׁ אֶחָד מְמֻנֶּה עָלָיו:

12

A High Priest is appointed33 [to serve as] the head of all of the priests. He is anointed with the anointing oil34 and clothed in the garments of the High Priest,35 as [Leviticus 21:10] states: "And the priest who was elevated over his brethren, over whose head was poured [the anointment oil]...." If there is no anointment oil,36 he is initiated into office merely by [wearing] the garments of the High Priest,37 as [the above verse] states: "...over whose head was poured [the anointment oil] and who was initiated to wear the garments." [Implied is that] just as he is initiated with the anointment oil, so too, he is initiated with the garments [of the High Priesthood].

יב

וּמְמַנִּין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הוּא רֹאשׁ לְכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים. וּמוֹשְׁחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. וּמַלְבִּישִׁין אוֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא י) "וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲשֶׁר יוּצַק" וְגוֹ'. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה מְרַבִּין אוֹתוֹ בְּבִגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה גְּדוֹלָה בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא י) "אֲשֶׁר יוּצַק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת יָדוֹ לִלְבּשׁ אֶת הַבְּגָדִים". כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּתְרַבֶּה בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה כָּךְ מִתְרַבֶּה בִּבְגָדִים:

13

How is he initiated with the garments? He puts on the eight garments [of the High Priest] and [later] removes them and does so again on the morrow for seven days, as [Exodus 29:30] states: "The priest from his sons who serves in his stead shall put them on for seven days." Just as he puts on the clothes for seven consecutive days, so too, he is anointed with the oil for seven consecutive days.38 If he performed service before he was initiated by wearing the clothes for all seven days or before he was anointed for all seven days, his service is acceptable.39 Since he was initiated or anointed once, he is a High Priest with regard to all matters.

יג

כֵּיצַד מְרַבִּין אוֹתוֹ בִּבְגָדִים. לוֹבֵשׁ שְׁמוֹנָה בְּגָדִים וּפוֹשְׁטָן וְחוֹזֵר וְלוֹבְשָׁן לְמָחָר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יוֹם אַחַר יוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כט ל) "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִלְבָּשָׁם הַכֹּהֵן תַּחְתָּיו מִבָּנָיו". וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁרִבּוּי בְּגָדִים שִׁבְעָה כָּךְ מְשִׁיחָה בְּשֶׁמֶן שִׁבְעָה יוֹם אַחַר יוֹם. וְאִם עָבַד קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְרַבֶּה בִּבְגָדִים כָּל שִׁבְעָה אוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּמָּשַׁח כָּל שִׁבְעָה עֲבוֹדָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. הוֹאִיל וְנִתְרַבָּה אוֹ נִמְשַׁח פַּעַם אַחַת נַעֲשָׂה כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל לְכָל דָּבָר:

14

There is no difference in [the laws pertaining to] a High Priest who was anointed with the anointment oil and [those applying to] one who was initiated by wearing the garments of the High Priest except [the obligation] for the High Priest to bring a bull [as a sacrifice] if he inadvertently violated one of the mitzvot for which a sin offering is required, as [Leviticus 4:3] states: "If the anointed priest40 will sin...."41 With regard to other matters, they are identical.

יד

אֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה לִמְרֻבֶּה בְּגָדִים אֶלָּא פַּר שֶׁמֵּבִיא כֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ אִם שָׁגַג בְּאֶחָד מִן הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁחַיָּב עֲלֵיהֶן חַטָּאת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד ג) "אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא" וְגוֹ'. אֲבָל לִשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים שָׁוִים הֵם:

15

A High Priest should be appointed only by the court of 71 judges.42 He should be anointed only during the day, as [ibid. 6:13] states: "On the day of his anointment...." Similarly, if he was initiated merely by wearing the priestly garments, the initiation should only take place during the day. Two High Priests should not be initiated together.

טו

אֵין מַעֲמִידִין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אֶלָּא בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעִים. וְאֵין מוֹשְׁחִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו יג) "בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ". וְכֵן אִם נִתְרַבָּה בִּבְגָדִים בִּלְבַד אֵין מְרַבִּין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם. וְאֵין מְמַנִּין שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים כְּאַחַת:

16

We also appoint a priest who will serve the High Priest like a viceroy, he is called the segen and he is also called "the appointed one." He should stand at the right hand of the High Priest at all times.43 This honor is given to him. All of the other priests are under his authority.

טז

מְמַנִּין כֹּהֵן אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל כְּמוֹ הַמִּשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא סְגָן. וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא מְמֻנֶּה וְיִהְיֶה עוֹמֵד לִימִין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל תָּמִיד וְזֶה כָּבוֹד הוּא לוֹ. וְכָל הַכֹּהֲנִים מִתַּחַת יַד הַסְּגָן:

17

In addition, katikolin44 are appointed to serve the segen as the segen serves the High Priest. There should be no less than two of them.45 No less than seven amerkalin46 should be appointed, The keys to the Temple Courtyard are in their hands.47 If one desires to open [the courtyard], he cannot until all the amerkalin gather and open it.

יז

וְעוֹד מְמַנִּין קַתִּיקוֹלִין לִהְיוֹת לַסְּגָן כְּמוֹ הַסְּגָן לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל. וְאֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁנַיִם. וּמְמַנִּים אֲמַרְכָּלִין אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁבְעָה. וּמַפְתְּחוֹת הָעֲזָרָה בְּיָדָם רָצָה הָאֶחָד לִפְתֹּחַ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל עַד שֶׁיִּתְכַּנְּסוּ כָּל הָאֲמַרְכּוֹלִין וְיִפְתְּחוּ:

18

Treasurers are appointed under the amerkalin. There should be no less than three. They collect the consecrated articles, redeem those which should be redeemed,48 and use the proceeds for purposes that require these expenses.

יח

וּמְמַנִּין גִּזְבָּרִין מִתַּחַת יְדֵי הָאֲמַרְכּוֹלִין. וְאֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה גִּזְבָּרִין. וְהַגִּזְבָּרִין הֵם שֶׁגּוֹבִין כָּל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. וּפוֹדִין אֶת הַנִּפְדֶּה מֵהֶן וּמוֹצִיאִין אוֹתָן בִּדְבָרִים הָרְאוּיִין לָהֶן לְהוֹצִיאָן:

19

A High Priest who was anointed receives precedence49 over one who was installed by wearing the garments [of the High Priesthood].50 One installed by wearing the garments who is prepared to serve receives precedence over an anointed [High Priest] disqualified because of a seminal emission.51 One disqualified because of a seminal emission receives precedence over one disqualified because of a physical blemish.52 One disqualified because of a physical blemish receives precedence over the priest anointed to lead the nation in war.53 The priest anointed to lead the nation in war receives precedence over the segen.54 The segen receives precedence over a katikol, a katikolover an amerkal, an amerkal over a treasurer, a treasurer over a head of a watch, a head of a watch over a head of a clan, an a head of a clan over an ordinary priest. Thus there are eight rungs in the priesthood,55 one above the other.

יט

כֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל הַמָּשׁוּחַ קוֹדֵם לִמְרֻבֶּה בְּגָדִים. וּמְרֻבֶּה בְּגָדִים הָעוֹמֵד לְשָׁרֵת קוֹדֵם לְמָשׁוּחַ שֶׁעָבַר מֵחֲמַת קֶרִי. וְהָעוֹבֵר מֵחֲמַת קֶרִי קוֹדֵם לְעוֹבֵר מֵחֲמַת מוּם. וְהָעוֹבֵר מֵחֲמַת מוּם קוֹדֵם לְכֹהֵן מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה. וּמְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה קוֹדֵם לִסְגָן. וּסְגָן קוֹדֵם לְקַתִּיקוֹל. וְקַתִּיקוֹל קוֹדֵם לַאֲמַרְכָּל. וַאֲמַרְכָּל קוֹדֵם לְגִזְבָּר. וְגִזְבָּר קוֹדֵם לְרֹאשׁ מִשְׁמָר. וְרֹאשׁ הַמִּשְׁמָר קוֹדֵם לְרֹאשׁ בֵּית אָב. וְרֹאשׁ בֵּית אָב קוֹדֵם לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט מִשְּׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים. נִמְצְאוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים תָּמִיד שְׁמוֹנֶה מַעֲלוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ:

20

When the king, the High Priest, or any other official dies, his son or anyone fit to inherit him56 is appointed in his stead. Those who are higher in the order of inheritance57 receive precedence with regard to receiving the position of the deceased, provided he is equivalent [to the deceased] in wisdom,58 or in the fear of God, even if he is not comparable in wisdom.59 For [Deuteronomy 17:20] states with regard to a king: "He and his descendants in the midst of Israel." This teaches that the kingship is inherited. This applies with regard to any office amidst the Jewish people.60 If one acquires it, he acquires it for himself and for his descendants.

כ

כְּשֶׁיָּמוּת הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל אוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר הַמְמֻנִּים מַעֲמִידִין תַּחְתָּיו בְּנוֹ אוֹ הָרָאוּי לְיָרְשׁוֹ. וְכָל הַקּוֹדֵם לְנַחֲלָה קוֹדֵם לִשְׂרָרוֹת הַמֵּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְמַלֵּא מְקוֹמוֹ בְּחָכְמָה אוֹ בְּיִרְאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּמוֹתוֹ בְּחָכְמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמֶלֶךְ (דברים יז כ) "הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל". מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת יְרֻשָּׁה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְכָל שְׂרָרָה שֶׁבְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהַזּוֹכֶה לָהּ זוֹכֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ:

21

The position of being the priest anointed to lead the nation in war is not transferred to one's son.61 Instead, the son is like all other priests. If he is anointed as the leader in war, he is anointed. If he is not anointed, he is not anointed.62 When the priest who was anointed to lead the nation in war serves in the Temple,63 he serves wearing four garments like the other priests.64

A person should be promoted to a higher position than the one he holds and should not be demoted to a lower position, for one must ascend with regard to holy matters and not descend.65 A person should never be removed from a position of authority within the Jewish people unless he acted in an unsuitable manner.66

כא

מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה אֵין בְּנוֹ מִתְמַנֶּה תַּחְתָּיו לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁאָר הַכֹּהֲנִים. אִם נִמְשַׁח לַמִּלְחָמָה נִמְשַׁח וְאִם לֹא נִמְשַׁח לֹא נִמְשַׁח. וּכְשֶׁכֹּהֵן מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּאַרְבָּעָה כֵּלִים כִּשְׁאָר כֹּהֲנִים. מַעֲלִין מִשְּׂרָרָה לִשְׂרָרָה גְּדוֹלָה מִמֶּנָּה וְאֵין מוֹרִידִין אוֹתוֹ לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהִיא לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנָּה. שֶׁמַּעֲלִין בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין. וְאֵין מוֹרִידִין לְעוֹלָם מִשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁבְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא אִם סָרַח:

22

When a High Priest violates a transgression that is punishable by lashes, he should be given lashes in a court of three judges as is the law regarding others liable for lashes.67 He then returns to his position of eminence.68

כב

וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁעָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁחַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מַלְקוֹת מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ בְּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל שְׁלֹשָׁה כִּשְׁאָר מְחֻיְּבֵי מַלְקוֹת וְחוֹזֵר לִגְדֻלָּתוֹ: